Staff Treatment Integrity

All Research

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The impact of evidence-based practice implementation and fidelity monitoring on staff turnover: evidence for a protective effect.

This study evaluated the impact of monitoring trreatment integrity when implementeing an evidence-based intervention on staff turnover.  There was less staff turnover when integrity was monitored.

Aarons, G. A., Sommerfeld, D. H., Hecht, D. B., Silovsky, J. F., & Chaffin, M. J. (2009). The impact of evidence-based practice implementation and fidelity monitoring on staff turnover: evidence for a protective effect. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 77(2), 270. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2742697

An Objective Review of the Effectiveness and Essential Characteristics of Performance Feedback in...

This review considers the essential feature of performance feedback.

Alvero, A. M., Bucklin, B. R., & Austin, J. (2001). An Objective Review of the Effectiveness and Essential Characteristics of Performance Feedback in. Journal of Organization Behavior Management, 21(1), 3-29. 

 

An Experimental Examination of the Impact of Choice of Treatment Components on Treatment Integrity.

When teachers were given a choice of intervention components they had higher levels of treatment integrity compared to when they had no choice.

Andersen, M., & Daly, E. J. (2013). An Experimental Examination of the Impact of Choice of Treatment Components on Treatment Integrity. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 23(4), 231-263.

A Descriptive Evaluation of Long-Term Treatment Integrity

If effective interventions are not implemented with integrity they like will not have desired effects. This paper examines how much integrity is necessary to obtain benefit from interventions.

Arkoosh, M. K., Derby, K. M., Wacker, D. P., Berg, W., McLaughlin, T. F., & Barretto, A. (2007). A Descriptive Evaluation of Long-Term Treatment Integrity. Behavior Modification, 31(6), 880-895.

Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior

Differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior is an important skill for classroom teachers. This study examined the use of performance feedback to increase the rate of differential reinforcement by pre-service teachers.

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.

Increasing Pre-service Teachers' Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior.

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback to increase the implementation of skills taught during in-service training.

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.

Methods Used to Document Procedural Fidelity in School-Based Intervention Research.

The paper reviews methods for assessing treatment integrity in publiished research reports.

Barnett, D., Hawkins, R., McCoy, D., Wahl, E., Shier, A., Denune, H., & Kimener, L. (2014). Methods Used to Document Procedural Fidelity in School-Based Intervention Research. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 89-107.

The Use of E-Mail to Deliver Performance-Based Feedback to Early Childhood Practitioners.

This study evaulates the effects of performance feedback as part of proffessional development across three studies.

Barton, E. E., Pribble, L., & Chen, C.-I. (2013). The Use of E-Mail to Deliver Performance-Based Feedback to Early Childhood Practitioners. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(3), 270-297.

Teacher Resistance to Frequent Rewards and Praise: Lack of Skill or a Wise Decision

Rewards and praise are often recommended by education consultants.  In this paper the author reviews the sources of resistance to these recommendations and some approaches for overcoming the objections.

Bear, G. G. (2013). Teacher Resistance to Frequent Rewards and Praise: Lack of Skill or a Wise Decision. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 23(4), 318-340.

From practice to evidence in child welfare: Model specification and fidelity measurement of Team Decisionmaking.

This paper describes an effective and efficient fidelity measurement method.

Bearman, S. K., Garland, A. F., & Schoenwald, S. K. (2014). From practice to evidence in child welfare: Model specification and fidelity measurement of Team Decisionmaking. Children & Youth Services Review, 39.

Putting the pieces together: An Integrated Model of program implementation

One of the primary goals of implementation science is to insure that programs are implemented with integrity.  This paper presents an integrated model of implementation that emphasizes treatment integrity.

Berkel, C., Mauricio, A. M., Schoenfelder, E., Sandler, I. N., & Collier-Meek, M. (2011). Putting the pieces together: An Integrated Model of program implementation. Prevention Science, 12, 23-33.

Treatment Integrity in School-Wide Programs: A Review of the Literature (1993-2012).

School-wide prevention programs are only effectve when implemented with integrity.  This paper reviews the rate of reported treatment integriy in research evaluating school-wide progrms.

