Equity

Equitable education systems offer high-quality learning to all students in all schools so that every student benefits from excellent academic opportunities. Education resources are equally distributed across schools regardless of student ethnicity or socio-economic status (SES). An examination of outcome data in this area suggests the U.S. education system is far from equitable. Student performance outcomes (graduation rates, dropout rates, NAEP test scores) show a clear performance gap between white students and Black, Hispanic, or American Indian students. Additionally, the lower the SES of a student’s family, the poorer the student’s learning performance. Education resources (funding, high-quality educators) are also inequitably distributed by student ethnicity and SES. In one third of the states, there is an inverse relationship between funding and a school district’s poverty level: The higher the poverty level, the lower the funding. Across the nation, schools spend an average of 8% less on non-white students than on white students. High-poverty and/or high-minority schools are significantly more likely to have less experienced and less effective teachers than are low-poverty and/or low-minority schools. Based on the overwhelming preponderance of evidence, the United States education system is failing the high equity benchmark.

Publications

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SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Feedback at the System Level: Benchmarking U.S. Education Performance

This analysis examines the performance of the U.S. K–12 education system over time, in comparison to other nations, and at different levels of organizational structure: states, school districts, and schools. It also reviews performance in terms of four societal outcomes: effectiveness, equity, efficiency, and participation.

Keyworth, R., States, J. & Detrich, R. (2013). Feedback at the System Level: Benchmarking U.S. Education Performance. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 1-76). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

 

Data Mining

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SYNOPSIS
CITATION
What percent of Americans graduate from high school?
This analysis provides over 70 years of data on student graduation rates in the United States.
Gibson, S. (2009). What percent of Americans graduate from high school? Retrieved from what-percent-of-americans.
Would a student rated 'Proficient' in Reading in one state be rated 'Proficient' in Reading in another state?
The inquiry compares student performance between state proficiency standards and the National Assessment Education Progress proficiency standards.
Gibson, S. (2009). Would a student rated 'Proficient' in Reading in one state be rated 'Proficient' in Reading in another state? Retrieved from would-student-rated-'proficient.
How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Percentages of Minority Students?
This piece analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of race on teacher attrition and mobility.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Percentages of Minority Students? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-turnover898.
How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Socio-Economic Conditions?
This inquiry analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of poverty on teacher attrition and mobility.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Socio-Economic Conditions? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-turnover897.
What is the impact of school closure on student achievement?
This analysis examined students in Ohio that were affected by school closure. The data revealed closures disproportionately affected lower socio-economic students, low-achieving students, and students of color.
States, J. (2015). What is the impact of school closure on student achievement? Retrieved from what-is-impact-of813.

 

Presentations

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SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Building a Data-based Decision Making Culture through Performance Management

This paper examines the issues, challenges, and opportunities of creating a school culture that uses data systematically in all of its decision making.

Keyworth, R. (2009). Building a Data-based Decision Making Culture through Performance Management [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.

Performance Feedback: Use It or Lose It

This paper examines the importance of performance feedback systems at all levels of school, staff and student outcomes to achieve desired results over time.

Keyworth, R. (2011). Performance Feedback: Use It or Lose It [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.

Performance Feedback in Education: On Who and For What
This paper reviews the importance of feedback in education reviewed the scientific model of behavior change (antecedent, behavior, consequences).
Daniels, A. (2011). Performance Feedback in Education: On Who and For What [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-wing-presentation-aubrey-daniels.
Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective
This paper presents a model for building a school organizational culture that trains and supports teachers in an effective, efficient, and sustainable manner.
Fitch, S. (2013). Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-suzanne-fitch.
ROKs: Remote Observation Kits
This paper presents a teacher coaching model using high quality audio and video technology to address the needs of teacher training in remote areas.
Hager, K. (2013). ROKs: Remote Observation Kits [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-karen-hager.
Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road
The paper examines one of the most critical components of teach training: an on-the-job, ongoing system of coaching and performance feedback to improve skill acquisition, generalization and maintenance.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Performance Feedback from a Global Perspective
This paper reviewed recent feedback on U.S. school performance from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).
Keyworth, R. (2011). Performance Feedback from a Global Perspective [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-wing-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development
Research suggests that coaching is one of the most effective strategies in training teachers. This paper identifies the critical practice elements of coaching and their absence in teacher training.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Professional Learning That Makes An Impact
This paper discusses the critical elements of effective teacher coaching.
Knight, J. (2013). Professional Learning That Makes An Impact [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-jim-knight.
Project AIM: Assess, Improve & Maintain Effective Teaching Practices
This paper shared a model for teacher assessment and professional development that address theneeds of large school districts in an effective and efficient manner.
Lewis, T. (2013). Project AIM: Assess, Improve & Maintain Effective Teaching Practices [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-teri-lewis.
Working with Staff to Promote Data-Based Decision Making: Recommended Strategies and Common Pitfalls
This paper discusses evidence-based ways of working with staff to promote program intervention integrity and accurate data collection.
Reid, D. (2009). Working with Staff to Promote Data-Based Decision Making: Recommended Strategies and Common Pitfalls [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2009-wing-presentation-dennis-reid.
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A Closer Look at Title I: Making Education for the Disadvantaged More Student-Centered

This analysis examines whether the current mechanisms for providing federal education funding to disadvantaged children are effective and whether the system works as originally intended.

