Performance Feedback

All Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Evaluating Principals: Balancing Accountability with Professional Growth
The goal of this paper is to provide policymakers with recommendations for the design and implementation of strong principal development and evaluation systems. States and local school systems that pursue these ideas can use principal evaluation to drive a powerful vision of principal effectiveness and, by consequence, improve outcomes for all students.
(2010). Evaluating Principals: Balancing Accountability with Professional Growth. New Leaders for New Schools.
Principal Evaluation Handbook
New Leaders has recently published a new principal evaluation model. It includes seven modules: (1) Overview of the New Leaders Principal Evaluation Model, (2) The Principal Evaluation Rubric, (3) Setting a Principal Practice Goal + Strategic Planning, (4) Identifying Evidence, (5) Direct Observation of Principal Practice, (6) Collecting and Mapping Evidence to the Principal Practice Rubric, and (7) Providing Actionable Feedback.
(2012). Principal Evaluation Handbook. New Leaders
Putting Principal Evaluation into Practice
Overview New Leaders has recently published a new principal evaluation model. It includes seven modules: (1) Overview of the New Leaders Principal Evaluation Model, (2) The Principal Evaluation Rubric, (3) Setting a Principal Practice Goal + Strategic Planning, (4) Identifying Evidence, (5) Direct Observation of Principal Practice, (6) Collecting and Mapping Evidence to the Principal Practice Rubric, and (7) Providing Actionable Feedback.
(2012). Putting Principal Evaluation into Practice. New Leaders
Principal Evaluation Rubric
Overview New Leaders has recently published a new principal evaluation model. It includes seven modules: (1) Overview of the New Leaders Principal Evaluation Model, (2) The Principal Evaluation Rubric, (3) Setting a Principal Practice Goal + Strategic Planning, (4) Identifying Evidence, (5) Direct Observation of Principal Practice, (6) Collecting and Mapping Evidence to the Principal Practice Rubric, and (7) Providing Actionable Feedback.
(2012). Putting Principal Evaluation into Practice. New Leaders
Rethinking the Use of Tests: A Meta-Analysis of Practice Testing

This meta-analysis examined the effects of practice tests versus non-testing learning conditions on student performance. Research demonstrates that students who take practice tests often outperform students in non-testing learning conditions such as restudying, practice, filler activities, or no presentation of the material. Results reveal that practice tests are more beneficial for learning than restudying and all other comparison conditions.

Adesope, O. O., Trevisan, D. A., & Sundararajan, N. (2017). Rethinking the Use of Tests: A Meta-Analysis of Practice Testing. Review of Educational Research, 0034654316689306.

Do Principals Know Good Teaching When They See It?

This article examines the effectiveness and related issues of current methods of principal evaluation of teachers.

Burns M. (2011). Do Principals Know Good Teaching When They See It?. Educational policy, 19(1), 155-180.

Rethinking Leadership: The Changing Role of Principal Supervisors

This report consists of two parts: a survey of 67 public school systems district staff serving as principal supervisors and on-site analysis of six districts pre-service training and support systems for new principals.

Corcoran, A., et al. (2013). Rethinking Leadership: The Changing Role of Principal Supervisors. The Wallace Foundation.

Leading for Instructional Improvement: How Successful Leaders Develop Teaching and Learning Expertise

This book shows how principals and other school leaders can develop the skills necessary for teachers to deliver high quality instruction by introducing principals to a five-part model of effective instruction.

Fink, S., & Markholt, A. (2011). Leading for instructional improvement: How successful leaders develop teaching and learning expertise. John Wiley & Sons.

Make Room for the Principal Supervisors

This report describes how Denver Public Schools hired personnel to coach and evaluate its principals.

Gill, J., (2013). Make Room for the Principal Supervisors. The Wallace Foundation.

The Evaluation of Principals: What and How do States and Urban Districts Assess Leadership?

This study present results of a comprehensive review of principal leadership assessment practices in the United States. Using the learning-centered leadership framework, it focused on identifying the congruence (or lack thereof) between documented assessment practices and the research-based criteria for effective leadership that are associated with improved school performance.

