Quality Leadership

All Research

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CITATION
Evaluating Principals: Balancing Accountability with Professional Growth
The goal of this paper is to provide policymakers with recommendations for the design and implementation of strong principal development and evaluation systems. States and local school systems that pursue these ideas can use principal evaluation to drive a powerful vision of principal effectiveness and, by consequence, improve outcomes for all students.
(2010). Evaluating Principals: Balancing Accountability with Professional Growth. New Leaders for New Schools.
Principal Evaluation Handbook
New Leaders has recently published a new principal evaluation model. It includes seven modules: (1) Overview of the New Leaders Principal Evaluation Model, (2) The Principal Evaluation Rubric, (3) Setting a Principal Practice Goal + Strategic Planning, (4) Identifying Evidence, (5) Direct Observation of Principal Practice, (6) Collecting and Mapping Evidence to the Principal Practice Rubric, and (7) Providing Actionable Feedback.
(2012). Principal Evaluation Handbook. New Leaders
Putting Principal Evaluation into Practice
Overview New Leaders has recently published a new principal evaluation model. It includes seven modules: (1) Overview of the New Leaders Principal Evaluation Model, (2) The Principal Evaluation Rubric, (3) Setting a Principal Practice Goal + Strategic Planning, (4) Identifying Evidence, (5) Direct Observation of Principal Practice, (6) Collecting and Mapping Evidence to the Principal Practice Rubric, and (7) Providing Actionable Feedback.
(2012). Putting Principal Evaluation into Practice. New Leaders
Principal Evaluation Rubric
Overview New Leaders has recently published a new principal evaluation model. It includes seven modules: (1) Overview of the New Leaders Principal Evaluation Model, (2) The Principal Evaluation Rubric, (3) Setting a Principal Practice Goal + Strategic Planning, (4) Identifying Evidence, (5) Direct Observation of Principal Practice, (6) Collecting and Mapping Evidence to the Principal Practice Rubric, and (7) Providing Actionable Feedback.
(2012). Putting Principal Evaluation into Practice. New Leaders
Preparing School Leaders for a Changing World: Lessons from Exemplary Leadership Development Programs, 2007
The report is a study on the essential skills of good leadership, key features and structures of effective principal education programs and successful financing strategies.
Preparing school leaders for a changing world: Lessons from exemplary leadership development programs: Executive summary. Stanford Educational Leadership Institute, 2007.
A New Approach to Principal Preparation: Innovative Programs Share Their Practices and Lessons Learned

This paper examines a number of promising principal preparation programs to identify lessons for improving the impact of principals on student perrmance.

A new approach to principal preparation: Innovative programs share their practices and lessons learned. Rainwater Leadership Alliance, 2010.

Obtaining Validation from Graduates on a Restructured Principal Preparation Program

This study used within-program comparison of follow-up survey responses from two sets of program graduates from a university-based leadership preparation program to determine differences in program features and outcome measures.

Ballenger, J., Alford, B., McCune, S. L., & McCune, E. D. (2010). Obtaining validation from graduates on a restructured principal preparation program. Jsl Vol 19-N5, 19 533.

Stepping stones: Principal career paths and school outcomes

This study examines the detrimental impact of principal turnover, including lower teacher retention and lower student achievement. Particularly hard hit are high poverty schools, which often lose principals at a higher rate as they transition to lower poverty, higher student achievement schools.

Beteille, T., Kalogrides, D., & Loeb, S. (2012). Stepping stones: Principal career paths and school outcomes. Social Science Research, 41(4), 904-919.

Progress Over a Decade in Preparing More Effective School Principals

Over the past 10 years, the Southern Regional Education Board has helped states and public universities across the region evaluate their state policies for preparing school principals who are leaders of instruction. This benchmark report reviews the past decade and looks at 10 learning-centered leadership indicators to gauge how far states have come and how far they need to go in selecting, preparing and supporting leaders of change.

Bottoms, G., Egelson, P., & Bussey, L. H. (2012). Progress over a decade in preparing more effective school principals. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.

An Analysis of Principal Preparation Programs at Pennsylvania State Schools

This study examined principal preparation programs within the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education to ascertain whether their programs were structured in a way that would equip principal candidates with the leadership roles deemed essential for 21st century school leadership.

Burks, Karlin. (2014). An Analysis of Principal Preparation Programs at Pennsylvania State Schools. Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs) Paper 1934.

BURIED TREASURE: Developing a Management Guide From Mountains of School Data

This report provides a practical “management guide,” for an evidence-based key indicator data decision system for school districts and schools.

Celio, M. B., & Harvey, J. (2005). Buried Treasure: Developing A Management Guide From Mountains of School Data. Center on Reinventing Public Education.

The Effectiveness of Principal Training and Formal Principal Mentoring Programs

The purpose of this study was to determine principals' perceptions of how effective mentoring programs and university-based principal preparation programs are in developing the skills necessary to carry out the 13 critical success factors identified by the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). A review of the literature addressed what it means to be an effective principal and what an effective mentoring program should look like.

Dodson, R. B. (2006). The Effectiveness of Principal Training and Formal Principal Mentoring Programs.

The Principal Internship: How Can We Get It Right?

In this report, the Southern Regional Education Board evaluates some 60 internship programs within its states and finds them lacking in a number of ways, including failing to provide real experiences in leadership. It urges policymakers, universities and school districts to create apprenticeships that better prepare aspiring principals for the demands they will face.

