Professional judgment is required whenever conditions are uncertain. This article provides an analysis of professional judgment and describes sources of error in decision making.
Barnett, D. W. (1988). Professional judgment: A critical appraisal. School Psychology Review., 17(4), 658-672.
This study examines the issue of extending the school day and year. The positive effects of having more time for teaching through longer class periods, individual assistance, and tutoring sessions, students spend more time on task than do students in schools operating on a conventional schedule. Studying these schools also reveals that despite the benefits there are hefty challenges to extending the school day.
Farbman, D. and Kaplan, C. (2005). Time for a change: The promise of extended-time schools for promoting student achievement. Boston, MA: Massachusetts.
In this book, Gambrill examines the importance of critical thinking, the biases that all of us are prone to, and ways to improve our judgments.
Gambrill, E. (2006). Critical thinking in clinical practice: Improving the quality of judgments and decisions. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=z8Hils1vn4kC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=Gambrill+Critical+Thinking&ots=T8-fSWM4Gk&sig=ykQYQtOXgQwfzrOhC_zghsp3__w
This workbook provides exercises for improving the decision-making of helping professionals.
Gambrill, E., & Gibbs, L. (2009). Critical thinking for helping professionals: A skills-based workbook. Oxford University Press on Demand. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=RsITDAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&dq=Gambrill+Critical+Thinking&ots=MREzsHeI5n&sig=L5KzgI1WBdNU2O3n9tlu2e18sF4
Conventional wisdom holds that heuristics and biases lead to flawded decision making. This paper makes the case that under some conditions they actually make decision-making more efficient.
Gigerenzer, G., & Brighton, H. (2009). Homo heuristicus: Why biased minds make better inferences. Topics in Cognitive Science, 1, 107-143. doi:10.1111/j.1756-8765.2008.01006.