Goldring, E., Cravens, X. C., Murphy, J., Porter, A. C., Elliott, S. N., & Carson, B. (2009). The evaluation of principals: What and how do states and urban districts assess leadership?. The Elementary School Journal, 110(1), 19-39

Assessing Learning-Centered Leadership: Connections to Research, Professional Standards, and Current Practices

With support from The Wallace Foundation, a Vanderbilt University team is developing a tool to monitor and assess the performance of school leaders. The Vanderbilt assessment will differ from existing tools by focusing 100 percent on instructional leadership and examining both principals and leadership teams. The paper, with two companion reports, presents the research behind and conceptual framework for the tool.

Goldring, E., Porter, A., Murphy, J., Elliott, S. N., & Cravens, X. (2009). Assessing learning-centered leadership: Connections to research, professional standards, and current practices. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 8(1), 1-36.

Can Principals Identify Effective Teachers? Evidence on Subjective Performance Evaluation in Education

This paper examines how well principals can distinguish between more and less effective teachers. To put principal evaluations in context, we compare them with the traditional determinants of teacher compensation-education and experience-as well as value-added measures of teacher effectiveness.

Jacob, B. A., & Lefgren, L. (2008). Can principals identify effective teachers? Evidence on subjective performance evaluation in education. Journal of Labor Economics, 26(1), 101-136.

Assessing Educational Leaders: Evaluating Performance for Improved Individual and Organizational Results

This book presents information and tools necessary to successfully evaluate all types of educational leaders and improve both individual and organizational performance.

Reeves, D. B. (Ed.). (2008). Assessing educational leaders: Evaluating performance for improved individual and organizational results. SAGE.

Has 360 Degree Feedback Gone Amok?

This article examines the outcomes that organizations can expect from using 360 evaluation systems and provides recommendations for implementing these feedback methods to better ensure improvements will be realized.

Waldman, D. A., Atwater, L. E., & Antonioni, D. (1998). Has 360 degree feedback gone amok?. The Academy of Management Executive, 12(2), 86-94.

The New York City Aspiring Principals Program-A School-Level Evaluation

This report represents the first systematic comparison of student outcomes in schools led by the Aspiring Principals Program (APP) graduates after three years to those in comparable schools led by other new principals.

Weinstein, M., Schwartz, A. E., & Corcoran, S. P. (2009). The New York City Aspiring Principals Program: A School-Level Evaluation. NYU Wagner Research Paper, (2011-07).