Fry, B., Bottoms, G., & O’neill, K. (2005). The principal internship: How can we get it right. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.

The Evaluation of Principals: What and How do States and Urban Districts Assess Leadership?

This study present results of a comprehensive review of principal leadership assessment practices in the United States. Using the learning-centered leadership framework, it focused on identifying the congruence (or lack thereof) between documented assessment practices and the research-based criteria for effective leadership that are associated with improved school performance.

Goldring, E., Cravens, X. C., Murphy, J., Porter, A. C., Elliott, S. N., & Carson, B. (2009). The evaluation of principals: What and how do states and urban districts assess leadership?. The Elementary School Journal, 110(1), 19-39

Assessing Learning-Centered Leadership: Connections to Research, Professional Standards, and Current Practices

With support from The Wallace Foundation, a Vanderbilt University team is developing a tool to monitor and assess the performance of school leaders. The Vanderbilt assessment will differ from existing tools by focusing 100 percent on instructional leadership and examining both principals and leadership teams. The paper, with two companion reports, presents the research behind and conceptual framework for the tool.

Goldring, E., Porter, A., Murphy, J., Elliott, S. N., & Cravens, X. (2009). Assessing learning-centered leadership: Connections to research, professional standards, and current practices. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 8(1), 1-36.

Triangulating Principal Effectiveness: How Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and Assistant Principals Identify the Central Importance of Managerial Skills

This study draws on data combining survey responses from principals, assistant principals, teachers and parents with administrative data to identify which principal skills matter most for school outcomes.

Grissom, J. A., & Loeb, S. (2011). Triangulating Principal Effectiveness How Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and Assistant Principals Identify the Central Importance of Managerial Skills. American Educational Research Journal, 48(5), 1091-1123.

Teacher and Principal Leadership in Chicago- Ongoing Analysis of Preparation Programs

This study draws on a range of existing quantitative data resources, including Chicago Public Schools' personnel and test score data, and a biannual survey of teachers and principals to

Hart, H. M., Sporte, S. E., Ponisciak, S. M., Stevens, W., & Cambronne, A. (2008). Teacher and Principal Leadership in Chicago: Ongoing Analyses of Preparation Programs. Research Report. Consortium on Chicago School Research.

Great Principals at Scale: Creating Districts That Enable All Principals to be Effective

This report is a comprehensive and research-based framework outlining the conditions necessary for transformational school leaders to succeed. It offers a framework of conditions that can help districts enable great school leadership.

Ikemoto, G., Taliaferro, L., Fenton, B., Davis, J. (2014)Great Principals at Scale: Creating Districts That Enable All Principals to be Effective. New Leaders

Trends in GRE Scores in Education Administration: Implications for Principal Preparation Programs

This report examines the issue of school principal candidate standards as evidenced by below-average verbal, quantitative, and analytic scores, as measured by standardized tests.

Keedy, J. L., & Grandy, J. (1999). Trends in GRE Scores in Education Administration: Implications for Principal Preparation Programs.  Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED436828.pdf

The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, a Meta-Analysis, and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory

This meta-analysis of feedback interventions improved performance on average (d ?=?.41).

Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: a historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological bulletin, 119(2), 254.

10 Big Ideas Of School Leadership.

In this article Middle school principal Mike McCarthy shares 30 years of wisdom on how to run a school well.

McCarthy, M. and Baron, K. (2010). 10 Big Ideas Of School Leadership. Edutopia.

Taking Charge of Principal Preparation-A Guide to NYC Leadership Academy's Aspiring Principals Program

This report provides an overview of NYCLA’s flagship principal preparation program. Intended to help others involved in principal preparation think through important elements of principal preparation, including candidate selection, developing experiential learning opportunities, and funding, staffing and sustaining the program, the guide shares NYCLA’s successes and lessons learned during the 11 years we have delivered the Aspiring Principals Program in New York City, as well as through our work with various state and district partners nationally to adapt the program.

NYC Leadership Academy (2014). Taking Charge of Principal Preparation-A Guide to NYC Leadership Academy's Aspiring Principals Program.  Retrieved from http://www.nycleadershipacademy.org/news-and-resources/tools-and-publications/pdfs/app-guide-full-guide.

Shifting Paradigms-Redesigning a Principal Preparation Program's Curriculum

This paper describes Auburn University's story of developing an innovative field-based master's level principal preparation program. The program’s goal was to align the program's curriculum and internship experiences with state and other accrediting agency standards, current leadership preparation research, and local educational agency (LEA) partner input and support. 0

Reames, E. (2010). Shifting Paradigms: Redesigning a Principal Preparation Program's Curriculum. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 5, 436-459.

Assessing Educational Leaders: Evaluating Performance for Improved Individual and Organizational Results

This book presents information and tools necessary to successfully evaluate all types of educational leaders and improve both individual and organizational performance.

Reeves, D. B. (Ed.). (2008). Assessing educational leaders: Evaluating performance for improved individual and organizational results. SAGE.

The Impact of Leadership On Student Outcomes: an Analysis Of The Differential Effects Of Leadership Types

The purpose of this study is to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on students’ academic and nonacademic outcomes.

Robinson, V. M., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational administration quarterly.

Is there such a thing as “evidence-based management”?

Using evidence-based medicine as an exemplar, identifies the prevailing “research-practice gap”–the failure of organizations and managers to base practices on best available evidence.

Rousseau, D. M. (2006). Is there such a thing as “evidence-based management”?. Academy of Management Review, 31(2), 256-269.

