Will the “principles of effectiveness” improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study
This study examines adoption and implementation of the US Department of Education's new policy, the `Principles of Effectiveness', from a diffusion of innovations theoretical framework. In this report, we evaluate adoption in relation to Principle 3: the requirement to select research-based programs.
Hallfors, D., & Godette, D. (2002). Will the “principles of effectiveness” improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study. Health Education Research, 17(4), 461–470.
This influential book is the result of 15 years research that includes over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. This is a great resource for any stakeholder interested in conducting a serious search of evidence behind common models and practices used in schools.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning. A synthesis of over, 800.
Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning
This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.
Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.
Mindfulness-based interventions for improving cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and socioemotional functioning of primary and secondary students.
This Campbell Collaboration systematic review examines the effectiveness of school-based mindfulness-based interventions on cognition, behavior, socioemotional outcomes, physiological, and academic achievement.
Maynard, B. R., Solis, M. R., Miller, V. L., & Brendel, K. E. (2017). Mindfulness-based interventions for improving cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and socioemotional functioning of primary and secondary students. Campbell Systematic Reviews:5
Using time-out effectively in the classroom.
This articles provides information on the effective use of time-out for use by teachers.
Ryan, J. B., Sanders, S., Katsiyannis, A., & Yell, M. L. (2007). Using time-out effectively in the classroom. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(4), 60-67.
Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Pre-school Children
This is an experimental single-subject reverse design study of the effects of caffeine on student behavior and performance in the classroom.
Baer, R. (1987). Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Pre-school Children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 20(3): 225-234.
Preteaching unknown key words with incremental rehearsal to improve reading fluency and comprehension with children identified as reading disabled
The study investigates the effect of teaching unknown key words as a preteaching strategy with 20 students identified as learning disabled in reading skills.
Burns, M. K., Dean, V. J., & Foley, S. (2004). Preteaching unknown key words with incremental rehearsal to improve reading fluency and comprehension with children identified as reading disabled. Journal of school psychology, 42(4), 303-314.
Preteaching versus concurrent teaching of the component skills of a multiplication algorithm
The study looks at the impact of preteaching as a practice to improve student performance.
Carnine, D. (1980). Preteaching versus concurrent teaching of the component skills of a multiplication algorithm. Journal for research in Mathematics Education, 375-379.
Educational outcomes of tutoring: A meta-analysis of findings
This study is a meta-analysis of school tutoring programs that shows these programs have positive effects on the academic performance and attitudes of those who receive tutoring.
Cohen, P. A., Kulik, J. A., & Kulik, C. L. C. (1982). Educational outcomes of tutoring: A meta-analysis of findings. American educational research journal, 19(2), 237-248.
Can offline metacognition enhance mathematical problem solving?
This research looks at the effectiveness of a metacognitive intervention combined with algorithmic cognitive instruction in an elementary school setting.
Desoete, A., Roeyers, H., & De Clercq, A. (2003). Can offline metacognition enhance mathematical problem solving?. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 188.
Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents
This study examined self-discipline on eighth-grade students and the impact on final grades, school attendance, standardized achievement-test scores, and selection into a competitive high school program the following spring.
Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939-944.
Inclusion Versus Specialized Intervention for Very-Low- Per forming Students: What Does Access Mean in an Era of Academic
This study examined the effectiveness on achievement of very-low-performing students receiving inclusive fraction instruction or specialized fraction intervention and with the shift to Common Core State Standards (CCSS).
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Compton, D. L., Wehby, J., Schumacher, R. F., Gersten, R., & Jordan, N. C. (2015). Inclusion Versus Specialized Intervention for Very-Low-Performing Students What Does Access Mean in an Era of Academic Challenge?. Exceptional Children, 81(2), 134-157.
The importance and decision making utility of a continuum of fluency based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high stakes outcomes
This study examines fluency-based indicators of early literacy skills to predict reading outcomes, inform educational decisions, and change reading outcomes for students at risk.
Good III, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame'enui, E. J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 257-288.
Synthesis of research on the effects of mastery learning in elementary and secondary classrooms
This paper examines research on group-based mastery learning programs and the impact on student learning outcomes, including academic achievement, material retention, involvement in learning activities, and student attitudes.
Guskey, T. R., & Gates, S. L. (1986). Synthesis of Research on the Effects of Mastery Learning in Elementary and Secondary Classrooms. Educational Leadership, 43(8), 73-80.
Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies
This quantitative review examines 20 studies to establish an effect size of .71 for the impact of “metacognitive” instruction on reading comprehension.
Haller, E. P., Child, D. A., & Walberg, H. J. (1988). Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies. Educational researcher, 17(9), 5-8.
Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis.
This meta-analysis of 51 studies identified features of study skills interventions that are likely to lead to academic success.