Bruhn, A., Hirsch, S., Lloyd, J., Bruhn, A. L., Hirsch, S. E., & Lloyd, J. W. (2015). Treatment Integrity in School-Wide Programs: A Review of the Literature (1993-2012). Journal of Primary Prevention, 36(5).

Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process

This study investigated the effects of performance feedback as a means for increasing the integrity of problem-solving teams following a decision protocol.

Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550. 

Graphical Feedback to Increase Teachers' Use of Incidental Teaching.

Incidental teaching is often a component of early childhood intervention programs.  This study evaluated the use of grahical feedback to increase the use of incidental teaching.

Casey, A. M., & McWilliam, R. A. (2008). Graphical Feedback to Increase Teachers’ Use of Incidental Teaching. Journal of Early Intervention, 30(3), 251-268. 

The impact of checklist-based training on teachers' use of the zone defense schedule.

One of the challenges for increasing treatment integrity is finding effective methods for doing so.  This study evaluated the use of checklist-based training to increase treatment integrity.

Casey, A. M., & McWilliam, R. A. (2011). The impact of checklist-based training on teachers’ use of the zone defense schedule. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(2), 397-401. 

A Framework for Measuring Fidelity of Implementation: A Foundation for Shared Language and Accumulation of Knowledge.

This paper describes a set of measures for measuring the fidelity of implementation.

Century, J., Rudnick, M., & Freeman, C. (2010). A Framework for Measuring Fidelity of Implementation: A Foundation for Shared Language and Accumulation of Knowledge. American Journal of Evaluation, 31(2), 199-218.

Investigating School Psychologists' Perceptions of Treatment Integrity in School-Based Interventions for Children With Academic and Behavior Concerns

This review assessed the disconnect between what school psychologists say about treatment integrity and what they actually do.

Cochrane, W. S., & Laux, J. M. (2007). Investigating School Psychologists’ Perceptions of Treatment Integrity in School-Based Interventions for Children With Academic and Behavior Concerns. Preventing School Failure, 51(4), 29-34.

A survey investigating school psychologists' measurement of treatment integrity in school-based interventions and their beliefs about its importance

This study assessed school psychologists perspectives about the importance of treatment integrity and what they say they do in practice.

Cochrane, W. S., & Laux, J. M. (2008). A survey investigating school psychologists’ measurement of treatment integrity in school-based interventions and their beliefs about its importance. Psychology in the Schools, 45(6), 499-507.

Effects of Immediate Performance Feedback on Implementation of Behavior Support Plans.

This study investigated the effects of performance feedback to increase treatment integrity.

Codding, R. S., Feinberg, A. B., & Dunn, E. K. (2005). Effects of Immediate Performance Feedback on Implementation of Behavior Support Plans. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(2), 205-219. 

 

Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans, 2005

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of feedback on treatment integrity for implementing behavior support plans.

Codding, R. S., Feinberg, A. B., Dunn, E. K., & Pace, G. M. (2005). Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(2), 205-219.

Using Performance Feedback to Improve Treatment Integrity of Classwide Behavior Plans: An Investigation of Observer Reactivity

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback in increasing treatment integrity.  It also evaluated the possible reactivitiy effects of being observed.

Codding, R. S., Livanis, A., Pace, G. M., & Vaca, L. (2008). Using Performance Feedback to Improve Treatment Integrity of Classwide Behavior Plans: An Investigation of Observer Reactivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(3), 417-422. 

 

The effects of video modeling on staff implementation of a problem-solving intervention with adults with developmental disabilities.

This study evaluated the effects of video modeling on staff implementation of a problem solving intervention.

Collins, S., Higbee, T. S., & Salzberg, C. L. (2009). The effects of video modeling on staff implementation of a problem-solving intervention with adults with developmental disabilities. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 42(4), 849-854.

Exploring the Link Among Behavior Intervention Plans, Treatment Integrity, and Student Outcomes Under Natural Educational Conditions.

This study evaluated the implementation of behavioral interventions in “real world” settings.  Treatment integrity was a mediator of the obtained efffects.

Cook, C. R., Mayer, G. R., Wright, D. B., Kraemer, B., Wallace, M. D., Dart, E., . . . Restori, A. (2012). Exploring the Link Among Behavior Intervention Plans, Treatment Integrity, and Student Outcomes Under Natural Educational Conditions. Journal of Special Education, 46(1), 3-16.

Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control

Dane and Schneider propose treatment integrity as a multi-dimensional construct and describe five dimensions that constitute the construct.

Dane, A. V., & Schneider, B. H. (1998). Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control. Clinical psychology review, 18(1), 23-45.

Test Driving Interventions to Increase Treatment Integrity and Student Outcomes.

This study evaluated the effects of allowing teachers to “test drive” interventions and then select the intervention they most preferred.  The result was an increase in treatment integrity.

Dart, E. H., Cook, C. R., Collins, T. A., Gresham, F. M., & Chenier, J. S. (2012). Test Driving Interventions to Increase Treatment Integrity and Student Outcomes. School Psychology Review, 41(4), 467-481.

Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform

Over the last fifty years, there have been many educational reform efforts, most of which have had a relatively short lifespan and failed to produce the promised results. One possible reason for this is for the most part these innovations have been poorly implemented. In this chapter, the author proposes a data-based decision making approach to assuring high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, and J. Twyman (Eds). Handbook on Innovations in Learning, 31. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing

A comparison of performance feedback procedures on teachers' treatment implementation integrity and students' inappropriate behavior in special education classrooms.

This study comared the effects of goal setting about student performance and feedback about student performance with daily written feedback about student performance, feedback about accuracy of implementation, and cancelling meetings if integrity criterion was met. 

DiGennaro, F. D., Martens, B. K., & Kleinmann, A. E. (2007). A comparison of performance feedback procedures on teachers' treatment implementation integrity and students' inappropriate behavior in special education classrooms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(3), 447-461. 

 

Increasing Treatment Integrity Through Negative Reinforcement: Effects on Teacher and Student Behavior

This study evaluated the impact of allowing  teachers to miss coaching meetings if their treatment integrity scores met or exceeded criterion.

DiGennaro, F. D., Martens, B. K., & McIntyre, L. L. (2005). Increasing Treatment Integrity Through Negative Reinforcement: Effects on Teacher and Student Behavior. School Psychology Review, 34(2), 220-231.

Effects of video modeling on treatment integrity of behavioral interventions.

This study evaluated the effects of video modeling on how well teachers implemented interventions.  There was an increase in integrity but it remained variable.  More stable patterns of implementation were observed when teachers were given feedback about their peroformance.

Digennaro-Reed, F. D., Codding, R., Catania, C. N., & Maguire, H. (2010). Effects of video modeling on treatment integrity of behavioral interventions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43(2), 291-295. 

 

Maximizing the implementation quality of evidence-based preventive interventions in schools: A conceptual framework.

This paper provides a conceptual framework for maximizing the implementation of evidece-based interventions.

Domitrovich, C. E., Bradshaw, C. P., Poduska, J. M., Hoagwood, K., Buckley, J. A., Olin, S., . . . Ialongo, N. S. (2008). Maximizing the implementation quality of evidence-based preventive interventions in schools: A conceptual framework. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 1(3), 6-28.

Monitoring Implementation of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring: Identifying and Intervening With Students Who Do Not Maintain Accurate Implementation

This study evaluated the effect feedback to student peer tutors had on the level of treatment integrity in implementing a peer tutoring program.

Dufrene, B. A., Noell, G. H., Gilbertson, D. N., & Duhon, G. J. (2005). Monitoring Implementation of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring: Identifying and Intervening With Students Who Do Not Maintain Accurate Implementation. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 74-86.

Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance.

This study evaluated the impact of public feedback in RtI team meetings on the quality of implementation.  Feedback improved poor implementation and maintained high level implementation.

Duhon, G. J., Mesmer, E. M., Gregerson, L., & Witt, J. C. (2009). Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance. Journal of School Psychology, 47(1), 19-37.

An Exploration of Fidelity of Implementation in Drug Abuse Prevention Among Five Professional Groups.

Five different groups of professional involved in the development and implementation of drug abuse prevention programs were interviewed to gain their perspective on treatment integrity.  There were differences across groups in the definition of treatment integrity.

Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., & Falco, M. (2004). An Exploration of Fidelity of Implementation in Drug Abuse Prevention Among Five Professional Groups. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education, 47(3), 4-19.