Providing Performance Feedback to Teachers: A Review

This is a literature review of the effect of performance feedback on teacher’s use of practices.

Scheeler, M. C., Ruhl, K. L., & McAfee, J. K. (2004). Providing performance feedback to teachers: A review. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 27(4), 396-407.

What Makes A Leadership Preparation Program Exemplary

In this report, the Southern Regional Education Board outlines critical actions that states, districts, universities and principals themselves should take as part of a systematic plan to address principal succession. The report makes the case for principal succession planning and describes six steps for succession planning that states and districts can implement to ensure they have the right principals for the job.

Schmidt-Davis, J., & Bottoms, G. (2011). Who's Next? Let's Stop Gambling on School Performance and Plan for Principal Succession. Southern Regional Education Board (SREB).

Lean on Me: Peer Mentoring for Novice Principals

This study focuses on the experiences of ten novice principals involved in a principal mentoring program in a large urban school district to examine the connections of theory and practice from training received in their administrative preparation program. It sought to understand the impact of receiving support and mentoring in retaining principals. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) the importance of networking with other principals, (2) individualized support with mentors, and (3) continuous development and professional growth. The research presented will contribute to the agenda of retaining quality administrators in the field.

Simieou, F., Decman, J., Grigsby, B., & Schumacher, G. (2010). Lean on me: Peer mentoring for novice principals. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 5(1), 1-9.

The New York City Aspiring Principals Program-A School-Level Evaluation

This report represents the first systematic comparison of student outcomes in schools led by the Aspiring Principals Program (APP) graduates after three years to those in comparable schools led by other new principals.

Weinstein, M., Schwartz, A. E., & Corcoran, S. P. (2009). The New York City Aspiring Principals Program: A School-Level Evaluation. NYU Wagner Research Paper, (2011-07).

