Grades are ubiquitous in public schools as a measure of student achievement; however, the author in this paper raises questions about the validy of grades as a measure of student achievement.
Allen, J. D. (2005). Grades as valid measures of academic achievement of classroom learning. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational …. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3200/TCHS.78.5.218-223
This article reviews the decision rules for curriculum based reading scores. It concluded the rules were most often based on expert opinion.
Ardoin, S. P., Christ, T. J., Morena, L. S., Cormier, D. C., & Klingbeil, D. A. (2013). A systematic review and summarization of the recommendations and research surrounding Curriculum-Based Measurement of oral reading fluency (CBM-R) decision rules. Journal of School Psychology, 51(1), 1-18.
This study identified four predictative indicators of student performance in 6th grade predicts 60% of the students who will not graduate from high school.
Balfanz, R Preventing student disengagement and keeping students on the graduation path in urban middle-grades schools: Early identification and effective interventions This study identified four predictative indicators of student performance in 6th grade predicts 60% of the students who will not graduate from high school. 1045 Early indicators 897 897 897 51208
This paper describes the role end of course exams can play in the standards based reform movement.
Bishop, J. H., Mane, F., Bishop, M., Moriarty, J., Murnane, R., & Steinberg, L. T,. (2001). The role of end-of-course exams and minimum competency exams in standards-based reforms. Brookings papers on education policy, 4, 267-345.
This study developed a zero-to-five index of the strength of accountability in 50 states based on the use of high-stakes testing to sanction and reward schools, and analyzed whether that index is related to student gains on the NAEP mathematics test in 1996–2000.
Carnoy, M., & Loeb, S. (2002). Does external accountability affect student outcomes? A cross-state analysis. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(4), 305-331.
This study developed a multi-metod approach to identifying students in middle school that would have academic difficulty in high school.
Casillas, A., Robbins, S., Allen, J., Kuo, Y.-L., Hanson, M. A., & Schmeiser, C. (2012). Predicting early academic failure in high school from prior academic achievement, psychosocial characteristics, and behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(2), 407-420. Retrieved from http://uic.edu.hk/~ylkuo/Kuo JEP 2012.pdf
This paper reviews the use of exit exams across the states and identifies challenges in implementation of these exams and what we know about the effects of them.
Chudowsky, N., Kober, N., Gayler, K. S., & Hamilton, M. (2002). State High School Exit Exams: A Baseline Report. ERIC. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED472055.pdf
Daly, I. I. I., Edward J, Martens, B. K., Barnett, D., Witt, J. C., & Olson, S. C. (2007). Varying Intervention Delivery in Response to Intervention: Confronting and Resolving Challenges With Measurement, Instruction, and Intensity. School Psychology Review, 36(4), 562-581.
The author makes the argument that curriculum based measurement meets the psychometric requirements of being reliaable and valid as well as providing useful information to teachers.
Deno, S. L. (1985). Curriculum-based Measurement: The Emerging Alternative. Exceptional Children, 52(3). Retrieved from http://ecx.sagepub.com/content/52/3/219.abstract
Curriculum-based measurement is a type of formative assessment. It is used to screen for students who are not progressing and to identify how well students are responding to interventions.
Deno, S. L. (2003). Developments in Curriculum-Based Measurement. Journal of Special Education, 37(3), 184-192.
This article reviews the advantages of curriculum-based measurement as part of a data-based problem solving model.
Deno, S. L., & Fuchs, L. S. (1987). Developing Curriculum-Based Measurement Systems For Data Based Special Education Problem Solving. Focus on Exceptional Children, 19(8), 1-16.
Dougherty, C., Mellor, L., & Jian, S. (2006). The Relationship between Advanced Placement and College Graduation. 2005 AP Study Series, Report 1. National Center for Educational Accountability. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED519365.pdf
This study evaluated the reliability and validity of DIBELS-M as a meaure to predict students at risk for reading failure.
Elliott, J., Lee, S. W., & Tollefson, N. (2001). A reliability and validity study of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills--Modified. School Psychology Review. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/30687244/elliott2001.pdf
This article describes using formative assessemnt as a foundational tool in a data-based problem solving approach to solving social behavior problems.
Ervin, R. A., Schaughency, E., Matthews, A., Goodman, S. D., & McGlinchey, M. T. (2007). Primary and secondary prevention of behavior difficulties: Developing a data-informed problem-solving model to guide decision making at a school-wide level. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 7-18.
