Instructional Delivery

All Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Teaching naming relatives to individuals with autism using simultaneous prompting
This study examines the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting in teaching naming relatives to
Akmanoglu-Uludag, N., & Batu, S. (2005). Teaching naming relatives to individuals with autism using simultaneous prompting. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40(4), 401.
Learning About Learning: What Every New Teacher Needs to Know

This paper examines teacher education textbooks for discussion of research-based strategies that every teacher candidate should learn in order to promote student learning and retention.

Learning About Learning: What Every New Teacher Needs to Know Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Learning_About_Learning_Report.

Learning About Learning: What Every New Teacher Needs to Know

This paper examines teacher education textbooks for discussion of research-based strategies that every teacher candidate should learn in order to promote student learning and retention.

Learning About Learning: What Every New Teacher Needs to Know Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Learning_About_Learning_Report.

Rethinking the Use of Tests: A Meta-Analysis of Practice Testing

This meta-analysis examined the effects of practice tests versus non-testing learning conditions on student performance. Research demonstrates that students who take practice tests often outperform students in non-testing learning conditions such as restudying, practice, filler activities, or no presentation of the material. Results reveal that practice tests are more beneficial for learning than restudying and all other comparison conditions.

Adesope, O. O., Trevisan, D. A., & Sundararajan, N. (2017). Rethinking the Use of Tests: A Meta-Analysis of Practice Testing. Review of Educational Research, 0034654316689306.

Use of differential reinforcement to reduce behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities: A methodological review

The purpose of this literature review is to summarize and provide a methodological analysis of studies using a differential reinforcement to reduce problem behaviors.

Chowdhury, M., & Benson, B. A. (2011). Use of differential reinforcement to reduce behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities: A methodological review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(2), 383-394.

Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school

This study investigates the effect of a school-wide intervention plan, consisting of precorrection and active supervision strategies, on the social behavior of elementary students.

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good III, R. H., & Lee, Y. Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4), 344.

Explicit instruction in mathematics problem solving

This study examines the impact of explicit instruction strategies on student mathematic performance.

Darch, C., Carnine, D., & Gersten, R. (1984). Explicit instruction in mathematics problem solving. The Journal of Educational Research, 351-359.

Classwide peer tutoring

The purpose of this article is to discuss classwide peer tutoring as an effective instructional procedure. The article is organized into three major sections:(a) general principles of instruction,(b) description of classwide peer tutoring procedures, and (c) review of effectiveness data concerning classroom process (ie, ecological and behavioral factors) and student achievement outcomes.

Delquadri, J., Greenwood, C. R., Whorton, D., Carta, J. J., & Hall, R. V. (1986). Classwide peer tutoring. Exceptional children, 52(6), 535-542.

Chicago

Developing Curriculum-Based Measurement Systems for Data-Based Special Education Problem Solving

This paper provides procedures for developing curriculum-based measurement systems in special education problem solving.

Deno, S. L., & Fuchs, L. S. (1987). Developing Curriculum-Based Measurement Systems for Data-Based Special Education Problem Solving. Focus on Exceptional Children, 19(8), 1-16.

A comparison of cognitive training and response cost procedures in modifying aggressive behavior of elementary school children

This study compares cognitive restructuring, response cost, or placebo control conditions to examine the impact on aggressive elementary school students.

Forman, S. G. (1980). A comparison of cognitive training and response cost procedures in modifying aggressive behavior of elementary school children. Behavior Therapy, 11(4), 594-600.

Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

This meta-analysis examined the impact of lecturing as compared to active methods of instruction on learning and course performance. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies).

Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8410-8415.

Effects of teacher attention on study behavior.

This study examines the effects of contingent teacher attention on study behavior.

Hall, R. V., Lund, D., & Jackson, D. (1968). EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTENTION ON STUDY BEHAVIOR1. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(1), 1-12.

A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors.

This study employs an alternating treatments design to investigate the effects of three types of opportunities to respond (i.e., individual, choral, and mixed responding) on sight words and syllable practice in six elementary students with behavioral problems.

Haydon, T., Conroy, M. A., Scott, T. M., Sindelar, P. T., Barber, B. R., & Orlando, A. M. (2010). A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 27-40.

The effects of differential reinforcement of unprompted responding on the skill acquisition of children with autism

The purpose of this study is to compare high-quality reinforcers following unprompted responses (differential reinforcement) with high-quality reinforcers following both prompted and unprompted responses (non-differential reinforcement) on the skill acquisition of 2 children with autism.