The Performance Architect’s Essential: Guide to the Performance Technology Landscape
This book examines human performance technology: a systematic approach to improving individual and organizational performance.
Addison, R. M., & Haig, C. (2006). The performance architect's essential guide to the performance technology landscape. Performance Improvement, 45(10), 38-47.
A Model Of School Success: Instructional Leadership, Academic Press, And Student Achievement
The paper is a synthesis of the literature on instructional leadership. From this research the author develops and tests a framework and proposed measures to assess instructional leadership.
Alig-Mielcarek, J. M. (2003). A model of school success: Instructional leadership, academic press, and student achievement (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University).
Master Template for Empirical Studies - ISLLC Standards Research Panel, 2011
This is a summary of studies on the issue of standards for Principals
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (2011). Master Template for Empirical Studies - ISLLC Standards Research Panel, 2011.
Enhancing Leadership Quality
This report is designed as a guide for school leaders in strategies for leading change and it includes extensive professional development and ongoing coaching support for administrators and teacher-leaders.
Bartenschlag, A., & Funk, B. (2013). Enhancing Leadership Quality.
The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation
A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature.
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological bulletin, 117(3), 497.
The 15 Secrets to Effective Leadership and Life Based on Legendary Coach John Wooden's Pyramid of Success
A book on effective leadership skills based upon the career of Coach John Wooden.
Biro, B. D. (2001). Beyond Success: The 15 Secrets to Effective Leadership and Life Based on Legendary Coach John Wooden's Pyramid of Success. Penguin.
Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look
The Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary School Principals in the United States is a subsection of the NCES 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). It provides descriptive statistics on K-12 school principals in areas such as: race, gender, education level, salary, experience, and working conditions
Bitterman, A., Goldring, R., Gray, L., Broughman, S. (2014).Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States:Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look. IES, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
Impacts of New Leaders on Student Achievement in Oakland
This report presents our examination of impacts of principals trained by New Leaders on student achievement in Oakland Unified School District (OUSD). For the last 10 years, New Leaders has partnered with OUSD in efforts to improve the recruitment and training of effective principals and school leaders. This report fills an important gap in the literature, as little research has been done looking at the impacts of principal training programs on student achievement.
Booker, K., Thomas, J. (2014). Impacts of New Leaders on Student Achievement in Oakland. Mathematica Policty Research
The influence of school administrators on teacher retention decisions
This article explores the relationship between school contextual factors and teacher retention decisions in New York City and finds that school administration by far has the greatest influence on teacher retention.
Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Ing, M., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2011). The influence of school administrators on teacher retention decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 48(2), 303-333.
Active Supervision: Study Guide
This study guide is designed to assist educators in the effective implementation of the practice of “Active Supervision”.
Brackett, S. (2010). Active Supervision: Study Guide. Education Consumers Foundation.
Estimating the Effect of Leaders on Public Sector Productivity: The Case of School Principals
This paper looks at key elements effective school principal leadership and the impact of principal mobility on student achievement.
Branch, G. F., Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2012). Estimating the effect of leaders on public sector productivity: The case of school principals (No. w17803). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Evaluating Efforts To Improve School Leadership: Challenges And Recommendations
This paper examines leadership in relationship to school reform. It finds that time is needed to allow leadership interventions to mature and the importance of using multiple measures to evaluate improvement initiatives.
Burkhauser, S. (2012). Evaluating Efforts To Improve School Leadership: Challenges And Recommendations. The Rand Corporation.
Addressing Challenges in Evaluating School Principal Improvement Efforts
This report describes the challenges states, districts, and other entities encounter as they evaluate school reform.
Burkhauser, S., Pierson, A., Gates, S., and Hamilton, L. (2012) Assessing the Relationship Between Administrator Preparation Programs and Job Performance. Rand Corporation.
Why Education Experts Resist Effective Practices (And What It Would Take to Make Education More Like Medicine)
This paper examines the phenomena of education experts dispensing unproven methods and flitting from one fad to another and describes how they, for ideological reasons, have shunned solutions with robust evidence of efficacy.
Carnine, D. (2000). Why Education Experts Resist Effective Practices (And What It Would Take To Make Education More Like Medicine).
Structuring the collaboration of science and service in pursuit of a shared vision
This article presents ideas and examples of methods that could preserve the strengths of the two major paradigms in children's mental health, evidence-based treatments and individualized care models.
Chorpita, B. F., & Daleiden, E. L. (2014). Structuring the collaboration of science and service in pursuit of a shared vision. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43(2), 323-338.
Strong Leaders, Strong Achievement: Model Policy For Producing The Leaders To Drive Student Success
This brief looks at research that supports principals improve student achievement. It provides recommendations for principal preparation, licensure, professional development, evaluation, and skills for working with school boards.
Christie, K., Thompson, B., and Whiteley, G. (2009). Strong Leaders, Strong Achievement: Model Policy For Producing The Leaders To Drive Student Success. Education Commission of the States.
School Principals and School Performance
This paper uses data from New York City to estimate how the characteristics of school principals relate to school performance, as measured by students' standardized exam scores and other outcomes. There is little evidence of any relationship between school performance and principal education and pre-principal work experience, but some evidence that experience as an assistant principal at the principal's current school is associated with higher performance among inexperienced principals.
Clark, D., Martorell, P., & Rockoff, J. (2009). School Principals and School Performance. Working Paper 38. National Center for Analysis of longitudinal data in Education research.
Using Observational Data to Provide Performance Feedback to Teachers: A High School Case Study
This study provides promising information of effectiveness of classroom observation and performance feedback on 3 key variables: classroom instructional settings, instructional practice, and classroom student behavior.
Colvin, G., Flannery, K. B., Sugai, G., & Monegan, J. (2009). Using observational data to provide performance feedback to teachers: A high school case study. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 53(2), 95-104.
