This paper examines teacher education textbooks for discussion of research-based strategies that every teacher candidate should learn in order to promote student learning and retention.
Learning About Learning: What Every New Teacher Needs to Know Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Learning_About_Learning_Report.
This study compared the impact of long and short reprimands on children's off-task behavior in a classroom.
Abramowitz, A. J., O'Leary, S. G., & Futtersak, M. W. (1988). The relative impact of long and short reprimands on children's off-task behavior in the classroom. Behavior Therapy, 19(2), 243-247.
This book provides a basic understanding of the principles and practices of applied behavior analysis for use by teachers in the classroom.
Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers.
Active responding (in the form of response cards) was employed during a math lecture in a third-grade classroom to evaluate its effect on disruptive behavior.
Armendariz, F., & Umbreit, J. (1999). Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(3), 152–158.
Differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior is an important skill for classroom teachers. This study examined the use of performance feedback to increase the rate of differential reinforcement by pre-service teachers.
Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.
This study surveys master's-level elementary, secondary, and special education students about their coursework and applied training in 25 behavioral instruction practices and principles.
Begeny, J. C., & Martens, B. K. (2006). Assessing pre-service teachers' training in empirically-validated behavioral instruction practices. School Psychology Quarterly, 21(3), 262.
This meta-analysis looks at the efficacy of behavioral interventions for problem behavior in persons with autism.
Campbell, J. M. (2003). Efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism: a quantitative synthesis of single-subject research. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24(2), 120-138.
The purpose of this literature review is to summarize and provide a methodological analysis of studies using a differential reinforcement to reduce problem behaviors.
Chowdhury, M., & Benson, B. A. (2011). Use of differential reinforcement to reduce behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities: A methodological review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(2), 383-394.
This study investigates the effect of a school-wide intervention plan, consisting of precorrection and active supervision strategies, on the social behavior of elementary students.
Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good III, R. H., & Lee, Y. Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4), 344.
This study investigates the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom.
Conyers, C., Miltenberger, R., Maki, A., Barenz, R., Jurgens, M., Sailer, A., ... & Kopp, B. (2004). A comparison of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior to reduce disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(3), 411-415.
This volume describes basic concepts and strategies for thinking about instructional classroom management and reviews general strategies for rethinking and reorganizing a classroom to reflect an instructional classroom management approach. Instructional classroom management approaches student behavior based on the premise that strategies for teaching and managing social behavior are not different from strategies for teaching subject matter.
Darch, C.B., & Kame’enui, E.J. (1995). Instructional Classroom Mangement: A Proactive Approach to Behavior Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
This paper provides procedures for developing curriculum-based measurement systems in special education problem solving.
Deno, S. L., & Fuchs, L. S. (1987). Developing Curriculum-Based Measurement Systems for Data-Based Special Education Problem Solving. Focus on Exceptional Children, 19(8), 1-16.
This study is a meta-analysis of behavioral treatment studies and behavior modification for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Fabiano, G. A., Pelham Jr, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(2), 129-140
This is a literature review of culture and student behavior. Based on this review, general recommendations are presented for practitioners, personnel preparers, policy makers, and researchers, especially, in the context of implementing SWPBS.
Fallon, L. M., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Sugai, G. (2012). Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support A Review of Current Literature. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 209-219.
This study evaluates the effectiveness of the Level System (token economy, response cost, stimulating rewards, and strategic attention) in a preschool classroom compared to (a) strategies already employed by the teacher, and (b) coaching the teacher in the Child-Directed Interaction and Parent-Directed Interaction phases of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.
Filcheck, H. A., McNeil, C. B., Greco, L. A., & Bernard, R. S. (2004). Using a whole?class token economy and coaching of teacher skills in a preschool classroom to manage disruptive behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 41(3), 351-361.
This study compares cognitive restructuring, response cost, or placebo control conditions to examine the impact on aggressive elementary school students.
Forman, S. G. (1980). A comparison of cognitive training and response cost procedures in modifying aggressive behavior of elementary school children. Behavior Therapy, 11(4), 594-600.
Despite a significant drop in the use of corporal punishment in schools, a recent study finds corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states and over 160,000 children are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. This policy report examines the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools. The research finds corporal punishment is disproportionately applied to children who are Black, to boys and children with disabilities. Black students experienced corporal punishment at twice the rate of white students, 10 percent versus 5 percent. This report summarizes sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discusses the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy.
Gershoff, E. T., & Font, S. A. (2016). Corporal Punishment in US Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy. Social Policy Report, 30(1).
This report examines teacher preparation in classroom management. It surveyed over 100 elementary and secondary, graduate and undergraduate programs.
Greenberg, J., Putman, H., and Walsh, K. (2013). Training Our future Teachers: Classroom Management. Date accessed: 5/7/14
This study examines the effects of contingent teacher attention on study behavior.