Aud, S. L. (2007). A Closer Look at Title I: Making Education for the Disadvantaged More Student-Centered. Heritage Special Report. SR-15. Heritage Foundation.

America's Most Financially Disadvantaged School Districts and How They Got That Way

This report explores some of the most financially disadvantaged school districts in the country and identifies a typology of conditions that have created or reinforced their disadvantage. It report lays out a typology of conditions that lead to severe fiscal disadvantage for local public school systems. It then provides examples of states, state policy conditions, and specific local public school districts identified as being severely financially disadvantaged.

Baker, B. (2014). America's Most Financially Disadvantaged School Districts and How They Got That Way. Washington: Center for American Progress.

The Stealth Inequities of School Funding: How State and Local School Finance Systems Perpetuate Inequitable Student Spending

This report begins by identifying those states where combined state and local revenues are systematically lower in higher-poverty districts–that is, states with “regressive” school funding distributions. Based on this analysis, the authors focus on six states–Illinois, Texas, New York, Pennsylvania, Missouri, and North Carolina–where children attending school in higher-poverty districts still have substantially less access to state and local revenue than children attending school in lower-poverty districts. With these states in mind, the authors then go beyond recent reports on school funding inequities to uncover some nontraditional causes of these imbalances.

Baker, B. D., & Corcoran, S. P. (2012). The Stealth Inequities of School Funding: How State and Local School Finance Systems Perpetuate Inequitable Student Spending. Center for American Progress.

Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card: First Edition

The National Report Card is a critique of state school funding systems and the extent to which these systems ensure equality of educational opportunity for all children, regardless of background, family income, place of residence or school. The report makes the assumption that "fair" school funding is defined as "a state finance system that ensures equal educational opportunity by providing a sufficient level of funding distributed to districts within the state to account for additional needs generated by student poverty."

Baker, B. D., Sciarra, D. G., & Farrie, D. (2010). Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card. Education Law Center.

Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card: Second Edition

The Second Edition of the National Report Card on public school funding, Is School Funding Fair?, shows that far too many states continue to deny public schools the essential resources they need to meet the needs of the nation's 53 million students and to boost academic achievement. The National Report Card rates the 50 states on the basis of four "fairness indicators" - funding level, funding distribution, state fiscal effort, and public school coverage. The Report provides the most in-depth analysis to date of state education finance systems and school funding fairness across the nation.

Baker, B. D., Sciarra, D. G., & Farrie, D. (2012). Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card: Second Edition. Education Law Center.

Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card: Third Edition

The 3rd Edition of Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card details how the Great Recession and its aftermath have affected school funding in the states. The National Report Card (NRC) examines each state's level of commitment to equal educational opportunity, regardless of a student's background, family income, or where she or he attends school. Providing fair school funding -- at a sufficient level with additional funds to meet needs generated by poverty -- is crucial if all students are to be afforded the opportunity to learn and be successful.

Baker, B. D., Sciarra, D. G., & Farrie, D. (2014). Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card: Third Edition. Education Law Center.

The Stealth Inequities of School Funding-How State and Local Finance Systems Perpetuate Inequitable Student Spending

This report analyzes the disparity in funding and resources in K-12 education for children of color and low-income families. It found that millions of students–largely low-income students and students of color–continue to attend segregated and economically isolated schools. State and district school finance systems perpetuate and compound these inequities by providing less money to students with the greatest need.

Baker, B., & Corcoran, S. (2012). The stealth inequities of school funding. Center for American Progress, Washington, DC.

Educational Equity and Effectiveness- The Need for Fiscal Fairness and Fiscal Productivity

This report analyzes two critical, and sometimes competing, issues in school finance reformer: fiscal equity and fiscal efficiency. It makes the case that fiscal equity and fiscal effectiveness are not mutually exclusive, and this nation needs to do more to improve both the fairness and the productivity of public school dollars. In other words, we need to make sure that schools and districts not only get enough money to serve their student populations but also that they then spend those dollars wisely.

Boser, U. (2014). Educational Equity and Effectiveness- The Need for Fiscal Fairness and Fiscal Productivity. Washington: Center for American Progress.

High-Poverty Schools and the Distribution of Teachers and Principals

Although many factors combine to make a successful school, most people agree that quality teachers and school principals are among the most important requirements for success, especially when success is defined by the ability of the school to raise the achievement of its students. The central question for this study is how the quality of the teachers and principals in high-poverty schools in North Carolina compares to that in the schools serving more advantaged students.

Clotfelter, C., Ladd, H. F., Vigdor, J., & Wheeler, J. (2006). High-poverty schools and the distribution of teachers and principals. NCL Rev., 85, 1345.

How Much More Does a Disadvantaged Student Cost?