Measuring Principal Performance: How Rigorous Are Commonly Used Principal Performance Assessment Instruments?
This study reviewed eight publicly available formative assessments of principal performance, focusing on the tool’s approach, time requirement, content and construct validity, and reliability.
Condon, C., & Clifford, M. (2010). Measuring Principal Performance: How Rigorous Are Commonly Used Principal Performance Assessment Instruments? A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief. Learning Point Associates.
The Effect of Principal Leadership on Teachers’ Perceptions of Working Conditions
The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine the effect of principal leadership on teachers’ perceptions of working conditions.
Cooper, J. B., Saurino, D. R., Johnson, D. N., & Knighton, L. R. The Effect of Principal Leadership on Teachers’ Perceptions of Working Conditions.
Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals In The United States.
This report presents findings from the school teacher data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey that is designed to assist policy makers and educators better understand the role and impact of school principals.
Coopersmith, J. (2009). Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look. NCES 2009-324. National Center for Education Statistics.
State Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of School Principals
This report examines the implications school research for policy and practice at the district level. It focuses on the critical role played by the superintendent and by district-level policies in school improvement.
Cuban, L. (1984). Transforming the frog into a prince: Effective schools research, policy, and practice at the district level. Harvard Educational Review, 54(2), 129-152.
The Nature of Leadership Development
This book provides insight into the streams that are driving leadership theory and practice today. The Nature of Leadership, Second Edition provides students with an updated and complete yet concise handbook that solidifies and integrates the vast and disparate leadership literature.
Day, D., Antonakis, J. (2012). The Nature of Leadership. SAGE.
Education Leadership: A Bridge to School Reform
This report describes how Denver Public Schools hired people to coach and evaluate its principals.
DeVita, M., Colvin, R., Darling-Hammond, L., Haycock, K. (2007). Education Leadership: A Bridge to School Reform. The Wallace Foundation.
Lacking Leaders: The Challenges Of Principal Recruitment, Selection, And Placement
This paper studies five urban school districts to examine the impact of recruitment and hiring of effective leaders and the impact this has on the performance of the five schools.
Doyle. D. and Locke, G. (2014). Lacking Leaders: The Challenges Of Principal Recruitment, Selection, And Placement. Thomas Fordham Institute.
Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance
This study examines the need to ensure integrity of intervention as part of a team decision making process in the implementing an RtI model.
Duhon, G. J., Mesmer, E. M., Gregerson, L., & Witt, J. C. (2009). Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance. Journal of School Psychology, 47(1), 19-37.
Exploring the Complex Interaction Between Governance and Knowledge in Education
This review of research in public management, political science and public policy, sociology, institutional economics, and organizational management identifies how governance and knowledge impact each other in education systems.
Fazekas, M., & Burns, T. (2012). Exploring the complex interaction between governance and knowledge in education.
Preparing Principals to Raise Student Achievement: Implementation and Effects of the New Leaders Program in Ten Districts
New Leaders is a nonprofit organization with a mission to ensure high academic achievement for all students by developing outstanding school leaders to serve in urban schools. This report describes how the New Leaders program was implemented in partner districts, and it provides evidence of the effect that New Leaders has on student achievement.
Gates, S., Burkhauser, S., Baird, M., Lavery, D. (2014). Preparing Principals to Raise Student Achievement: Implementation and Effects of the New Leaders Program in Ten Districts. Rand Corporation
Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention
This study examines the treatment integrity of teachers’ implementation of a peer tutoring intervention for five elementary students referred for consultation.
Gilbertson, D., Witt, J. C., Singletary, L. L., & VanDerHeyden, A. (2007). Supporting teacher use of interventions: Effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16(4), 311-326.
We Need You To Lead Us.
This book examines the importance of cultural groupings on human beliefs and practices.
Godin, S. (2008). Tribes: We need you to lead us. Penguin.
Principal Attrition and Mobility: Results From the 2012-13 Principal Follow-up Survey, First Look.
The 2012-13 Principal Follow-up Survey (PFS) is a nationally representative sample survey of public and private K-12 schools in the 50 states and District of Columbia. It provides data on principal attrition and mobility in the context of principal demographics, school governance (public, charter, private), school characteristics etc. It is also a five-year follow-up to the 2008-09 Principal Follow-up Survey.
Goldring, R., Taie, S., Owens, C. (2014). Principal Attrition and Mobility: Results From the 2012-13 Principal Follow-up Survey, First Look. IES, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
Are Principals Good at Identifying Effective Teachers? A Comparison of Teachers’ Principal Ratings and Residual Gain on Standardized Tests
This study tries to answer the question: Are principals good at identifying effective teachers? It looks at the relation between principals' identification of effective teachers and student scores from the Measures of Academic Progress (MAP), a computer-adaptive test for reading, mathematics, and language usage.
Gray, J. J. (2010). Are Principals Good at Identifying Effective Teachers? A Comparison of Teachers' Principal Ratings and Residual Gain on Standardized Tests.
Leading educational change: Reflections on the practice of instructional and transformational leadership
This article reviews the conceptual and empirical development of two leadership models: instructional leadership and transformational leadership.
Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading educational change: Reflections on the practice of instructional and transformational leadership. Cambridge Journal of education, 33(3), 329-352.
The School Principal As Leader: Guiding Schools To Better Teaching And Learning
This Wallace paper summarizes a decade of the foundation’s research in school leadership to identify five critical roles for school principals to be effective.
Harvey, J., et al. (2013). The School Principal As Leader: Guiding Schools To Better Teaching And Learning. The Wallace Foundation.
The Power of Feedback
This paper provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement.
Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of educational research, 77(1), 81-112.
An Innovative Look, a Recalcitrant Reality: The Politics of Principal Preparation Reform
This paper discusses how principal preparation programs can more effectively recruit and prepare future leaders in schools.
Hess, F. M., & Kelly, A. P. (2005). An innovative look, a recalcitrant reality: The politics of principal preparation reform. Educational policy, 19(1), 155-180.
Principal's Time Use And School Effectiveness
This paper conducts a time-use analysis of data gathered from observing high school principals in Miami-Dade County Public Schools.
Horng, E. L., Klasik, D., & Loeb, S. (2010). Principal's time use and school effectiveness. American Journal of Education, 116(4), 491-523.
School Turnaround Leaders: Competencies for Success
