Class Size Reduction

All Research

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SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Getting beneath the veil of effective schools: Evidence from New York City

This paper examines data on 39 charter schools and correlates these data with school effectiveness. We find that class size, per-pupil expenditure, teacher certification, and teacher training—are not correlated with school effectiveness. In stark contrast, we show that frequent teacher feedback, the use of data to guide instruction, high-dosage tutoring, increased instructional time, and high expectations—explains approximately 45 percent of the variation in school effectiveness.

Dobbie, W., & Fryer Jr, R. G. (2013). Getting beneath the veil of effective schools: Evidence from New York City. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5(4), 28-60.

Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement.

The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System determines the effectiveness of school systems, schools, and teachers based on student academic growth over time. Research conducted utilizing data from the TVAAS database has shown that race, socioeconomic level, class size, and classroom heterogeneity are poor predictors of student academic growth. Rather, the effectiveness of the teacher is the major determinant of student academic progress.

Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement.

Extended School Year Fast Facts
This is a summary of the important facts and information regarding the impact of the length of a school on students and the education system.
Bickford, R., & Silvernail, D. L. (2009). Extended school year fast facts.
Class size: what research says and what it means for state policy
Class size is one variable in American education that research confirms has a positive influence student learning and was then taken to scale across the nation. Unfortunately, the results when applied at scale have not achieved the results expected in the initial studies.
Chingos, M. M., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2011). Class size: what research says and what it means for state policy. Brookings Institute. May, 11.
The Case for Improving and Expanding Time in School: A Review of Key Research and Practice
In this paper, the authors explore three benefits, which emerge as a longer school day and year open up new learning and growth opportunities.
Farbman, D. (2012). The Case for Improving and Expanding Time in School: A Review of Key Research and Practice. National Center on Time & Learning.
The Pseudoscience of Single-Sex Schooling
This paper examines the practice of sex-segregated education. The study finds no well-designed research showing that single-sex education improves students' academic performance.
Halpern, D. F., Eliot, L., Bigler, R. S., Fabes, R. A., Hanish, L. D., Hyde, J., ... & Martin, C. L. (2011). The pseudoscience of single-sex schooling. Science, 333(6050), 1706-1707.
Extending the School Days or School Year: A Systematic Review of Research (1985-2009)
This study of the issue of extending the school year suggest that a long year can support student learning, particularly (a) for students most at risk of school failure and (b) when considerations are made for how time is used.
Patall, E. A., Cooper, H., & Allen, A. B. (2010). Extending the School Day or School Year A Systematic Review of Research (1985-2009). Review of educational research, 80(3), 401-436.
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