Treatment Integrity Enhancement via Performance Feedback Conceptualized as an Exercise in Social Influence.

Erchul makes the argument that efforts to increase treatiment integrity should be conceptualized as social influence strategies because the person implementing is different than the person who developed the plan.

Erchul, W. P. (2013). Treatment Integrity Enhancement via Performance Feedback Conceptualized as an Exercise in Social Influence. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 23(4).

Sustaining fidelity following the nationwide PMTO™ implementation in Norway

This paper describes the scaling up and dissemination of a partent training program in Norway while maintaining fidelity of implementation.

Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2011). Sustaining fidelity following the nationwide PMTO™ implementation in Norway. Prevention Science, 12(3), 235-246. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3153633

 

Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention

This study evaluated the effects of response dependent feedback on the qualiity of implementation of a classroom intervention.  Teachers increased the integrity of implementation during the response dependent feedback condition.

Gilbertson, D., Witt, J., Singletary, L., & VanDerHeyden, A. (2007). Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16(4), 311-326.

Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention

This article evaluated the effects of response dependent feedback on accurate implementation of an intervention.  Whenever teachers failed to meet 100% accuracy criterion they were given feedback about their performance.

Gilbertson, D., Witt, J., Singletary, L., & VanDerHeyden, A. (2007). Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16(4), 311-326.

Strategies for Improving Treatment Integrity in Organizational Consultation

Organizations house many individuals.  Many of them are responsible implementing the same practice.  If organizations are to meet their goal it is important for the organization have systems for assuring high levels of treatment integrity.

Gottfredson, D. C. (1993). Strategies for Improving Treatment Integrity in Organizational Consultation. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 4(3), 275. 

Treatment Integrity: Revisiting Some Big Ideas.

The impact of evidence-based interventions is a function of how well those interventions are implemented.  As interventions are taken to scale the challenge of maintaining high levels of intergrity are increased.

Greenwood, C. R. (2009). Treatment Integrity: Revisiting Some Big Ideas. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 547-553.

Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions.

This paper discusses the current understanding of the construct treatment integrity.

Gresham, F. M. (2009). Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 533-540.

Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980-1990

This study reviewed the reporting rates of treatment integrity for school based interventions.

Gresham, F. M., & Gansle, K. A. (1993). Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980-1990. School Psychology Review, 254. 

Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children.

This study reviewed all intervention studies published between 1980-1990 in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in which children were the subjects of the study. The authors found that treatment integrity was reported in only 16% of the studies.

Gresham, F. M., Gansle, K. A., & Noell, G. H. (1993). Treatment ?integrity in ?applied behavior analysis with children. Journal of Applied ?Behavior Analysis, 26(2), 257-263.

Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children

This study reviewed the reporting rates of treatment integrity for interventions with children.

Gresham, F. M., Gansle, K. A., & Noell, G. H. (1993). Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(2), 257-263.

Treatment Integrity in Learning Disabilities Intervention Research: Do We Really Know How Treatments Are Implemented

This study reviewed the reporting rates of treatment integrity for interventions for students with learning disabilities.

Gresham, F. M., MacMillan, D. L., Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E., & Bocian, K. M. (2000). Treatment Integrity in Learning Disabilities Intervention Research: Do We Really Know How Treatments Are Implemented. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice (Lawrence Erlbaum), 15(4), 198-205.

Effects of varied levels of treatment integrity on appropriate toy manipulation in children with autism

This study reported the effects of different levels of treatment integrity on the behavior of children with autism.  There was a correlation between the level of treatment integrity and the levelo of appropriate behavior by children with autism.

Groskreutz, N. C. (2011). Effects of varied levels of treatment integrity on appropriate toy manipulation in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectcrum Disorders, in press.

Deviations from Prescribed Prompting Procedures: Implications for Treatment Integrity.

This study evaluated the impact of less than perfect implementation of a prompting procedure.  Lower treatment integrity resulted in slower acquistion of new skills.

Grow, L. L., Carr, J. E., Gunby, K. V., Charania, S. M., Gonsalves, L., Ktaech, I. A., & Kisamore, A. N. (2009). Deviations from Prescribed Prompting Procedures: Implications for Treatment Integrity. Journal of Behavioral Education, 18(2), 142-156.