This paper examines competencies of effective turnaround leaders.
Impact, P. (2008). School turnaround leaders: Competencies for success. Chapel Hill, NC: Author. Retrieved August, 30, 2009.
From Policy Into Practice: The Effects of Principal Preparation Programs on Principal Behavior
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of principals who have undergone administrative training compared to those who have not. then reviews the potential impact of the new policy on principal training in Turkey and the literature regarding the effects of principal training programs.
Isik, H. (2003). From policy into practice: the effects of principal preparation programs on principal behavior. International Journal of Educational Reform, 12(4), 260-274.
Assessing the Promise of Standards-Based Performance Evaluation for Principals: Results from a Randomized Trial
This randomized controlled study examines the effects of feedback and principal job satisfaction.
Kimball, S. M., Milanowski, A., & McKinney, S. A. (2009). Assessing the promise of standards-based performance evaluation for principals: Results from a randomized trial. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 8(3), 233-263.
Beyond effective supervision: Identifying key interactions between superior and subordinate
This paper examines the effects of supervision performance monitoring.
Komaki, J. L., & Citera, M. (1990). Beyond effective supervision: Identifying key interactions between superior and subordinate. The Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 91-105.
Development of an operant-based taxonomy and observational index of supervisory behavior, 1986
This paper provides a taxonomy and observational instrument for seven categories of supervisory behavior.
Komaki, J. L., Zlotnick, S., & Jensen, M. (1986). Development of an operant-based taxonomy and observational index of supervisory behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(2), 260.
Importing leaders for school turnarounds: Lessons and opportunities.
This paper looks at when and how organizations in other sectors import leaders: including how they tempt people away, train them, and foster their success for guiding reform in failing schools.
Kowal, J., & Hassel, E. A. (2011). Importing Leaders for School Turnarounds: Lessons and Opportunities. Public Impact.
Timing of Feedback and Verbal Learning
A meta-analysis of findings on feedback timing and human verbal learning showed that applied studies using actual classroom quizzes and real learning materials have found immediate feedback to be more effective than delayed.
Kulik, J. A., & Kulik, C. L. C. (1988). Timing of feedback and verbal learning. Review of Educational Research, 58(1), 79-97.
School Leadership: Study Developing Successful Principals
This report is designed to identify the essential elements of good leadership and how successful leadership development programs should be designed.
LaPointe, M., Davis, S., & Cohen, C. (2006). School leadership study: Developing successful principals.
Seven Strong Claims About Successful School Leadership
This paper is an overview of the literature concerning successful school leadership. The purpose of this review is to summarize the empirical studies of leadership.
Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2008). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership. School leadership and management, 28(1), 27-42.
Learning from Leadership Project: Review of research How leadership influences student learning
This report examines the evidence on: How leadership matters and how important those effects are in promoting the learning of all children.
Leithwood, K., Seashore Louis, K., Anderson, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). Review of research: How leadership influences student learning.
Educating School Leaders
This report offers an analysis of the university-based programs that educate the nation's school principals and superintendents.
Levine, A., (2005). Educating School Leaders. The Education Schools Project
Principal Time-Use and School Effectiveness
This paper examines the relationship between the time principals spent on different types of activities and school outcomes including student achievement, teacher and parent assessments of the school, and teacher satisfaction.
Loeb, S. (2010). Principal Time-Use and School Effectiveness.
Principal Preferences and the Uneven Distribution of Principals Across Schools
The authors use longitudinal data from one large school district to investigate the distribution of principals across schools. They find that schools serving many low-income, non-White, and low-achieving students have principals who have less experience and less education and who attended less selective colleges. This distribution of principals is partially driven by the initial match of first-time principals to schools, and it is exacerbated by systematic attrition and transfer away from these schools.
Loeb, S., Kalogrides, D., & Horng, E. L. (2010). Principal preferences and the uneven distribution of principals across schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 32(2), 205-229.
A Theoretical Framework for Data-Driven Decision Making
The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for more effective data-driven decision making in classrooms, schools, and districts.
Mandinach, E. B., Honey, M., & Light, D. (2006, April). A theoretical framework for data-driven decision making. In annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
Recasting Leadership Development
This paper evolved from an invited address, “Lessons of My Experience: Three Decades of Exploring Leadership Development,” to the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology in April of 2009 as recipient of the 2008 Distinguished Professional Contributions Award.
McCALL, M. W. (2010). Recasting leadership development. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3(1), 3-19.
Do Local-Level Principal Preparation Programs Prevent Principal Turnover
This study applies multinomial logistic regression to a sample of 5,000 public school principals from the 2008-2009 National Schools and Staffing Principal Follow-up Survey. It examines the impact of school- or district-level principal pre-service training programs on three possible principal turnover outcomes: principals staying in the same school, moving to become principal of another school, or leaving the principal profession.
McKibben, S. (2013) Do Local-Level Principal Preparation Programs Prevent Principal Turnover?. The Public Purpose, Vol. XI
Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools-Teacher Access, Supports and Use
This paper documents education data systems and data-informed decision making in districts and schools. It examines implementation and the practices involving the use of data to improve instruction.
Means, B., Padilla, C., DeBarger, A., & Bakia, M. (2009). Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools: Teacher Access, Supports and Use. US Department of Education.
The Effective Principal
This is an examination of a decade of Wallace Foundation research highlighting five principal practices important for effective principal leadership.
Mendels, P., (2012). Education Leadership: A Bridge to School Reform. Learning Forward.
Principal Turnover, Student Achievement and Teacher Retention
This study uses twelve years of administrative data from North Carolina to examine the impact of school principals on school quality. The study finds that principal departures are followed by a decrease in a school’s performance. The following two years after a principal departs reveals increased teacher turnover and additional slippage in a school’s performance. It is only after this period that schools begin to return to pre-turnover levels.
Miller, A. (2009). Principal turnover, student achievement and teacher retention. Unpublished manuscript, Princeton University.
School, Teacher, and Leadership Impacts on Student Achievement