This paper provides a guide to statistically based methods for estimating the extra costs of educating disadvantaged students, shows how these methods are related, and compares state aid programs that account for these costs in different ways. It shows that large, urban school districts with a high concentration of disadvantaged students would receive far more aid (and rich suburban districts would receive far less aid) if statistically based pupil weights were used instead of the ad hoc weights in existing state aid programs.

Duncombe, W., & Yinger, J. (2005). How much more does a disadvantaged student cost?. Economics of Education Review, 24(5), 513-532.

Close the Hidden Funding Gaps in Our Schools

This report examines the widespread and unjust district budgeting practices and offers Congress a straightforward legislative path: Fix the so-called comparability provisions of Title I.

Hall, D., & Ushomirsky, N. (2010). Close the Hidden Funding Gaps in Our Schools. K-12 Policy. Education Trust.

Parallel Lives, Different Outcomes: A Twin Study of Academic Productivity in U.S. School Districts

The goal of this paper was to study twin districts and use the data culled to provide recommendations for how districts can best leverage their school funding investments–in other words, achieve a bigger bang for their educational buck. The findings were: When it comes to education, spending does not always equal results. There are significant funding inequities between demographically similar districts. Districts have limited control over their own expenditures.

Hanna R., Morris B. (2014). Parallel Lives, Different Outcomes: A Twin Study of Academic Productivity in U.S. School Districts. Washington: Center for American Progress.

Toward a histology of social behavior: Judgmental accuracy from thin slices of the behavioral stream.
This chapter focuses on thin slices and illustrates the efficiency of thin slices in providing information about social and interpersonal relations. A thin slice is “a brief excerpt of expressive behavior sampled from the behavioral stream.”
Ambady, N., Bernieri, F. J., & Richeson, J. A. (2000). Toward a histology of social behavior: Judgmental accuracy from thin slices of the behavioral stream. Advances in experimental social psychology, 32, 201-271.
The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study
This research reports on the cost of teacher turnover in five school districts. It reports the rate of turnover, the relationship between turnover and teacher and school characteristics, and the costs associated with recruiting, hiring, and training replacement teachers. The authors of the study report that turnover costs were significant. The paper also found that teachers left schools that were predominantly minority and low achieving schools at significantly higher rates than average schools.
Barnes, G., Crowe, E., & Schaefer, B. (2007). The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study. National Commission on Teaching and America's Future.
Return on Educational Investment: 2014 A District-by-District Evaluation of U.S. Educational Productivity
In 2011, the Center of American Progress released the first-ever attempt to evaluate the productivity of almost every major school district in the country. That project developed a set of relatively simple productivity metrics in order to measure the achievement that a school district produces relative to its spending, while controlling for factors outside a district’s control, such the cost of living and students living in poverty. This report uses these same metrics to once again examine the productivity of the nation’s school districts.
Boser, U. (2014). Return on Educational Investment: 2014. Center for American Progress. http://www. americanprogress. org.
Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2009-10.
This First Look report presents state-level data on revenues by source and expenditures by function for public elementary and secondary education for school year 2009-10. Part of the Common Core of Data (CCD), this report presents data submitted annually to NCES by state education agencies in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Cornman, S., Young, J., Herrell, K. (2012). Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2009-10. NCES 2013-305. National Center for Education Statistics.
Creating reports using longitudinal data: how states can present information to support student learning and school system improvement
This report provides ten actions to get data into the right hands of educators.
Data Quality Campaign, (2010). Creating reports using longitudinal data: how states can present information to support student learning and school system improvement.
Federal School Finance Reform- Moving Toward Title I Funding Following the Child?
This brief describes the types of grants the federal government distributes under Title I, explains how those grants are dispersed to local education agencies (LEAs) and schools, and outlines the safeguards that were introduced to protect against misuse of Title I funds. A brief review follows of the shortcomings of Title I, leading to recommendations on how to make Title I more effective. Finally, this brief provides an overview of current reform proposals and draws some conclusions about which reforms offer the best chance for successful use of Title I funds.
Furtick, K., & Snell, L. (2014). Federal School Finance Reform- Moving Toward Title I Funding Following the Child? The Reason Foundation
Predictors of Postsecondary Success
This brief summarizes early childhood through early postsecondary education research identifying student skills, behaviors, and other characteristics that predict future academic and workplace success.
Hein, V., Smerdon, B., and Sambolt, M. (2013). Predictors of Postsecondary Success. The College and Career Readiness and Success Center (CCRS Center) at the American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from http://www.ccrscenter.org/products-resources/predictors-postsecondary-success
Comparability of State and Local Expenditures Among Schools Within Districts: A Report from the Study of School-Level Expenditures
This report from the Study of School-Level Expenditures presents findings on how state and local education expenditures at the school level vary within school districts.
Heuer, R., & Stullich, S. (2011). Comparability of State and Local Expenditures among Schools within Districts: A Report from the Study of School-Level Expenditures. Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, US Department of Education.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Education Trust
The Education Trust is a national non-profit advocacy organization that promotes high academic achievement for all students at all levels, particularly for students of color and low-income students.
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