Hattie, J., Biggs, J., & Purdie, N. (1996). Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 66(2), 99-136
Remedial Education and Student Achievement: A Regression- Discontinuity Design
This paper assesses the effectiveness of summer programs. The study uses quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design to look at the causal effects of summer school as an intervention to improve student achievement. They find that the net effect of remedial programs such as summer school programs was to substantially increase academic achievement among third-graders, but not sixth-graders.
Jacob, Brian A., and Lars Lefgren, “Remedial Education and Student Achievement: A Regression- Discontinuity Design,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 86, No. 1, 2004, pp. 226-244.
Effects of mathematical word problem solving by students at risk or with mild disabilities
This is a differential effects study of two instructional strategies, an explicit schema-based strategy and a traditional basal strategy, on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of mathematical word problem solving.
Jitendra, A. K., Griffin, C. C., McGoey, K., Gardill, M. C., Bhat, P., & Riley, T. (1998). Effects of mathematical word problem solving by students at risk or with mild disabilities. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(6), 345-355.
Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning than Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping
This paper compares the effectiveness of “elaborative studying with concept mapping” and students “practicing retrieving and reconstructing knowledge” procedures. The study finds retrieval practice to be an effective tool to promote conceptual learning about science.
Karpicke, J. D., & Blunt, J. R. (2011). Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping. Science, 331(6018), 772-775.
Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching.
This study examines evidence for guided instruction in the context of our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, expert-novice differences, and cognitive load.
Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.
Task force on Evidence-based Interventions in School Psychology
The purpose of this manual is to assist psychologists to identify, code, and review interventions that have subjected to rigorous research and evaluation.
Kratochwill, T. R. (2003). Task force on evidence-based interventions in school psychology. American Psychology Association.
Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A meta-analysis
This meta-analysis of findings from 108 studies shows mastery learning programs have positive effects on the examination performance of students in colleges, high schools, and the upper grades in elementary schools.
Kulik, C. L. C., Kulik, J. A., & Bangert-Drowns, R. L. (1990). Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 60(2), 265-299.
Effects of Pre-Teaching and Re-Teaching on Math Achievement and Academic Self-Concept of Students with Low Achievement in Math
This study examines and compares the effectiveness of pre-teaching and re-teaching on math achievement and academic self-concept of third grade students identified as low achievers.
Lalley, J. P., & Miller, R. H. (2006). Effects of Pre-Teaching and Re-Teaching on Math Achievement and Academic Self-Concept of Students with Low Achievement in Math. Education, 126(4), 747-755.
Metacognition: An overview
This is a study of metacognitive activity to determine how students can be taught to apply their cognitive resources through metacognitive control.
Livingston, J. A. (2003). Metacognition: An Overview.
Mandatory Summer School and Student Achievement
This paper uses data from a large school district to identify the effect of summer school attendance on achievement. The study finds the average effect size of .12 standard deviations for both math and reading achievement.
Matsudaira, Jordan D., “Mandatory Summer School and Student Achievement,” Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 142, No. 2, 2008, pp. 829-850.
Ready for fall? Near-term effects of voluntary summer learning programs on low-income students’ learning opportunities and outcomes
This paper assesses the effectiveness of large-scale, voluntary, district-run, summer learning programs serving low-income elementary students. The study uses a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of summer programs on student achievement and social and emotional skills.
McCombs, J. S., Pane, J. F., Augistine, C. H., Schwartz, H. L., Martorell, P., and Zakaras, L., (2014). Ready for fall? Near-term effects of voluntary summer learning programs on low-income students’ learning opportunities and outcomes. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
The Marshmallow Test: Mastering Self-control.
This book by psychologist Walter Mischel examines delayed gratification through his seminal work known as the �marshmallow test’ and how this factor has been shown to be a reliable predictor of one having a successful life, predicting higher SAT scores, better social and cognitive functioning, a healthier lifestyle and a greater sense of self-worth.
Mischel, W. (2014). The Marshmallow Test: Mastering Self-control. New York. Little, Brown and Company. 2014.
“Willpower” over the life span: decomposing self-regulation.
This article reviews the longitudinal work derived from the marshmallow test’, originally conducted by Mischel and colleagues, used to measure preschoolers’ ability to delay gratification.
Mischel, W., Ayduk, O., Berman, M. G., Casey, B. J., Gotlib, I. H., Jonides, J., ... & Shoda, Y. (2010). Willpower’over the life span: decomposing self-regulation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, nsq081.
Whole-Language High Jinks: How to Tell When “Scientifically-Based Reading Instruction” Isn’t
A guide that explains how educators, parents, and concerned citizens can spot ineffective reading programs that surreptitiously hide under the “scientifically-based” banner.
Moats, L. (2007). Whole-Language High Jinks: How to Tell When" Scientifically-Based Reading Instruction" Isn't. Thomas B. Fordham Institute.
Learning Styles Concepts and Evidence
This article examines the evidence regarding belief that learning styles are critical in improving student performance. The authors found almost zero support for the idea.
Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., and Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(3):105-119.
