Enhancing Adherence to a Problem Solving Model for Middle-School Pre-Referral Teams: A Performance Feedback and Checklist Approach
This study looks at the use of performance feedback and checklists to improve middle-school teams problem solving.
Bartels, S. M., & Mortenson, B. P. (2006). Enhancing adherence to a problem-solving model for middle-school pre-referral teams: A performance feedback and checklist approach. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 22(1), 109-123.
Do Principals Know Good Teaching When They See It?
This article examines the effectiveness and related issues of current methods of principal evaluation of teachers.
Burns M. (2011). Do Principals Know Good Teaching When They See It?. Educational policy, 19(1), 155-180.
The Long-Term Impacts Of Teachers: Teacher Value-Added And Student Outcomes In Adulthood
This paper examines the issue of efficacy of value-added measures in evaluating teachers. This question is important in understanding whether value-added analysis provides unbiased estimates of teachers’ impact on student achievement and whether these teachers improve long-term student outcomes.
Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood (No. w17699). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans, 2005
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of feedback on treatment integrity for implementing behavior support plans.
Codding, R. S., Feinberg, A. B., Dunn, E. K., & Pace, G. M. (2005). Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(2), 205-219.
Selecting growth measures for school and teacher evaluations: Should proportionality matter?
In this paper we take up the question of model choice and examine three competing approaches. The first approach, (SGPs) framework, eschews all controls for student covariates and schooling environments. The second approach, value-added models (VAMs), controls for student background characteristics and under some conditions can be used to identify the causal effects of schools and teachers. The third approach, also VAM-based, fully levels the playing field so that the correlation between school- and teacher-level growth measures and student demographics is essentially zero. We argue that the third approach is the most desirable for use in educational evaluation systems.
Ehlert, M., Koedel, C., Parsons, E., & Podgursky, M. (2013). Selecting growth measures for school and teacher evaluations: Should proportionality matter?. National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, 21.
Leading for Instructional Improvement: How Successful Leaders Develop Teaching and Learning Expertise
This book shows how principals and other school leaders can develop the skills necessary for teachers to deliver high quality instruction by introducing principals to a five-part model of effective instruction.
Fink, S., & Markholt, A. (2011). Leading for instructional improvement: How successful leaders develop teaching and learning expertise. John Wiley & Sons.
The Power of Feedback
This paper provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement.
Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of educational research, 77(1), 81-112.
Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems
This article discusses the current focus on using teacher observation instruments as part of new teacher evaluation systems being considered and implemented by states and districts. They argue that if these teacher observation instruments are to achieve the goal of supporting teachers in improving instructional practice, they must be subject-specific, involve content experts in the process of observation, and provide information that is both accurate and useful for teachers. They discuss the instruments themselves, raters and system design, and timing of and feedback from the observations.
Hill, H., & Grossman, P. (2013). Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems. Harvard Educational Review, 83(2), 371-384.
Can Principals Identify Effective Teachers? Evidence on Subjective Performance Evaluation in Education
This paper examines how well principals can distinguish between more and less effective teachers. To put principal evaluations in context, we compare them with the traditional determinants of teacher compensation-education and experience-as well as value-added measures of teacher effectiveness.
Jacob, B. A., & Lefgren, L. (2008). Can principals identify effective teachers? Evidence on subjective performance evaluation in education. Journal of Labor Economics, 26(1), 101-136.
Performance Evaluation and Compensation for Public School Principals: Results From a National Survey
This article reports on a national survey designed to learn how school districts are using standards-based leadership evaluation and pay for performance.
Kimball, S. M., Heneman III, H. G., & Milanowski, A. (2007). Performance Evaluation and Compensation for Public School Principals: Results from a National Survey. ERS Spectrum, 25(4), 11-21.
Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts
This study examines implementation of alternative student growth measures in a sample of eight school districts that were early adopters of the measures. It builds on an earlier Region al Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic report that described the two types of alternative student growth measures—alternative assessment–based value-added models and student learning objectives—in the early-adopting districts.
McCullough, M., English, B., Angus, M. H., & Gill, B. (2015). Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts (No. 8a9dfcb1bc6143608448114ea9b69d06). Mathematica Policy Research.
Teacher Merit Pay and Student Test Scores: A Meta-Analysis
Teacher merit pay has garnered significant attention as a promising reform method for improving teacher performance and, more importantly, student achievement scores. This meta-analysis, which examined findings from 44 studies of teacher merit pay, found that merit pay is associated with a modest, statistically significant, positive effect on student test scores. The research also found that not all merit pay programs are equal. The best results are dependent on constructing efforts that incorporate sound, evidence-based practice elements.
Pham, L., Nguyen, T., & Springer, M. (2017). Teacher Merit Pay and Student Test Scores: A Meta-Analysis. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University.
Providing Performance Feedback to Teachers: A Review
This is a literature review of the effect of performance feedback on teacher’s use of practices.
Scheeler, M. C., Ruhl, K. L., & McAfee, J. K. (2004). Providing performance feedback to teachers: A review. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 27(4), 396-407.
Houston ties teachers’ pay to test scores
This report is a look at Houston’s teacher performance pay system.
Blumenthal, R. (2006). Houston ties teachers’ pay to test scores. New York Times, 13.
Who leaves, Teacher attrition and student achievement
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between student achievement and teacher attrition using value-added modeling for teachers in New York City.
Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2007). Who leaves, Teacher attrition and student achievement (Research Report). Albany, NY: Teacher Policy Research.