Karsten, A. M., & Carr, J. E. (2009). The effects of differential reinforcement of unprompted responding on the skill acquisition of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(2), 327-334.

Training teachers to give effective commands: Effects on student compliance and academic behaviors.

This study examines the effects of effective command training with teachers on students' compliance rates and academic engagement.

Matheson, A. S., & Shriver, M. D. (2005). Training Teachers to Give Effective Commands: Effects on Student Compliance and Academic Behaviors. School Psychology Review, 34(2), 202-219.

Differential reinforcement of correct responses to probes and prompts in picture-name training with severely retarded children.

This paper examines the use of systematic sequence of prompt and probe trials to teach picture names to three severely retarded children.

Olenick, D. L., & Pear, J. J. (1980). DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF CORRECT RESPONSES TO PROBES AND PROMPTS IN PICTURE-NAME TRAINING WITH SEVERELY RETARDED CHILDREN. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13(1), 77-89.

Kids & Family Reading Report 5th Addition

The Bi-annual Kids & Family Reading Report on the attitudes of children and parents toward reading was released in early January 2016. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.

Scholastic. (2015). Kids & Family Reading Report 5th Addition. Scholastic.

Kids & Family Reading Report 5th Addition

The Bi-annual Kids & Family Reading Report on the attitudes of children and parents toward reading was released in early January 2016. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.

Scholastic. (2015). Kids & Family Reading Report 5th Addition. Scholastic.

A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning.

The meta-analysis looks at the effect of enhanced instruction on motor skill acquisition of 4-5 yr old children and 4th-21th graders in Israel.

Tenenbaum, G., & Goldring, E. (1989). A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning. Journal of Research & Development in Education. 22(3) 53-64.

Envisioning Information

Of Edward Tufte’s books, this is the most design oriented. It provides examples using maps, charts, scientific presentations, diagrams, computer interfaces, statistical graphics and tables, stereo photographs, guidebooks, courtroom exhibits, timetables, use of color, and a pop-up to illustrate his points on the effective use of visual mediums to communicate the meaning of data and impart important messages.

Tufte, E. R. (1990). Envisioning Information (1990). Cheshire, CT: Graphics press.

The Visual Display Of Quantitative Information

This is the first book from Edward Tufte and it lays out his theories and rules that are the basis for the effective display of information and data to maximize communication.

Tufte, E. R. (2001). The visual display of quantitative information. Edition 2 (Vol. 2). Cheshire, CT: Graphics press.

Visual Explanations: Images And Quantities, Evidence And Narrative

This third book by Edward Tufte is a guide on how to more effectively communicate information visually. It offers examples of poorly presented information and the dire consequences that can result from mediocre and inadequately thought out presentations. It provides concrete samples of effective ways to present statistics and tips one can use to avoid many of the pitfalls of powerpoint presentations.

Tufte, E. R., & Weise Moeller, E. (1997). Visual explanations: images and quantities, evidence and narrative (Vol. 36). Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.