This brief is a meta-analyses of quantitative research on teacher, school, and leadership practices.
Miller, K. (2003). School, teacher, and leadership impacts on student achievement. Policy Briefs. Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning. Leadership for School Improvement, Aurora, Colorado.
The Making of the Principal-Five Lessons in Leadership Training
This Wallace Perspective plumbs foundation research and work in school leadership to identify five lessons for better training, including: more selective admission to training programs, a focus on instructional leadership and mentoring for new principals.
Mitgang, L. (2012). The Making of the Principal: Five Lessons in Leadership Training. Perspective. Wallace Foundation.
The Use of Weekly Performance Feedback to Increase Teacher Implementation of a Pre-referral Academic Intervention
This study investigates the effects of performance feedback on the implementation of a reinforcer-based classroom intervention.
Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review.
Research on School Leadership Preparation in the United States: an Analysis
This article addresses the work on rethinking the preparatory function in school administration in the US in a number of ways (e.g., unpacking the larger environmental forces that are fueling the turmoil in school administration). More recently, the field has turned our attention to the question of how research on the preparation of school leaders can inform efforts to strengthen the preparatory function. It summarize that work herein.
Murphy, J., & Vriesenga, M. (2006). Research on school leadership preparation in the United States: An analysis. School Leadership and Management, 26(2), 183-195.
Bumping HR: Giving Principals More Say Over Staffing
This policy paper looks at the problems associated with school principal’s lack of authority over hiring of personnel and what districts and state legislatures can do differently to provide greater principal autonomy over school staffing.
National Council on Teacher Quality (2010). Bumping HR: Giving Principals More Say Over Staffing. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey: Principal Working Conditions
This research brief examines the results from the North Carolina working conditions survey of 2,100 principals who were asked questions both about the working conditions as school leaders.
New Teacher Center (2010). North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey: Principal Working Conditions. New Teacher Center. Retrieved October 9, 2014 from http://2012.ncteachingconditions.org/sites/default/files/attachments/NC10_brief_Principals.pdf
How leadership matters: The effects of leaders' alignment on strategy implementation
This report focuses on how the consistency of leadership effectiveness across hierarchical levels influenced the implementation of a strategic initiative in a large health care system.
O'Reilly, C. A., Caldwell, D. F., Chatman, J. A., Lapiz, M., & Self, W. (2010). How leadership matters: The effects of leaders' alignment on strategy implementation. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(1), 104-113.
Strategic Management of Human Capital in Public Education
This paper examines the issues involved and impact of effective management of human capital: the acquisition, development, performance management and retention of top talent in in school systems.
Odden, A. R., Kelly, J. R., & CO-DIRECTORS, S. M. H. C. (2008). Strategic management of human capital in public education. Madison, WI: Consortium for Policy Research in Education. Retrieved January, 5, 2010.
Districts Developing Leaders: Lessons on Consumer Actions and Program Approaches from Eight Urban Districts
This report examines efforts in eight Wallace-supported school districts to revamp university principal-training programs. It finds that districts can influence leader training by acting like “discerning customers” who clearly describe to training programs the principal capabilities they are in the market for.
Orr, M. T., King, C., & LaPointe, M. (2010). Districts Developing Leaders: Lessons on Consumer Actions and Program Approaches from Eight Urban Districts. Education Development Center, Inc.
Research on Leadership Education as a Reform Strategy
This report exams leadership preparation as a method for education reform.
Orr, M., (2006). Research on Leadership Education as a Reform Strategy. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, v1 n1
The Attributes and Career Paths of Principals: Implications for Improving Policy
This paper examines the attributes and career paths of New York States principals. It found that many of the commonly held beliefs about principals are supported by a systematic examination of the data. In other cases, we find that some widely held beliefs about principals are more myth than fact.
Papa, F. C., Lankford, H., & Wyckoff, J. (2002). The attributes and career paths of principals: Implications for improving policy. Teacher Policy Research Center.
Evidence-Based Management
This book examines how managers too often rely on obsolete never proven knowledge to manage and supervise.
Pfeffer, J., & Sutton, R. I. (2006). Evidence-based management. Harvard business review, 84(1), 62.
Improving School Leadership
This international study examines what leadership roles are most effective in improving student learning.
Pont, B., Nusche, D., and Moorman, H. (2010). Improving School Leadership: Volume 1 Policy and Practice. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
Assessing Learning-Centered Leadership: Connections to Research, Professional Standards, and Current Practices
Research shows that most assessments of school leaders are ineffective in gauging how leaders are - or are not - promoting learning. This Wallace Perspective describes a possible new direction, highlights new assessment instruments and discusses unknowns in using assessments to improve leadership and benefit students.
Portin, B. S. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of school leaders: New directions and new processes. The Wallace Foundation
MAKING SENSE OF LEADING SCHOOLS A Study of the School Principalship
The purpose of this paper is to identify common roles played by principals, how these roles differ across types of schools, and finally, how effectively are preparation programs training principals in these roles.
Portin, B., Schneider, P., DeArmond, M., & Gundlach, L. (2003). Making sense of leading schools. A National Study of the Principalship. Center of Reinventing Public Education. Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs. University of Washington. Seattle, WA.
What Do Effective Principals Do?
This report discusses practices that have been identified in research as being linked to effective principals.
Protheroe, N. (2011). What Do Effective Principals Do?. Principal, 90(5), 26-30.
Estimating Principal Effectiveness
This paper looks at key issues regarding the impact of school principals in the state of Texas. It finds that principals prefer schools with higher income students, higher achieving students, and fewer minority students. The report also finds small but significant impact of a principal on student’s achievement.
Rivkin, S. (2010). Estimating Principal Effectiveness.
School Leadership And Student Outcomes: Identifying What Works and Why
This paper is a synthesis of the evidence-base on school leadership and its impact on student performance.
Robinson, V. M. (2007). School leadership and student outcomes: Identifying what works and why (Vol. 41). Winmalee, Victoria, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Leaders.
Effects of Verbal and Graphic Performance Feedback on Behavior Support Plan Implementation in a Public Elementary School
This study compares the effects of verbal performance feedback and verbal plus graphic performance feedback on implementation of a student-specific behavior support plan at an elementary school.