Hall, R. V., Lund, D., & Jackson, D. (1968). EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTENTION ON STUDY BEHAVIOR1. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(1), 1-12.
This study employs an alternating treatments design to investigate the effects of three types of opportunities to respond (i.e., individual, choral, and mixed responding) on sight words and syllable practice in six elementary students with behavioral problems.
Haydon, T., Conroy, M. A., Scott, T. M., Sindelar, P. T., Barber, B. R., & Orlando, A. M. (2010). A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 27-40.
Ethical and legal concerns which have been raised regarding many types of response elimination techniques. The differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) schedule is compared with other response elimination techniques. It is concluded that DRO schedules compare favorably with other techniques in speed and completeness of response elimination. In addition, DRO schedules may be superior to other techniques in durability and generalization of response reduction and in the type of side effects produced.
Homer, A. L., & Peterson, L. (1980). Differential reinforcement of other behavior: A preferred response elimination procedure. Behavior Therapy, 11(4), 449-471.
The purposes of this manuscript are to propose core features that may apply to any practice or set of practices that proposes to be evidence-based in relation to School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS).
Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(8), 1.
The purpose of this study is to compare high-quality reinforcers following unprompted responses (differential reinforcement) with high-quality reinforcers following both prompted and unprompted responses (non-differential reinforcement) on the skill acquisition of 2 children with autism.
Karsten, A. M., & Carr, J. E. (2009). The effects of differential reinforcement of unprompted responding on the skill acquisition of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(2), 327-334.
This is a study of the effects on classroom behavior of Rules, Ignoring Inappropriate Behaviors, and showing Approval for Appropriate Behavior.
Madsen Jr, C. H., Becker, W. C., & Thomas, D. R. (1968). Rules, praise, and ignoring: Elements of elementary classroom control. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(2), 139.
This is a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of token economies in increasing rates of appropriate classroom behavior for students demonstrating behavioral difficulties.
Maggin, D. M., Chafouleas, S. M., Goddard, K. M., & Johnson, A. H. (2011). A systematic evaluation of token economies as a classroom management tool for students with challenging behavior. Journal of School Psychology, 49(5), 529-554.
This is a study of classroom management on student engagement and achievement.
Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Ascd
This study examines the effects of effective command training with teachers on students' compliance rates and academic engagement.
Matheson, A. S., & Shriver, M. D. (2005). Training Teachers to Give Effective Commands: Effects on Student Compliance and Academic Behaviors. School Psychology Review, 34(2), 202-219.
This study compares the effects of a token reinforcement and a response cost intervention in reducing the disruptive behavior of preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
McGoey, K. E., & DuPaul, G. J. (2000). Token reinforcement and response cost procedures: Reducing the disruptive behavior of preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(3), 330.
This book provides tested, easy-to-implement strategies for preventing problem behavior in the classroom and responding effectively when it does occur.
Menzies, H. M., & Bruhn, A. L. (2010). Managing challenging behaviors in schools: Research-based strategies that work. Guilford Press.
This text uses a step by step, evidence-based approach to explain human behavior. Key case studies and examples are used to illustrate key principles.
Miltenberger, R. (2013). Behavior modification: Principles and procedures. Cengage Learning.
This study investigates the effectiveness of an intervention comprised of posted classroom rules, token economy, response cost, and mystery motivators to reduce disruptive classroom behavior.
Mottram, A. M., Bray, M. A., Kehle, T. J., Broudy, M., & Jenson, W. R. (2002). A classroom-based intervention to reduce disruptive behaviors. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 19(1), 65-74.
This study uses a multiple baseline design across teachers to evaluate the effects of response-to-intervention on rates of desired teacher behavior..
Myers, D. M., Simonsen, B., & Sugai, G. (2011). Increasing teachers' use of praise with a response-to-intervention approach. Education and treatment of children, 34(1), 35-59.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning instructional practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavior disorders.
Nelson, J.R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, M. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62.
This study uses a multiple baseline research design across sample and settings to examine the effects of Canter's Assertive Discipline Program on teachers' rates of verbal approval and disapproval, student on task behavior, and the frequency of students' disruptive behavior.
Nicholls, D., & Houghton, S. (1995). The effect of Canter's assertive discipline program on teacher and student behaviour. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65(2), 197-210
This paper examines the use of systematic sequence of prompt and probe trials to teach picture names to three severely retarded children.
Olenick, D. L., & Pear, J. J. (1980). DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF CORRECT RESPONSES TO PROBES AND PROMPTS IN PICTURE-NAME TRAINING WITH SEVERELY RETARDED CHILDREN. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13(1), 77-89.
This paper examines the critical role classroom management plays in establishing effective classroom climate and student achievement. It offers recommendations for teacher preparation programs on how improve teacher performance in this essential teaching skill.