This report reviews the technical adequacy of measures of math performance for the purposes of identifying at risk learners.
Foegen, A., Jiban, C., & Deno, S. (2007). Progress monitoring measures in mathematics: A review of the literature. Journal of Special Education, 41(2), p121-139. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ775117.pdf
This article compares and contrasts mastery level measures (grades) with curriculum-based measurement (global outcome measure).
Fuchs, L. S., & Deno, S. L. (1991). Paradigmatic distinctions between instructionally relevant measurement models. Exceptional Children, 57(6), 488-500.
In this meta-analysis of studies that utilize formative assessment the authors report an effective size of .7.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199-208.
Curriculum-based measurement is recommended as an assessment method to identify students that require special education services.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1997). Use of curriculum-based measurement in identifying students with disabilities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 1.
This study examines the effect of formative assessment on teachers’ instructional planning.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Stecker, P. M. (1989). Effects of Curriculum-Based Measurement on Teachers’ Instructional Planning. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22(1).
High-school grades are often viewed as an unreliable criterion for college admissions, owing to differences in grading standards across high schools, while standardized tests are seen as methodologically rigorous, providing a more uniform and valid yardstick for assessing student ability and achievement. The present study challenges that conventional view. The study finds that high-school grade point average (HSGPA) is consistently the best predictor not only of freshman grades in college, the outcome indicator most often employed in predictive-validity studies, but of four-year college outcomes as well.
Geiser, S., & Santelices, M. V. (2007). Validity of High-School Grades in Predicting Student Success beyond the Freshman Year: High-School Record vs. Standardized Tests as Indicators of Four-Year College Outcomes. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE. 6.07. Center for studies in higher education.
This paper reviews several measures that serve as early identification measures for students at risk for math difficulties.
Gersten, R., Jordan, N. C., & Flojo, J. R. (2005). Early identification and interventions for students with mathematics difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(4). Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/00222194050380040301
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills is a measure of reading skills. This paper reviews the psychometric properties of the various measures included in DIBELS.
Goffreda, C. T., & DiPerna, J. C. (2010). An empirical review of psychometric evidence for the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills. School Psychology Review. Retrieved from http://rachaelrobinsonedsi.wiki.westga.edu/file/view/an+empirical+review+of+basic+early+literacy+skills.pdf/238268899/an empirical review of basic early literacy skills.pdf
This paper reviews the use of DIBELS and curriculum-based measurement as methods for the early identification of students at risk for reading difficulties.
Good, R. H., III, Kaminski, R. A., Simmons, D., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2001). Using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) in an Outcomes-Driven Model: Steps to Reading Outcomes. OSSC Bulletin. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED453526.pdf
The authors contrast the functions of high stakes testing with prevention-based assessment. The authors also show the value of using formative assesment to estimate performance on high stakes tests.
Good, R.H., III., Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2001). The Importance and Decision-Making Utility of a Continuum of Fluency-Based Indicators of Foundational Reading Skills for Third-Grade High-Stakes Outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 257-288.
This study examines whether the results of standardized tests are distorted when rewards and sanctions are attached to them.
Greene, J., Winters, M., & Forster, G. (2004). Testing high-stakes tests: Can we believe the results of accountability tests?. The Teachers College Record, 106(6), 1124-1144.
Curriculum based measures were used to to evaluate student progress across multiple years following the introduction of selected evidence-based practices.
Greenwood, C. R., Tapia, Y., Abbott, M., & Walton, C. (2003). A Building-Based Case Study of Evidence-Based Literacy Practices: Implementation, Reading Behavior, and Growth in Reading Fluency, K--4. Journal of Special Education, 37(2), 95.
The report considers the appropriate uses and misuses of high stakes tests in making decisions for students. The fundamental question is whether test scores lead to consequences that are educationally beneficial.
Heubert, J. P., & Hauser, R. M. (1998). High stakes: Testing for tracking, promotion, and graduation. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED439151.pdf
The purpose of this study is to compare different statistical and methodological approaches to standard setting and determining cut scores using R- CBM and performance on high-stakes tests
Hintze, J. M., & Silberglitt, B. (2005). A longitudinal examination of the diagnostic accuracy and predictive validity of R-CBM and high-stakes testing. School Psychology Review, 34(3), 372.