Sanetti, L. M. H., Luiselli, J. K., & Handler, M. W. (2007). Effects of verbal and graphic performance feedback on behavior support plan implementation in a public elementary school. Behavior Modification, 31(4), 454-465.
In School Leadership Effects Revisited
This study looks at school leadership and presents results of meta-analyses of leadership effects.
Scheerens, J. (2012). Summary and conclusion: Instructional Leadership in schools as loosely coupled organizations. In School Leadership Effects Revisited (pp. 131-152). Springer Netherlands.
Summary and conclusion: Instructional Leadership in schools as loosely coupled organizations
The study looks at school leadership and presents results of meta-analyses of leadership effects.
Scheerens, J. (2012). Summary and conclusion: Instructional Leadership in schools as loosely coupled organizations. In School Leadership Effects Revisited (pp. 131-152). Springer Netherlands.
PREPARING AND SUPPORTING SCHOOL LEADERS: The Importance of Assessment and Evaluation
This leadership brief distills conversations by participants gleaned from experience in the field.
School Leadership Learning Community (SLLC). (2004). PREPARING AND SUPPORTING SCHOOL LEADERS: The Importance of Assessment and Evaluation. Institute for Educational Leadership
Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning: Final Report of Research Findings
This report examines the evidence and analyses to substantiate the claim that leadership and principals in particular have a significant impact on students and schools.
Seashore, K., Leithwood, K., Wahlstrom, K., & Anderson, S. (2010). Investigating the links to improved student learning: Final report of research findings.
Getting Principal Mentoring Right: Lessons from the Field
Mentoring for new principals, once rare, is now required by half the nation’s states. That’s a major advance, but many programs are not yet tailored to developing principals who can drive better instruction, according to this Wallace analysis. The report looks at two school districts that stress mentoring - Jefferson County (Kentucky) and New York City -and proposes guidelines for effective mentoring.
Spiro, J., Mattis, M. C., & Mitgang, L. D. (2007). Getting principal mentoring right: Lessons from the field. Wallace Foundation.
Principal as Instructional Leader: Designing a Coaching Program That Fits. Issue Brief
This paper examines options to assist principals in meeting the need to provide teachers with coaching to improve their teaching performance.
Steiner, L. and Kowal, J. (September, 2007). Issue Brief: Principal as instructional leader: Designing a Coaching Program That Fits. Washington, DC: The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement. Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement.
School Turnaround Leaders: Selection Toolkit Part of the School Turnaround Collection from Public Impact
This paper examines options to assist principals in meeting the need to provide teachers with coaching to improve their teaching performance.
Steiner, L., Ayscue, E., Hassel, B., Valsing, E., and Crittenden, S. (2008). School Turnaround Leaders: Selection Toolkit Part of the School Turnaround Collection from Public Impact. Public Impact for The Chicago Public Education Fund and District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS).
Handbook of Human Performance Technology
This book helps to define human performance technology: a systematic approach to improving individual and organizational performance.
Stolovitch, H. D., & Keeps, E. J. (2006). Handbook of human performance technology: Principles, practices, and potential. J. Pershing (Ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Principal Longevity, Leadership Behaviors, and Student Academic Achievement
Utilizing Pearson’s correlation and other forms of data analysis, the researcher explored relationships between principal longevity, leadership behaviors, and student academic achievement in this study. Additionally, the study considered the degree to which leadership behavior ratings seem to be associated with student academic achievement. The researcher found positive correlations among all three variables, with the strongest correlation being between principal longevity and student academic achievement. The only correlation that was found to be statistically significant was between principal longevity and student academic achievement.
Swearingen, J. M. (2014). Principal Longevity, Leadership Behaviors, and Student Academic Achievement.
Building a Stronger Principalship, Vol. 2: Cultivating Talent Through a Principal Pipeline
This report describes results of an initiative to improve school leadership in the areas of recruitment, training and support of new principals in six urban school districts.
Turnbull, B. J., Riley, D. L., & MacFarlane, J. R. (2013). Six Districts Begin the Principal Pipeline Initiative.
Leadership for student learning: Reinventing the principalship
This paper makes the argument that current models for school principal leadership and management must be reexamined in light the complexity of the responsibilities that are required of principals. New models must revolve around leadership for learning and management strategies that rely on outsourcing and team leadership and a reliance on principal assessment, accountability, and data collection.
Usdan, M., McCloud, B., & Podmostko, M. (2000). Leadership for student learning: Reinventing the principalship. Institute For Educational Leadership, 1, 24.
Learning from Leadership: Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning
The purpose of this paper is to discuss findings from Learning from Leadership. This study was designed to identify and describe successful educational leadership and to explain how such leadership can yield improvements in student learning.
Wahlstrom, K. L., Louis, K. S., Leithwood, K., & Anderson, S. E. (2010). Learning from Leadership: Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning. The Informed Educator Series. Educational Research Service.
Balanced Leadership: What 30 years of research tells us about the effect of leadership on student achievement
This paper provides a review and quantitative analysis of 30 years of research into the impact of leadership on schooling.
Waters, T., Marzano, R. J., & McNulty, B. (2003). Balanced leadership: What 30 years of research tells us about the effect of leadership on student achievement (pp. 1-19). Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.
Instructional Leadership: A Composite Working Model
This is a synthesis of research on instructional leadership. The information is developed into a working model of instructional leadership for practitioners-principals, assistant principals, and teachers.
Weber, J. R. (1987). Instructional leadership: A composite working model. ERIC/CEM.
Principal Effects in Illinois: A Research Brief
This brief summarizes research on principal effectiveness and examines Illinois data on the relationship between principal effective characteristics, student proficiency, and teacher qualifications.
White, B., & Bowers, A. (2011). Principal effects in Illinois: A research brief (IERC 2011-3). Edwardsville, IL: Illinois Education Research Council.
Coach John Wooden’s greatest secret.
This is a look at effective leadership skills based upon the career of Coach John Wooden.
Williams, P. (2014). Coach Wooden's greatest secret : the power of a lot of little things done well. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Revell, a division of Baker Publishing Group.
Educational leadership and student achievement: The elusive search for an association
This quantitative meta-analysis examines impact of the principal's leadership on student achievement.
Witziers, B., Bosker, R. J., & Kr�ger, M. L. (2003). Educational leadership and student achievement: The elusive search for an association. Educational administration quarterly, 39(3), 398-425.
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