Treatment Integrity Assessment: How Estimates of Adherence, Quality, and Exposure Influence Interpretation of Implementation.

This study evaluated the differences in estimates of treatment integrity be measuring different dimensions of it.

Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., & Fallon, L. M. (2011). Treatment Integrity Assessment: How Estimates of Adherence, Quality, and Exposure Influence Interpretation of Implementation. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(3), 209-232.

Increasing teacher treatment integrity of behavior support plans through consultation and Implementation Planning.

The paper describes the Implemenation Planning protocol as an approach for increasing treament integrity.

Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., Collier-Meek, M. A., Long, A. C. J., Byron, J., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2015). Increasing teacher treatment integrity of behavior support plans through consultation and Implementation Planning. Journal of School Psychology, 53(3). 

Effects of verbal and graphic performance feedback on behavior support plan implementation in a public elementary school.

This study evaluated the relative benefits of verbal feedback and verbal plus grahic feedback as a means for increasing treatment integrity.  The verbal plus graphic feedback was more effective than verbal feedback alone.

Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., Luiselli, J. K., & Handler, M. W. (2007). Effects of verbal and graphic performance feedback on behavior support plan implementation in a public elementary school. Behav Modif, 31(4), 454-465. doi:10.1177/0145445506297583

 

Increasing Teacher Treatment Integrity Through Performance Feedback Provided By School Personnel

Describes the effects of internal school staff providing feedback to teachers as a means of increasing treatment integrity.  It was necessary to have someone provide feedback to internal staff about how well they implemented the plan to provide feedback to teachers.  Makes the case that treatment integrity is requires multi-tier systems of support if interventions are to be implemented effectively.

Hagermoser, S., Lisa M., Fallon, L. M., & Collier-Meek, M. A. (2013). Increasing Teacher Treatment Integrity Through Performance Feedback Provided By School Personnel. Psychology in the Schools, 50(2), 134-150.

Will the Principles of Effectiveness' improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study.

Reviews the implications of the U. S. Department of Education’s policy, The Principal of Effectiveness that encourages schools to adopt research based practices.  A survey of 104 schools suggest that only 19% are impementing intervenitons with adequate fidelity.

Hallfors, D., & Godette, D. (2002). Will thePrinciples of Effectiveness’ improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study. Health Education Research, 17(4), 461-470.

Treatment Integrity for Academic Interventions in Real-World Settings.

This article links treatment integrity to problem-solving teams decision making.  Strategies for increasing treatment integrity are suggested.

Hawkins, R. O., Morrison, J. Q., Musti-Rao, S., & Hawkins, J. A. (2008). Treatment Integrity for Academic Interventions in Real-World Settings. School Psychology Forum, 2(3), 1-15.

The effects of observational feedback on treatment integrity in school-based behavioral consultation

This study examined the effects of performance feedback on treatment integrity.

Jones, K. M., Wickstrom, K. F., & Friman, P. C. (1997). The effects of observational feedback on treatment integrity in school-based behavioral consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4).

Examining the role of implementation quality in school-based prevention using the paths currculum

This study identified factors that contributed to the effective scaling up of prevention programs.  Two factors contributed to positive outcomes: principal support for the initiative and high treatment integrity in the classroom.

Kam, C., Greenberg, M. T., & Walls, C. T. (2003). Examining the role of implementation quality in school-based prevention using the paths currculum. Prevention Science, 4(1), 55-63. 

An Initial Comparison Of Collaborative And Expert-Driven Consultation On Treatment Integrity.

This study evaluted the relative effectveness of expert driven consultation and collaborative consultation on level of treatment integrity.

Kelleher, C., Riley-Tillman, T. C., & Power, T. J. (2008). An Initial Comparison Of Collaborative And Expert-Driven Consultation On Treatment Integrity. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 18(4), 294-324.

Treatment Integrity: An Essential--But Often Forgotten--Component of School-Based Interventions

This paper reviews the importance of treatment integrity, how to measure it, and factors that affect it.

Lane, K. L., Bocian, K. M., MacMillan, D. L., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Treatment Integrity: An Essential--But Often Forgotten--Component of School-Based Interventions. Preventing School Failure, 48(3), 36-43.