This study evaluated the effects of high stakes testing on the achievement levels of students in Chicago Public Schools. The data suggests that even though scores went up on the high stakes tests scores on “low stakes” achievement tests did not improve. This suggests increases in scores was a function increases in test-specific skills rather than a general improvement in student learning. These findings give credence to the “teaching to the test” criticisms.
Jacob, B. A. (2005). Accountability, incentives and behavior: The impact of high-stakes testing in the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of public Economics. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.401.6599&rep=rep1&type=pdf
This study used Dynamic Inicators of Early Basic Literacy Skills and the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders to identify students at risk for reading or behavioral difficulties. These students were followed through 4th grade to see how well they responded to three different reading instruction. practices.
Kamps, D. M., Wills, H. P., Greenwood, C. R., Thorne, S., Lazo, J. F., Crockett, J. L., . . . Swaggart, B. L. (2003). Curriculum Influences on Growth in Early Reading Fluency for Students with Academic and Behavioral Risks. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11(4), 211-224. doi:10.1177/10634266030110040301
This paper reviews measures of student performance that serve as early indicators of student academic difficulty.
Kennedy, M. M. (1999). Approximations to indicators of student outcomes. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/01623737021004345
This report, produced by the National High School Center at the American Institutes for Research, outlines steps that schools can take to identify at-risk students and provide the necessary support systems and relevant interventions to assist students in obtaining a high school diploma.
Kennelly, L., & Monrad, M. (2007). Approaches to Dropout Prevention: Heeding Early Warning Signs with Appropriate Interventions. American Institutes for Research.
This study evaluated the generalization from high stakes tests to other mesures of achievement. The results suggest that there is little generalization suggesting that improvement in high stakes test scores are the result of emphasis placed on the tests and time spent in test preparation rather than actual increase in student learning.
Koretz, D. M. (1991). The Effects of High-Stakes Testing on Achievement: Preliminary Findings about Generalization across Tests. ERIC. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED340730.pdf
This paper reviews school engagement as a predictor of later academic difficulty.
Ladd, G. W., & Dinella, L. M. (2009). Continuity and change in early school engagement: Predictive of children’s achievement trajectories from first to eighth grade. Journal of Educational Psychology. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2009-01936-007
This paper is an examination of the impact of high stakes testing on minority students. The outcomes suggest that high stakes testing does not have a positive impact on minority students and in some instances there is negative effects from high stakes testing.
Madaus, G. F., & Clarke, M. (2001). The Adverse Impact of High Stakes Testing on Minority Students: Evidence from 100 Years of Test Data. ERIC. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450183.pdf
The study investigates the correlation and predictive value of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) against the Michigan Educational Assessment Program's (MEAP) fourth grade reading assessment.
McGlinchey, M. T., & Hixson, M. D. (2004). Using curriculum-based measurement to predict performance on state assessments in reading. School Psychology Review, 33, 193-203.
This study evaluated the effect data from end of course exams had on teacher practices in history instruction. In general, the teachers supported the changes but were reluctant to change their instructional practices.
Mueller, R. G. W., & Colley, L. M. (2015). An evaluation of the impact of end-of-course exams and ACT-QualityCore on US history instruction in a Kentucky high school. The Journal of Social Studies Research. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/41700187/JSSR.pdf
The paper examines Campbell’s law-the more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision making the more likely the measure will corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor.” In education, high stakes testing has resulted in widespread cheating, exclusion from low performing students from testing, encouraging students to drop out, and narrowing the curriculum.
Nichols, S. L., & Berliner, D. C. (2005). The Inevitable Corruption of Indicators and Educators through High-Stakes Testing. Education Policy Research Unit. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED508483.pdf
This study evaluated the relationship between increased accountability via high stakes testing and progress on other measures of educational progress. The results suggests that high stakes testing does not have any positive impact on student achievement.
Nichols, S. L., Glass, G. V., & Berliner, D. C. (2006). High-stakes testing and student achievement: Does accountability pressure increase student learning. education policy analysis …. Retrieved from http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/index.php/epaa/article/download/72/198
This study evaluated the effects of high stakes test such as end of course exams at the level of a school district. Across the six states included in the study the effects were mixed. In general the more developed the system was the better the effects but this was not always the case.
