Education Drivers

Informal (Walk-through)

Research on informal teacher evaluation reveals the predominant evaluation method is the walk-though, which ranges from a brief 2- to 3-minute snapshot to longer observation. Studies support the important role principals play in instructional leadership but also suggest that principals are not good at identifying which teachers are the best instructors. Research finds that principals overwhelmingly understand the need to sample teacher performance but that they are rarely trained in how to accomplish this. Over the past 30 years, the walk-through has become the primary vehicle for a principal to evaluate instruction. Walk-throughs fall into two categories: non-systematic and systematic. Non-systematic walk-throughs are brief scheduled or unscheduled observations with the primary purpose of detecting problems. Because these walk-throughs are brief, they are not well suited for teacher training. Studies have found that although they are more frequently embraced than systematic walk-throughs, they have little impact on student achievement. Systematic walk-throughs, on the other hand, are designed for more than just error detection. They can sample specific teaching practices and curriculum in use enabling the observer to provide targeted feedback to improve teacher’s skills and ultimately student achievement. Systematic walk-throughs take longer than non-systematic ones and, when incorporating coaching, have been found to significantly increase student achievement.  

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
What evidence do principals rely on in assessing the quality of a teacher’s instruction?
This analysis examines principal sources of information on teacher instructional competency and the amount of time spent assessing teacher's instructional skills.
States, J. (2015). What evidence do principals rely on in assessing the quality of a teacher’s instruction? Retrieved from what-evidence-do-principals.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Using Student Data as a Basis for Feedback to Teachers
This paper offers an alternative to evaluating teachers based on student performance on annual high stakes tests.
Detrich, R. (2011). Using Student Data as a Basis for Feedback to Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-aba-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development
Research suggests that coaching is one of the most effective strategies in training teachers. This paper identifies the critical practice elements of coaching and their absence in teacher training.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
A Systems Approach to Feedback: What You Need to Know and Who Needs
This paper looks at feedback as a powerful systems approach to improving the performance of both student and school faculty.
States, J. (2011). A Systems Approach to Feedback: What You Need to Know and Who Needs [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-calaba-presentation-jack-states.
Feedback as Education Reform: What We Know
This paper examines the power of feedback as a strategy for improving student performance. Types of feeback are explored building from student and teacher performance that can be aggregated to create a systems wide feedback tool.
States, J. (2011). Feedback as Education Reform: What We Know [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-aba-presentation-jack-states.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Developing principals as instructional leaders

This paper describes a continuous learning model of principal and superintendent support. The model places a premium on engagement at all levels of the system on shaping a focused culture of instruction within their schools.

Fink, E., & Resnick, L. B. (2001). Developing principals as instructional leaders. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(8), 598-610.

Leading for Instructional Improvement: How Successful Leaders Develop Teaching and Learning Expertise

This book shows how principals and other school leaders can develop the skills necessary for teachers to deliver high quality instruction by introducing principals to a five-part model of effective instruction.

Fink, S., & Markholt, A. (2011). Leading for instructional improvement: How successful leaders develop teaching and learning expertise. John Wiley & Sons.

What is Effective Instructional Leadership? Longitudinal Evidence from Observations of Principals

This study draws on in-person observations of principals collected over full school days over two different school years in a large, urban district to investigate how principals allocate their time across different instructional leadership tasks, and how instructional time use is associated with school effectiveness.

Grissom, J. A., Loeb, S., & Master, B. (2012, November). What is effective instructional leadership? Longitudinal evidence from observations of principals. In Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management annual meeting, November.

Effective Instructional Time Use for School Leaders: Longitudinal Evidence From Observations of Principals

This study examines the associations between leadership behaviors and student achievement gains using a unique data source: in-person, full-day observations of principals collected over three school years. The study finds that principals’ time spent broadly on instructional functions does not predict student achievement growth. Time spent on informal classroom walkthroughs negatively predicts student growth, particularly in high schools.

Grissom, J. A., Loeb, S., & Master, B. (2013). Effective instructional time use for school leaders longitudinal evidence from observations of principals. Educational Researcher, 0013189X13510020.

The Role of Districts in Fostering Instructional Improvement Lessons from Three Urban Districts Partnered with the Institute for Learning

This study analyzed three urban districts' efforts to improve the instructional quality and performance of their schools. The study also assessed the efforts made in four: (1) promoting the instructional leadership of principals; (2) supporting the professional learning of teachers, in particular through school-based coaching models; (3) specifying curriculum; (4) and promoting data-based decision making for planning and instructional improvement.

Marsh, J. A., Kerr, K. A., Ikemoto, G. S., Darilek, H., Suttorp, M., Zimmer, R. W., & Barney, H. (2005). The Role of Districts in Fostering Instructional Improvement Lessons from Three Urban Districts Partnered with the Institute for Learning. RAND Corporation.

Formative classroom walkthroughs: How principals and teachers collaborate to raise student achievement

This book examines principal leadership with the focus on formative assessment. The book looks at efforts to improve student performance through Formative Classroom Walkthoughs.

Moss, C. M., & Brookhart, S. M. (2015). Formative classroom walkthroughs: How principals and teachers collaborate to raise student achievement. ASCD.

The Impact of Leadership On Student Outcomes: an Analysis Of The Differential Effects Of Leadership Types

The purpose of this study is to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on students’ academic and nonacademic outcomes.

Robinson, V. M., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational administration quarterly.

Evaluation of the school administration manager project

This study examines the School Administration Manager (SAM) project, that focused on changing the conditions in schools that prevent principals from devoting more time to instructional leadership.

Turnbull, B. J., Haslam, M. B., Arcaira, E. R., Riley, D. L., Sinclair, B., & Coleman, S. (2009). Evaluation of the school administration manager project. Policy Studies Associates, Inc.

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