Procedural Fidelity: An Analysis of Measurement and Reporting Practices.

This is a review of treatment integrity reporting practices across journals.

Ledford, J. R., & Wolery, M. (2013). Procedural Fidelity: An Analysis of Measurement and Reporting Practices. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(2), 173-193.

Errors of Omission and Commission during Alternative Reinforcement of Compliance: The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity.

This study evaluated effects on behavior when levels of treatment intergrity were varied.  Both errors of omission and commission were evaluated.

Leon, Y., Wilder, D., Majdalany, L., Myers, K., & Saini, V. (2014). Errors of Omission and Commission during Alternative Reinforcement of Compliance: The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 19-33.

Training Paraeducators to Implement a Group Contingency Protocol: Direct and Collateral Effects.

This study evaluated the effects of an intensive training progam for paraeducators responsible for implementing a group contingency intervention for classroom behavior.

Maggin, D. M., Fallon, L. M., Hagermoser, S., Lisa M., & Ruberto, L. M. (2012). Training Paraeducators to Implement a Group Contingency Protocol: Direct and Collateral Effects. Behavioral Disorders, 38(1), 18-37.

The relationship between treatment integrity and acceptability of reading interventions for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

This study evaluated the relationship between treatment integrity and acceptability for reading intervenitons across two consultation models.

Mautone, J. A., DuPaul, G. J., Jitendra, A. K., Tresco, K. E., Junod, R. V., & Volpe, R. J. (2009). The relationship between treatment integrity and acceptability of reading interventions for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 46(10), 919-931.

The effects of child behavior problems on the maintenance of intervention fidelity.

This study evaluated the effects of child behavior problems on the maintenance of treatment integrity.

McConnachie, G., & Carr, E. G. (1997). The effects of child behavior problems on the maintenance of intervention fidelity. Behavior Modification, 21.

Identifying and Predicting Distinct Patterns of Implementation in a School-Wide Behavior Support Framework

This study examined distinct patterns of fidelity of implementation of school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports across 5331 schools over a 5 year period.

McIntosh, K., Mercer, S. H., Nese, R. N. T., & Ghemraoui, A. (2016). Identifying and Predicting Distinct Patterns of Implementation in a School-Wide Behavior Support Framework. Prevention Science, 1-10.

Treatment Integrity of School-Based Interventions with Children in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1991-2005

This study review the reporting rate of treatment integrity studies of school-based interventions with children in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

McIntyre, L. L., Gresham, F. M., DiGennaro, F. D., & Reed, D. D. (2007). Treatment Integrity of School-Based Interventions with Children in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1991-2005. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(4), 659-672. 

 

The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention.

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on the implementation of a classroom intervention.

Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review, 613-627. 

Fidelity Criteria: Development, Measurement, and Validation.

The article discusses the steps in the development, measurement, and validation of fidelity criteria.

Mowbray, C. T., Holter, M. C., Teague, G. B., & Bybee, D. (2003). Fidelity Criteria: Development, Measurement, and Validation. American Journal of Evaluation, 24(3), 315-340.

Implementation of Treatments in Research and Practice: Commentary on the Special Issue.

This article reviews what is known about treatment integrity and what questons remain unanswered.

Noell, G. (2014). Implementation of Treatments in Research and Practice: Commentary on the Special Issue. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 192-200.

Assuring the Form Has Substance

This paper makes the argument that for RtI to be a successful framework for improving student performance it is necessary to make sure that the interventions selected for students are implemented with sufficient integrity to insure benefit.

Noell, G. H., & Gansle, K. A. (2006). Assuring the Form Has Substance. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 32(1), 32-39.

 

Moving from good ideas in educational systems change to sustainable program implementation: Coming to terms with some of the realities.

This paper addesses the challenges of system reform in education.  The author makes the case that the pragmatic challenge of insuring that changes are implemented with intergriy are a fundamental consideration in any effort to bring about change.

Noell, G. H., & Gansle, K. A. (2009). Moving from good ideas in educational systems change to sustainable program implementation: Coming to terms with some of the realities. Psychology in the Schools, 46(1), 79-89.