CLEAR TEACHING: With Direct Instruction, Siegfried Engelmann Discovered a Better Way of Teaching
This is a well-researched, highly readable introduction to Direct Instruction (DI)
Barbash, S. (2012). Clear teaching: With direct instruction, Siegfried Engelmann discovered a better way of teaching. Education Consumers Foundation.
Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities.
This study compares the effects of Active Student Response error correction and No Response (NR) error correction during.
Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3(3), 217-233.
Preteaching unknown key words with incremental rehearsal to improve reading fluency and comprehension with children identified as reading disabled
The study investigates the effect of teaching unknown key words as a preteaching strategy with 20 students identified as learning disabled in reading skills.
Burns, M. K., Dean, V. J., & Foley, S. (2004). Preteaching unknown key words with incremental rehearsal to improve reading fluency and comprehension with children identified as reading disabled. Journal of school psychology, 42(4), 303-314.
Preteaching versus concurrent teaching of the component skills of a multiplication algorithm
The study looks at the impact of preteaching as a practice to improve student performance.
Carnine, D. (1980). Preteaching versus concurrent teaching of the component skills of a multiplication algorithm. Journal for research in Mathematics Education, 375-379.
Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement
This book is the most recent edition of the Marzano, PIckering and Pollock research into evidence-based practices designed for use in classrooms to improve student performance.
Dean, C. B. (2012). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Ascd.
Can offline metacognition enhance mathematical problem solving?
This research looks at the effectiveness of a metacognitive intervention combined with algorithmic cognitive instruction in an elementary school setting.
Desoete, A., Roeyers, H., & De Clercq, A. (2003). Can offline metacognition enhance mathematical problem solving?. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 188.
A comparison of textual and echoic prompts onthe acquisition of intraverbal behavior in a six-year-old boy with autism
This study compares textual and echoic prompts to determine which form of prompts are more effective for teaching intraverbal behavior to boy with autism.
Finkel, A. S., & Williams, R. L. (2002). A comparison of textual and echoic prompts on the acquisition of intraverbal behavior in a six-year-old boy with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 18, 61.
Explicitly teaching for transfer: Effects on third-grade students’ mathematical problem solving.
This study assesses the effects of explicitly teaching for transfer by (a) broadening the categories by which students group problems requiring the same solution methods and (b) prompting students to search novel problems for these broad categories.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Prentice, K., Burch, M., Hamlett, C. L., Owen, R., ... & Jancek, D. (2003). Explicitly teaching for transfer: Effects on third-grade students' mathematical problem solving. Journal of educational psychology, 95(2), 293
Assisting students struggling with mathematics: Response to intervention (RtI) for elementary and middle schools.
This guide provides eight recommendations to help teachers, principals, and school administrators use Response to Intervention to identify students who need assistance in mathematics and address their needs.
Gersten, R., Beckmann, S., Clarke, B., Foegen, A., Marsh, L., Star, J. R., & Witzel, B. (2009). Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools. NCEE 2009-4060. What Works Clearinghouse.
The importance and decision making utility of a continuum of fluency based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high stakes outcomes
This study examines fluency-based indicators of early literacy skills to predict reading outcomes, inform educational decisions, and change reading outcomes for students at risk.
Good III, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame'enui, E. J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 257-288.
No Common Denominator: The Preparation of Elementary Teachers in Mathematics by America’s Education Schools
This study examines selected education schools teacher preparation-mathematics courses. Schools were scored on how well their courses presented the core components of the science of mathematics.
Greenberg, J., & Walsh, K. (2008). No Common Denominator: The Preparation of Elementary Teachers in Mathematics by America's Education Schools. National Council on Teacher Quality.
Distributed versus massed practice in high school physics.
This paper is an analysis of the effects of distributed practice in teaching high school physics.
Grote, M. G. (1995). Distributed versus massed practice in high school physics. School Science and Mathematics, 95(2), 97-101.
Synthesis of research on the effects of mastery learning in elementary and secondary classrooms
This paper examines research on group-based mastery learning programs and the impact on student learning outcomes, including academic achievement, material retention, involvement in learning activities, and student attitudes.
Guskey, T. R., & Gates, S. L. (1986). Synthesis of Research on the Effects of Mastery Learning in Elementary and Secondary Classrooms. Educational Leadership, 43(8), 73-80.
Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies
This quantitative review examines 20 studies to establish an effect size of .71 for the impact of “metacognitive” instruction on reading comprehension.
Haller, E. P., Child, D. A., & Walberg, H. J. (1988). Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies. Educational researcher, 17(9), 5-8.
Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis.
This meta-analysis of 51 studies identified features of study skills interventions that are likely to lead to academic success.
Hattie, J., Biggs, J., & Purdie, N. (1996). Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 66(2), 99-136