Oliver, R. M., & Reschly, D. J. (2007). Effective Classroom Management: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development. TQ Connection Issue Paper. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is one of the most common behavior analytic interventions used to decrease unwanted behavior. This literature review examined the DRA literature from the past 30 years to identify the aspects that are thoroughly researched and those that would benefit from further emphasis.
Petscher, E. S., Rey, C., & Bailey, J. S. (2009). A review of empirical support for differential reinforcement of alternative behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30(3), 409-425.
This study examines the effectiveness of a response cost for improving the classroom behavior of four aggressive preschoolers.
Reynolds, L. K., & Kelley, M. L. (1997). The efficacy of a response cost-based treatment package for managing aggressive behavior in preschoolers. Behavior Modification, 21(2), 216-230.
This articles provides information on the effective use of time-out for use by teachers.
Ryan, J. B., Sanders, S., Katsiyannis, A., & Yell, M. L. (2007). Using time-out effectively in the classroom. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(4), 60-67.
This is an experimental test of the mediating function of interpersonal cognitive problem solving skills on behavioral adjustment in preschool and kindergarten children.
Shure, M. B., & Spivack, G. (1981). Interpersonal problem solving as a mediator of behavioral adjustment in preschool and kindergarten children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1(1), 29-44.
This study examines the impact of interpersonal cognitive problem solving skills on preventing and reducing impulsive or inhibited behaviors in children.
Shure, M. B., & Spivack, G. (1982). Interpersonal problem-solving in young children: A cognitive approach to prevention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10(3), 341-356.
The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.
Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.
This meta-analysis of School-wide Positive Behavior Supports examines 20 articles. Single-case studies were evaluated using a regression-based procedure to establish efficacy of the approach.
Solomon, B. G., Klein, S. A., Hintze, J. M., Cressey, J. M., & Peller, S. L. (2012). A meta?analysis of school?wide positive behavior support: An exploratory study using single?case synthesis. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 105-121.
This book is written for school administrators, staff developers, behavior specialists, and instructional coaches to offer guidance in implementing research-based practices that establish effective classroom management in schools. The book provides administrators with practical strategies to maximize the impact of professional development. It focuses on the use of coaching as the most reliable method for bridging the gap between staff development and actual implementation of skills used by teachers consistently and sustainably throughout the school year.
Sprick, et al. (2010). Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies & Tools for Administrators & Coaches. Pacific Northwest Publishing.
This is a meta-analysis to look at the impact of interventions to decrease disruptive classroom behavior in public education settings.
Stage, S. A., & Quiroz, D. R. (1997). A meta-analysis of interventions to decrease disruptive classroom behavior in public education settings. School Psychology Review, 26(3), 333-368.
The article describes the problem of assessing culturally diverse students for behavior disorders, proposes a solution which replaces norm referenced assessment with functional assessment, and offers recommendations for implementing such a nonbiased, functional approach.
Sugai, G., & Maheady, L. (1988). Cultural Diversity and Individual Assessment for Behavior Disorders. Teaching Exceptional Children, 21(1), 28-31.
The purposes of this study are to examine an observation-feedback intervention on teacher's behavior-specific praise of students with emotional and behavioral disorders and the effect of increased rates of a teacher's behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of the students.
Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(1), 2-8.
The meta-analysis looks at the effect of enhanced instruction on motor skill acquisition of 4-5 yr old children and 4th-21th graders in Israel.
Tenenbaum, G., & Goldring, E. (1989). A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning. Journal of Research & Development in Education. 22(3) 53-64.
The current single-subject meta-analysis investigates the effect of time-out for the reduction of disruptive classroom behaviors in non-developmentally delayed children.
Vegas, K. C., Jenson, W. R., & Kircher, J. C. (2007). A Single-Subject Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Time-Out in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior. Behavioral Disorders, 32(2), 109-121.
Within the context of widely documented racially disproportionate discipline outcomes, we describe schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) as one approach that might provide a useful framework for culturally responsive behavior support delivery.
Vincent, C. G., Randall, C., Cartledge, G., Tobin, T. J., & Swain-Bradway, J. (2011). Toward a conceptual integration of cultural responsiveness and schoolwide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 13(4), 219-229.
This paper reviews research on the effectiveness of differential reinforcement as treatment and describes important areas of future research.
Vladescu, J. C., & Kodak, T. (2010). A review of recent studies on differential reinforcement during skill acquisition in early intervention. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 43(2), 351-355.
For many years, differential reinforcement has been a prevalent and preferred treatment procedure for the reduction of behavior disorders. This paper reviews the procedural variations of differential reinforcement and discusses their functional properties.
Vollmer, T. R., & Iwata, B. A. (1992). Differential reinforcement as treatment for behavior disorders: Procedural and functional variations. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13(4), 393-417.
Zlomke, K., & Zlomke, L. (2003). Token economy plus self -monitoring to reduce disruptive classroom behaviors. Behavior Analyst Today, 4(2), 177-182.