When does consultation lead to intervention implementation

This paper makes the case that for consultation to be effective it must lead to intervention.  If the intervention is to be effective it must be implemented with integrity.

Noell, G. H., & Witt, J. C. (1999). When does consultation lead to intervention implementation. Journal of Special Education, 33(1), 29. 

Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies.

This study compared the effects of discussing issues of implementation challenges and performance feedback on increasing the integrity of implementation. Performance feedback was more effective than discussion in increasing integrity.

Noell, G. H., & Witt, J. C. (2000). Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 271.

Consultation, Follow-up, and Implementation of Behavior Management Interventions in General Education

This study contributes to the data-base on the use of performance feedback to increase treatment integrity.

Noell, G. H., Duhon, G. J., Gatti, S. L., & Connell, J. E. (2002). Consultation, Follow-up, and Implementation of Behavior Management Interventions in General Education. School Psychology Review, 31(2), 217.

Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback

This study evaluated the impact of training on treatment integrity.  After finding that positive effects lasted 2-4 days, performance feedback was used to increase treatment integrity.

Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1).

Increasing Teacher Intervention Implementation in General Education Settings through Consultation and Performance Feedback

This study looks at treatment integrity with which general education teachers implemented a reinforcement based intervention designed to improve the academic performance of elementary school students.

Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 77.

Treatment Implementation Following Behavioral Consultation in Schools: A Comparison of Three Follow-up Strategies.

This study evaluated three approaches to behavioral consultation and their impact on treatment integrity.  Performance feedback was associated with superior treatment implementation and child behavioral outcomes.

Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Slider, N. J., Connell, J. E., Gatti, S. L., Williams, K. L., . . . Duhon, G. J. (2005). Treatment Implementation Following Behavioral Consultation in Schools: A Comparison of Three Follow-up Strategies. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 87-106.

School predictors of the intensity of implementation of school-based prevention programs: Results from a national study

This paper reviews the results of a survey of 544 schools on matters related to implementation to identify factors that contributed to successful implementation with integrity.

Payne, A. A., Gottfredson, D. C., & Gottfredson, G. D. School predictors of the intensity of implementation of school-based prevention programs: Results from a national study. Prevention Science, 7(2), 225-237. 

Integrity of independent variables in behavior analysis

The authors reviewed all of the intervention studies published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis between 1968-1980 to determine the percent of studies that reported measures of treatment integrity. The overall average across those years was 16%.

Peterson, L., Homer, A. L., & Wonderlich, S. A. (1982). Integrity of independent ?variables in behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 477-492.

Reconceptualizing Intervention Integrity: A Partnership-Based Framework for Linking Research with Practice.

This paper describes a partnership model for improving treatment integrity in school settings.

Power, T. J., Blom-Hoffman, J., & Clarke, A. T. (2005). Reconceptualizing Intervention Integrity: A Partnership-Based Framework for Linking Research with Practice. Psychology in the Schools, 42(5), 495-507.

The Role of Teachers' Psychological Experiences and Perceptions of Curriculum Supports on the Implementation of a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum.

This study evaluated how teacher burnout, perceptions of efficacy, and perceptions of curriculum supports impacted treatment integrity.

Ransford, C. R., Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C. E., Small, M., & Jacobson, L. (2009). The Role of Teachers’ Psychological Experiences and Perceptions of Curriculum Supports on the Implementation of a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 510-532.

Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions.

This study evaluted the impact of coaching on the implementation of an intervention.  Coaching with higher rates of performance feedback resulted in the highest level of treatment integrity.

Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Herman, K., & Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 150-167.

Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity on Toddler Aggressive Behavior

This study evaluated the impact of three different levels of treatment integrity on the effects of a time-out intervention.

Rhymer, K. N., Evans-Hampton, T. N., McCurdy, M., & Watson, T. S. (2002). Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity on Toddler Aggressive Behavior. Special Services in the Schools, 18(1/2), 75.

Using Interventions That Exist in the Natural Environment to Increase Treatment Integrity and Social Influence in Consultation

It is proposed in this paper that interventions are most likely to be implemented when they draw from existing practices in a classroom.

Riley-Tillman, T. C., & Chafouleas, S. M. (2003). Using Interventions That Exist in the Natural Environment to Increase Treatment Integrity and Social Influence in Consultation. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 14(2), 139-156.