Opfer, V. D., Henry, G. T., & Mashburn, A. J. (2008). The district effect: Systemic responses to high stakes accountability policies in six southern states. American Journal of Education, 114(2), 299-332. Retrieved from http://www.darleenopfer.com/File/aje final.pdf
This study evaulated curriculum-based measures of oral reading as early predicors of overall reading achievement.
Reschly, A. L., Busch, T. W., Betts, J., Deno, S. L., & Long, J. D. (2009). Curriculum-Based Measurement Oral Reading as an indicator of reading achievement: A meta-analysis of the correlational evidence. Journal of School Psychology, 47(6), 427-469. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2009.07.001
In this study the authors evaluate the value of self and peer grading.
Sadler, P. M., & Good, E. (2006). The impact of self-and peer-grading on student learning. Educational assessment. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15326977ea1101_1
This article provides an overview of contextual factors across the levels of an educational system that influence implementation.
Schaughency, E., & Ervin, R. (2006). Building Capacity to Implement and Sustain Effective Practices to Better Serve Children. School Psychology Review, 35(2), 155-166. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ788242
Response to Intervention depends on regular, routine monitoring of student progress. This paper describes a multi-component approach to monitoring progress.
Stecker, P. M., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2008). Progress Monitoring as Essential Practice Within Response to Intervention. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 27(4), 10-17.
This article reviews the efficacy of curriculum-based measurement as a methodology for enhancing student achievement in reading and math. Variables that contribute to the benefit of curriculum-based measurement are discussed.
Stecker, P. M., Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2005). Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Improve Student Achievement: Review of Research. Psychology in the Schools, 42(8), 795-819.
The authors propose a model for using curriculum-based measurement to monitor and improve student achievement.
Stecker, P. M., Lembke, E. S., & Foegen, A. (2008). Using Progress-Monitoring Data to Improve Instructional Decision Making. Preventing School Failure, 52(2), 48-58.
This paper examines the use of high stakes testing such as end of course exams in American education. The conclusions are that the exams do not produce substantive changes in instructional practices and the information is useful to measure school and system progress but has limited utility for instructional guidance.
Supovitz, J. (2009). Can high stakes testing leverage educational improvement? Prospects from the last decade of testing and accountability reform. Journal of Educational Change, 10(2-3), 211-227.
The author makes the case that rapid assessment can identify struggling students who can then be provided intensive instruction so their performance on high stakes tests is improved.
Yeh, S. S. (2006). Can Rapid Assessment Moderate the Consequences of High-Stakes Testing. Education & Urban Society, 39(1), 91-112.
The author reports data suggesting that the systematic use of formative assessment can reduce the pressure on teachers that they experience with high stakes testing.
Yeh, S. S. (2006). High-stakes testing: Can rapid assessment reduce the pressure?. Teachers College Record, 108(4).
The author presents data suggesting that rapid assessment of student performance improves education outcomes for students at a very low cost compared to other initiatives to improve outcomes.
Yeh, S. S. (2007). The Cost-Effectiveness of Five Policies for Improving Student Achievement. American Journal of Evaluation, 28(4), 416-436.
The author compares the effectiness of comprehensive school reform relative to rapid progress monitoring. Progress monitoring results in much greater benefit than comprehensive school reform.
Yeh, S. S. (2008). The Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive School Reform and Rapid Assessment. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 16(13), 1-32.
The authors examine the effectiveness of replacing low performing teachers relative to using formative assessment as a means of increasing student outcomes.
Yeh, S. S., & Ritter, J. (2009). The Cost-Effectiveness of Replacing the Bottom Quartile of Novice Teachers Through Value-Added Teacher Assessment. Journal of Education Finance, 34(4), 426-451.
This article describes the use of technology to monitor student progress in math instruction. They highlight the importance of using the technology wiith fidelity.
Ysseldyke, J., & Bolt, D. M. (2007). Effect of Technology-Enhanced Continuous Progress Monitoring on Math Achievement. School Psychology Review, 36(3), 453-467.
This report updates the status of high school exit exams nationally. The number of states using end of course exams as part of accountability measures has become more common and data suggest the trend will continue.
Zabala, D., Minnici, A., McMurrer, J., & Briggs, L. (2008). State High School Exit Exams: A Move toward End-of-Course Exams. Center on Education Policy. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED504468.pdf