Effects of mathematical word problem solving by students at risk or with mild disabilities
This is a differential effects study of two instructional strategies, an explicit schema-based strategy and a traditional basal strategy, on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of mathematical word problem solving.
Jitendra, A. K., Griffin, C. C., McGoey, K., Gardill, M. C., Bhat, P., & Riley, T. (1998). Effects of mathematical word problem solving by students at risk or with mild disabilities. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(6), 345-355.
Implicit learning in memory rehabilitation: a meta-analysis on errorless learning and vanishing cues methods.
This meta-analysis is a review on the treatment effects of memory rehabilitation techniques based on intact implicit learning capacity in amnesic patients, that is, errorless learning and the method of vanishing cues.
Kessels, R. P., & Haan, E. H. (2003). Implicit learning in memory rehabilitation: A meta-analysis on errorless learning and vanishing cues methods. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 25(6), 805-814.
Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching.
This study examines evidence for guided instruction in the context of our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, expert-novice differences, and cognitive load.
Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.
High-Impact Instruction: A Framework for Great Teaching.
This book offers strategies that make a difference in student learning including: content planning, instructional practices, and community building.
Knight, J. (2013). High-impact Instruction: A Framework for Great Teaching. Corwin Press.
Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A meta-analysis
This meta-analysis of findings from 108 studies shows mastery learning programs have positive effects on the examination performance of students in colleges, high schools, and the upper grades in elementary schools.
Kulik, C. L. C., Kulik, J. A., & Bangert-Drowns, R. L. (1990). Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 60(2), 265-299.
Findings on grouping are often distorted: Response to Allan
This study examines ability grouping research. It highlights the importance for educators to distinguish between the different types of ability grouping.
Kulik, J. A. (1991). Findings on Grouping Are Often Distorted: Response to Allan. Educational leadership, 48(6), 67.
Effects of Pre-Teaching and Re-Teaching on Math Achievement and Academic Self-Concept of Students with Low Achievement in Math
This study examines and compares the effectiveness of pre-teaching and re-teaching on math achievement and academic self-concept of third grade students identified as low achievers.
Lalley, J. P., & Miller, R. H. (2006). Effects of Pre-Teaching and Re-Teaching on Math Achievement and Academic Self-Concept of Students with Low Achievement in Math. Education, 126(4), 747-755.
Improving discrete trial instruction by paraprofessional staff through an abbreviated performance feedback intervention
This study evaluates an abbreviated performance feedback intervention as a training strategy to improve discrete trial instruction of children with autism.
Leblanc, M. P., Ricciardi, J. N., & Luiselli, J. K. (2005). Improving Discrete Trial Instruction by Paraprofessional Staff Through an Abbreviated Performance Feedback Intervention. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(1), 76-82.
The effects of pre-correction and active supervision on the recess behavior of elementary students.
This study examines the effectiveness of implementing a pre-correction and active supervision strategy on the rate of problem behavior during recess.
Lewis, T. J., Colvin, G., & Sugai, G. (2000). The Effects of Pre-Correction and Active Supervision on the Recess Behavior of Elementary Students. Education and Treatment of Children, 23(2), 109-21.
Metacognition: An overview
This is a study of metacognitive activity to determine how students can be taught to apply their cognitive resources through metacognitive control.
Livingston, J. A. (2003). Metacognition: An Overview.
Peer instruction: A user's manual.
This is a guide for the effective implementation of classroom peer instruction.
Mazur, E., & Somers, M. D. (1999). Peer instruction: A user’s manual. American Journal of Physics, 67(4), 359-360.
Meta-Analysis of the Research on Response Cards: Effects on Test Achievement, Quiz Achievement, Participation, and Off-Task Behavior.
This paper reviews the extant literature to determine the effects of response cards.
Randolph, J. J. (2007). Meta-Analysis of the Research on Response Cards: Effects on Test Achievement, Quiz Achievement, Participation, and Off-Task Behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(2), 113-128.
Effects of accountability on students' achievement in mastery learning.
This study uses a teacher-directed, videodisc-based program for teaching fractions to fifth-grade students to examine accountability in mastery learning programs.
Ritchie, D., & Thorkildsen, R. (1994). Effects of accountability on students' achievement in mastery learning. The Journal of Educational Research, 88(2), 86-90.
Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the intervention studies.
This is a review of intervention studies in which students have been taught to generate questions as a means of improving their comprehension.
Rosenshine, B., Meister, C., & Chapman, S. (1996). Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the intervention studies. Review of educational research, 66(2), 181-221.
Improving Performance: How To Manage The White Space On The Chart
Improving Performance has been a pivotal book in the creation of the performance management movement by showing how to bridge the gap between organization strategy and the individual. It can be used as guide for principals to link planning to action, implementation of organization change, and offering ways to redesign processes to overcome obstacles that impede implementation.