Antecedents And Consequences Of Reactions To Developmental 360° Feedback
This study investigates factors that influence leaders’ reactions to 360° feedback and the relationship of feedback reactions to subsequent development activities and changes in behavior.
Atwater, L. E., & Brett, J. F. (2005). Antecedents and consequences of reactions to developmental 360 feedback. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(3), 532-548.
360° Feedback: Accuracy, Reactions, And Perceptions Of Usefulness
This study examines 360° feedback ratings and reactions to feedback, perceptions of feedback accuracy, perceived usefulness of the feedback, and recipients' receptivity to development.
Brett, J. F., & Atwater, L. E. (2001). 360° feedback: Accuracy, reactions, and perceptions of usefulness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 930.
Addressing Challenges in Evaluating School Principal Improvement Efforts
This report describes the challenges states, districts, and other entities encounter as they evaluate school reform.
Burkhauser, S., Pierson, A., Gates, S., and Hamilton, L. (2012) Assessing the Relationship Between Administrator Preparation Programs and Job Performance. Rand Corporation.
School Principals and School Performance
This paper uses data from New York City to estimate how the characteristics of school principals relate to school performance, as measured by students' standardized exam scores and other outcomes. There is little evidence of any relationship between school performance and principal education and pre-principal work experience, but some evidence that experience as an assistant principal at the principal's current school is associated with higher performance among inexperienced principals.
Clark, D., Martorell, P., & Rockoff, J. (2009). School Principals and School Performance. Working Paper 38. National Center for Analysis of longitudinal data in Education research.
Practical Guide To Designing Comprehensive Principal Evaluation Systems
This guide is intended to assist states and districts in developing systems of principal evaluation and support and is informed by research on performance evaluation.
Clifford, M., Hansen, U. J., and Wraight, S. (2012). Practical Guide To Designing Comprehensive Principal Evaluation Systems. American Institutes for Research.
Measuring Principal Performance: How Rigorous Are Commonly Used Principal Performance Assessment Instruments?
This study reviewed eight publicly available formative assessments of principal performance, focusing on the tool’s approach, time requirement, content and construct validity, and reliability.
Condon, C., & Clifford, M. (2010). Measuring Principal Performance: How Rigorous Are Commonly Used Principal Performance Assessment Instruments? A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief. Learning Point Associates.
The Policies and Practices of Principal Evaluation
This paper provides a literature review of 68 research papers published from 1980 through 2010 on the topic of principal evaluation.
Davis, S., Kearney, K., Sanders, N., Thomas, C., & Leon, R. (2011). The policies and practices of principal evaluation: A review of the literature. San Francisco, CA: WestEd.
Education Leadership: A Bridge to School Reform
This report describes how Denver Public Schools hired people to coach and evaluate its principals.
DeVita, M., Colvin, R., Darling-Hammond, L., Haycock, K. (2007). Education Leadership: A Bridge to School Reform. The Wallace Foundation.
What We Know About Upward Appraisals of Management: Facilitating the Future Use of UPAs
This is a review of the literature on upward performance appraisal (UPA). It reveals that UPA is an under-used management tool; however, compared to traditional top-down appraisals, the focus of UPAs may be a better fit as an instrument for continuous improvement.
Hall, J. L., Leiaecker, J. K., & DiMarco, C. (1996). What we know about upward appraisals of management: facilitating the future use of UPAs. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 7(3), 209-226.
Assessing the Promise of Standards-Based Performance Evaluation for Principals: Results from a Randomized Trial
This randomized controlled study examines the effects of feedback and principal job satisfaction.
Kimball, S. M., Milanowski, A., & McKinney, S. A. (2009). Assessing the promise of standards-based performance evaluation for principals: Results from a randomized trial. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 8(3), 233-263.
A National View of Certification of School Principals: Current and Future Trends
This paper focuses on two questions: (a) What patterns in certification currently exist across the states? and (b) What might these current patterns indicate for the future of school principal certification?
LeTendre, B. G., & Roberts, B. (2005). A National view of certification of school principals: Current and future trends. In University Council for Educational Administration, Convention, Nashville, TN. Retrieved October (Vol. 15, p. 2007).
Districts Developing Leaders: Lessons on Consumer Actions and Program Approaches from Eight Urban Districts
This report examines efforts in eight Wallace-supported school districts to revamp university principal-training programs. It finds that districts can influence leader training by acting like “discerning customers” who clearly describe to training programs the principal capabilities they are in the market for.
Orr, M. T., King, C., & LaPointe, M. (2010). Districts Developing Leaders: Lessons on Consumer Actions and Program Approaches from Eight Urban Districts. Education Development Center, Inc.
The Attributes and Career Paths of Principals: Implications for Improving Policy
This paper examines the attributes and career paths of New York States principals. It found that many of the commonly held beliefs about principals are supported by a systematic examination of the data. In other cases, we find that some widely held beliefs about principals are more myth than fact.
Papa, F. C., Lankford, H., & Wyckoff, J. (2002). The attributes and career paths of principals: Implications for improving policy. Teacher Policy Research Center.
Assessing Learning-Centered Leadership: Connections to Research, Professional Standards, and Current Practices
Research shows that most assessments of school leaders are ineffective in gauging how leaders are - or are not - promoting learning. This Wallace Perspective describes a possible new direction, highlights new assessment instruments and discusses unknowns in using assessments to improve leadership and benefit students.
Portin, B. S. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of school leaders: New directions and new processes. The Wallace Foundation
Getting Principal Mentoring Right: Lessons from the Field
Mentoring for new principals, once rare, is now required by half the nation’s states. That’s a major advance, but many programs are not yet tailored to developing principals who can drive better instruction, according to this Wallace analysis. The report looks at two school districts that stress mentoring - Jefferson County (Kentucky) and New York City -and proposes guidelines for effective mentoring.
Spiro, J., Mattis, M. C., & Mitgang, L. D. (2007). Getting principal mentoring right: Lessons from the field. Wallace Foundation.
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