Measuring the Impacts of Teachers II: Teacher Value-Added and Student Outcomes in Adulthood
This paper examines the issue of the efficacy of valued-added measures in evaluating the effectiveness of teachers and long term impact on student’s lives.
Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (in press II). Measuring the impact of teachers II: Evaluating bias in teacher value-added estimates. American Economic Review.
Pay for Performance: What Are the Issues?
The purpose of this paper is to look at the impact and value of merit pay, performance pay, knowledge and skill-based pay.
Delisio, E. R., (2014). Pay for Performance: What Are the Issues?. Education World
An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year Two Impact Report
Mathematica researchers review 2008-09 data from Chicago schools participating in the Teacher Advancement Program annual bonus system based student achievement.
Glazerman, S., & Seifullah, A. (2010). An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year Two Impact Report. Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
Are public schools really losing their “best”?: Assessing the career transitions of teachers and their implication for the quality of the teacher workforce
The purpose of this paper is to examine attrition and mobility of teachers using teacher value-added measures for early-career teachers in North Carolina public schools from 1996 to 2002. The results suggest the best teachers remain in teaching and stay in high socioeconomic Status and high performing schools.
Goldhaber, D., Gross, B., & Player, D. (2007). Are public schools really losing their “best”?: Assessing the career transitions of teachers and their implication for the quality of the teacher workforce. Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (Working Paper 12). Washington, D.C. Urban Institute. H
Supporting Principals in Implementing Teacher Evaluation Systems
With so much emphasis being placed on improving teacher performance, The National Association of Elementary School Principals and the National Association of Secondary School Principals have developed recommendations to support principals more effectively evaluate teachers.
Grissom, J. A., Loeb, S., & Master, B. (2013). Effective Instructional Time Use for School Leaders: Longitudinal Evidence from Observations of Principals. Educational Researcher, 42(8), 433-444.
Why public schools lose teachers
This paper examines the issue of teacher attrition and the factors that motivate teachers leaving schools. The results indicate that teacher mobility is much more strongly related to characteristics of the student population (race and lower socioeconomic status) and achievement. The study finds salary plays a much smaller role in these decisions.
Hanushek, E., Kain, J., & Rivkin, S. (2004). Why public schools lose teachers. Journal of Human Resources, 39(2), 326-354.
Performance Contracts for Administrators
This paper examines the issues for performance compensation for school principals and other administrators.
Hertling, E. (1999). Performance contracts for administrators.
Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis
This paper investigates organizational characteristics and conditions in schools that drive staffing problems and teacher turnover.
Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534.
Why Schools Have Difficulty Staffing Their Classrooms with Qualified Teachers
This is taken from the testimony of Richard Ingersoll in front the Pennsylvania legislature on the issues of school turnover.
Ingersoll, R. M. (2013). Why Schools Have Difficulty Staffing Their Classrooms with Qualified Teachers. Retrieved October 3, 2014
American Statistical Association’s Recent Position Statement on Value-Added Models (VAMs): Five Points of Contention
These commentaries critiques the work that links teacher value-added models to students’ long-run outcomes.
Interpretation, T. M. Q. Chetty et al. on the American Statistical Association’s Recent Position Statement on Value-Added Models (VAMs): Five Points of Contention.
Do Principals Fire the Worst Teachers?
This paper examines how principals make decisions regarding teacher dismissal. In 2004, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Chicago Teachers Union (CTU) gave principals great flexibility to dismiss probationary teachers for any reason. The study estimates the relative weight that school administrators place on a variety of teacher characteristics and finds evidence that principals do consider teacher absences and value-added measures, along with several demographic characteristics, in determining which teachers to dismiss.
Jacob, B. A. (2010). Do principals fire the worst teachers? (No. w15715). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Toward effective supervision: An operant analysis and comparison of managers at work, 1986
This study finds that performance monitoring is the factor that separated good mangers from ineffective managers.
Komaki, J. L. (1986). Toward effective supervision: An operant analysis and comparison of managers at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(2), 270.
Beyond effective supervision: Identifying key interactions between superior and subordinate
This paper examines the effects of supervision performance monitoring.
Komaki, J. L., & Citera, M. (1990). Beyond effective supervision: Identifying key interactions between superior and subordinate. The Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 91-105.
A National View of Certification of School Principals: Current and Future Trends
This paper focuses on two questions: (a) What patterns in certification currently exist across the states? and (b) What might these current patterns indicate for the future of school principal certification?
LeTendre, B. G., & Roberts, B. (2005). A National view of certification of school principals: Current and future trends. In University Council for Educational Administration, Convention, Nashville, TN. Retrieved October (Vol. 15, p. 2007).
Preparing Principals to Evaluate Teachers, 2011
This paper offers policy makers data on effective ways for teachers to be evaluated by principals.
National Governors Association. (2011) NGA Center for Best Practices
Value Added Modeling: The Challenge of Measuring Educational Outcomes
This paper examines the critical issues that need to be addressed if value-added modeling is to be effectively used in education.
Stewart, B. E. (2006). Value-added modeling: The challenge of measuring educational outcomes. Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Cross-Country Evidence on Teacher Performance Pay
This international study examines the impact of teacher performance pay on student math, science, and reading achievement.
Woessmann, L. (2011). Cross-country evidence on teacher performance pay. Economics of Education Review, 30(3), 404-418.
Pay-for-Performance: Key Questions and Lessons from Five Current Models (2001)
This paper issued by the Education Commission of the States offers an overview of the key issues involved in the pay-for-performance concept
Wyman, W., & Allen, M. (2001). Pay-for-performance: Key questions and lessons from five current models. Education Commission of the States (ECS) Issue Paper, 2830.