Rummler, G. A., & Brache, A. P. (2012). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organization chart. John Wiley & Sons.
The effects of teacher questioning levels on student achievement: A quantitative synthesis.
This meta-analysis examines the effects of teachers use of higher order questions on student achievement.
Samson, G. E., Strykowski, B., Weinstein, T., & Walberg, H. J. (1987). The effects of teacher questioning levels on student achievement: A quantitative synthesis. The Journal of Educational Research, 290-295.
An evaluation of interactive teaching methods in mechanics: using the FCI to monitor student learning.
This paper looks at the impact of using interactive teaching methods on student learning using the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) on teaching and learning of Newtonian mechanics in a Finnish High School.
Savinainen, A. (2001). An evaluation of interactive teaching methods in mechanics: using the FCI to monitor student learning. Report Series of Research in Mathematics and Science Education.
A meta- analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States
This is a meta-analysis of research published from 1980 to 2004 on the effect of specific science teaching strategies on student achievement.
Schroeder, C. M., Scott, T. P., Tolson, H., Huang, T. Y., & Lee, Y. H. (2007). A meta?analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(10), 1436-1460.
Ability Grouping and Student Achievement in Elementary Schools: A Best-Evidence Synthesis
This best evidence research review examines the effects of between and within class ability grouping on the achievement of elementary school students.
Slavin, R. E. (1987). Ability grouping and student achievement in elementary schools: A best-evidence synthesis. Review of educational research, 57(3), 293-336.
Achievement effects of ability grouping in secondary schools: A best-evidence synthesis.
This article reviews research on the effects of ability grouping on the achievement of secondary students.
Slavin, R. E. (1990). Achievement effects of ability grouping in secondary schools: A best-evidence synthesis. Review of educational research, 60(3), 471-499.
Errorless learning: reinforcement contingencies and stimulus control transfer in delayed prompting.
The study investigates if delayed prompting can produce errorless discrimination learning using three schedules of reinforcement to look at the impact of reinforcement probability on transfer of stimulus control.
Touchette, P. E., & Howard, J. S. (1984). Errorless learning: Reinforcement contingencies and stimulus control transfer in delayed prompting. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 17(2), 175-188.
Can Unlike Students Learn Together?: Grade Retention, Tracking, and Grouping.
This book examines the research on three controversial practices in education: homogenous grouping, tracking of students, and retention of students.
Walberg, H. J., Reynolds, A. J., & Wang, M. C. (Eds.). (2004). Can Unlike Students Learn Together?: Grade Retention, Tracking, and Grouping. IAP.
What Education Schools Aren’t Teaching about Reading and What Elementary Teachers Aren’t Learning
This study examines 72 randomly selected education schools teacher preparation-reading courses. Schools were scored on how well their courses presented the core components of the science of reading.
Walsh, K., Glaser, D., & Wilcox, D. D. (2006). What education schools aren't teaching about reading and what Elementary teachers aren't learning. National Council on Teacher Quality.
What Influences Learning? A Content Analysis Of Review Literature.
This is a meta-review and synthesis of the research on the variables related learning.
Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1990). What influences learning? A content analysis of review literature. The Journal of Educational Research, 30-43.
Classroom Design as an External Condition for Learning
This study examines research regarding classroom design, drawing a number of principles for the design and management of classroom space to increase student performance.
Weinstein, C. S. (1981). Classroom Design as an External Condition for Learning. Educational Technology, 21(8), 12-1
Scoping and sequencing educational resources and speech acts: A unified design framework for learning objects and educational discourse.
This paper looks at scope and sequence as essential to effective instruction Instructional.
Wiley, D., & Waters, S. (2005). Scoping and sequencing educational resources and speech acts: A unified design framework for learning objects and educational discourse. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 1(1), 143-150.
Read To Kids, But Not Necessarily From Birth
This commentary is in response to a recent article in the New York Times suggesting parents should read to their children from birth. Willingham examines the research and offers practical suggestions to parents.
Willingham, D. (2014). Read To Kids, But Not Necessarily From Birth. Daniel Willingham Science and Education Blog.
Direct Instruction In Math Word Problems: Students With Learning Disabilities
This study examines the effectiveness of strategy teaching and sequencing practice problems in teaching students with learning disabilities to identify the correct algorithm for solving addition and subtraction word problems.
Wilson, C. L., & Sindelar, P. T. (1991). Direct instruction in math word problems: students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children.
Conditioning independent work behavior in reading with seven-year-old children in a regular early child- hood classroom.
This study examines research on behavior modification techniques in a 2nd grade classroom. The behavior technique utilized was the "Rules, Ignore, Praise" which consists of the practices (a) establishing rule-specific behavior, (b) ignoring inappropriate rule behavior, and (c) immediately praising appropriate behavior.
Yawkey, T. D. (1971). Conditioning independent work behavior in reading with seven-year-old children in a regular early childhood classroom. Child Study Journal.
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