The Organization as a Filter of Institutional Diffusion
This study examines the effects of local contingencies in mediating the effects of policy in diffusion and implementation.
Penuel, W. R., Frank, K. A., Sun, M., Kim, C., & Singleton, C. (2013). The organization as a filter of institutional diffusion. Teachers College Record, 115(1), 306-339.
Evidence-Based Teaching: A Practical Approach
This book offers a thorough array of practical teaching methods backed by rigorous research to have the greatest effect along with practical techniques to apply these in actual classroom settings.
Petty. G. (2009). Evidence-Based Teaching: A Practical Approach. Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham, United Kingdom.
Meta-Analysis of the Research on Response Cards: Effects on Test Achievement, Quiz Achievement, Participation, and Off-Task Behavior.
This paper reviews the extant literature to determine the effects of response cards.
Randolph, J. J. (2007). Meta-Analysis of the Research on Response Cards: Effects on Test Achievement, Quiz Achievement, Participation, and Off-Task Behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(2), 113-128.
Effects of accountability on students' achievement in mastery learning.
This study uses a teacher-directed, videodisc-based program for teaching fractions to fifth-grade students to examine accountability in mastery learning programs.
Ritchie, D., & Thorkildsen, R. (1994). Effects of accountability on students' achievement in mastery learning. The Journal of Educational Research, 88(2), 86-90.
Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the intervention studies.
This is a review of intervention studies in which students have been taught to generate questions as a means of improving their comprehension.
Rosenshine, B., Meister, C., & Chapman, S. (1996). Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the intervention studies. Review of educational research, 66(2), 181-221.
The Foundations of Educational Effectiveness
This book looks at research and theoretical models used to define educational effectiveness with the intent on providing educators with evidence-based options for implementing school improvement initiatives that make a difference in student performance.
Scheerens, J. and Bosker, R. (1997). The Foundations of Educational Effectiveness. Oxford:Pergmon
Effects of Sample Size on Effect Size in Systematic Reviews in Education
This study uses data from the elementary and secondary mathematics explores the effects of sample size on effect size in program evaluations in education.
Slavin, R.E., & Smith, D. (2009). The relationship between sample sizes and effect sizes in systematic reviews in education. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 31 (4), 500-506.
Preparing tomorrow’s teachers: An analysis of syllabi from a sample of America’s schools of education. (Book Chapter)
A survey of sixteen schools named by the U.S. News and World Report as some of the top education schools examined the syllabi for 207 courses, all from 2000 or later, and examined four domains--foundations, reading, mathematics, and methods
Steiner, D. M., & Rozen, S. D. (2004). Preparing tomorrow’s teachers: An analysis of syllabi from a sample of America’s schools of education. In F. M. Hess, A. J. Rotherham, & K. Walsh (Eds.), A qualified teacher in every classroom? Appraising old answers and new ideas (pp. 119-148). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
A meta-analysis of treatment outcomes
This article summarizes a comprehensive synthesis of experimental intervention studies that have included students with learning disabilities.
Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (1998). Experimental intervention research on students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of treatment outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 68(3), 277-321.
Errorless learning: reinforcement contingencies and stimulus control transfer in delayed prompting.
The study investigates if delayed prompting can produce errorless discrimination learning using three schedules of reinforcement to look at the impact of reinforcement probability on transfer of stimulus control.
Touchette, P. E., & Howard, J. S. (1984). Errorless learning: Reinforcement contingencies and stimulus control transfer in delayed prompting. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 17(2), 175-188.
Effective Educational Practices.
This booklet focuses on aspects of effective education that appear to be commonly used in education.
Walberg, H. J., & Paik, S. J. (2000). Effective Educational Practices. Educational Practices Series--3.
Scoping and sequencing educational resources and speech acts: A unified design framework for learning objects and educational discourse.
This paper looks at scope and sequence as essential to effective instruction Instructional.
Wiley, D., & Waters, S. (2005). Scoping and sequencing educational resources and speech acts: A unified design framework for learning objects and educational discourse. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 1(1), 143-150.
Read To Kids, But Not Necessarily From Birth
This commentary is in response to a recent article in the New York Times suggesting parents should read to their children from birth. Willingham examines the research and offers practical suggestions to parents.
Willingham, D. (2014). Read To Kids, But Not Necessarily From Birth. Daniel Willingham Science and Education Blog.
The Effect of Sugar on Behavior or Cognition in Children: A Meta-analysis
This paper is a meta-analysis of the effects of sugar on the behavior and cognition of children.
Wolraich, M. L., Wilson, D. B., & White, J. W. (1995). The effect of sugar on behavior or cognition in children: a meta-analysis. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 274(20), 1617-1621.
Effects of massed versus distributed practice of test taking on achievement and test anxiety
This study examines the effects of massed versus distributed practice on achievement and test anxiety.
Zimmer, J. W., & Hocevar, D. J. (1994). Effects of massed versus distributed practice of test taking on achievement and test anxiety. Psychological reports, 74(3), 915-919.