Consultee and Client Remedial and Preventive Outcomes Following Consultation: Some Mixed Empirical Results and Directions for Future Researchers.

This study evaluated the differences between how well teachers reported they implemented an intervention and what observational data suggest.  In general teachers overestimated the quality of implementation.

Robbins, J. R., & Gutkin, T. B. (1994). Consultee and Client Remedial and Preventive Outcomes Following Consultation: Some Mixed Empirical Results and Directions for Future Researchers. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 5(2), 149. Retrieved from http://content.epnet.com/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=7438769&EbscoContent=dGJyMNLe80Sep7A4y9fwOLCmr02ep7dSrq64S7aWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMOzprk%2BvqrdPuePfgeyx%2BEu3q64A&D=eue

 

A preliminary analysis of the effects of coaching feedback on teacher implementation fidelity of First Step to Success

First Step to Success is an empirically supported intervention for young elementary school students that can be implemented by public school teachers with training. This study evaluated the effects of coaching feedback on teachers who not effectively implemented First Step following training.

Rodriguez, B. J., Loman, S. L., & Horner, R. H. (2009). A preliminary analysis of the effects of coaching feedback on teacher implementation fidelity of First Step to Success. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2(2), 11-21.

A preliminary analysis of the effects of coaching feedback on teacher implementation fidelity of First Step to Success.

This study evaluated the impact of performance feedback as a means of increasing treatment integrity for teachers implementing First Steps to Success.

Rodriguez, B. J., Loman, S. L., & Horner, R. H. (2009). A preliminary analysis of the effects of coaching feedback on teacher implementation fidelity of First Step to Success. Behavior analysis in practice, 2(2), 11-21. 

 

Diffusion of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: Predictors of program implementation

This study evaluated predictors for high quality school based intervention of a drug abuse prevention program.

Rohrback, L. A., Graham, J. W., & Hansen, W. B. (1993). Diffusion of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: Predictors of program implementation. Preventive Medicine, 22, 237-260.

Presupposition Compatibility Facilitates Treatment Fidelity in Therapists Learning Structural Family Therapy.

This study evaluated the correlation between the compatibility of an intervention with a therapist’s presuppositions about effective treatment and treatment integrity.  The data suggest that the more compatible an intervention is with a therapist’s beliefs the more likely they were to implement with integrity.

Ryan, W. J., Conti, R. P., & Simon, G. M. (2013). Presupposition Compatibility Facilitates Treatment Fidelity in Therapists Learning Structural Family Therapy. American Journal of Family Therapy, 41(5).

Data-Driven Delivery of Implementation Supports in a Multi-Tiered Framework: A Pilot Study

This paper describes a multi-tier system of supports for teachers as they implement an intervention.

Sanetti, L. M. H., & Collier-Meek, M. A.-. (2015). Data-Driven Delivery of Implementation Supports in a Multi-Tiered Framework: A Pilot Study. Psychology in the Schools, 52(8). 815-828

 

Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers.

This paper reviews a survey of researchers about the barriers to implementing treatment integrity procedures in research.

Sanetti, L. M. H., & DiGennaro, R., Florence D. (2012). Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 37(4), 195-202. 

Treatment Integrity Assessment in the Schools: An Evaluation of the Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol.

This study evaluated the Treatment Integiry Planning Protocol as a means for increasing treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2009). Treatment Integrity Assessment in the Schools: An Evaluation of the Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol. School Psychology Quarterly, 24(1), 24-35. 

An Evaluation of the Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol and Two Schedules of Treatment Integrity Self-Report: Impact on Implementation and Report Accuracy.

This paper describes treatment integrity assessment and intervention for practicing school psychologists.

Sanetti, L. M. H., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2011). An Evaluation of the Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol and Two Schedules of Treatment Integrity Self-Report: Impact on Implementation and Report Accuracy. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(4), 284-308. 

Extending Use of Direct Behavior Rating Beyond Student Assessment.

This paper reviews options for treatment integrity measurement emphasizing how direct behavior rating technology might be incorporated within a multi-tiered model of intervention delivery.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Chafouleas, S. M., Christ, T. J., & Gritter, K. L. (2009). Extending Use of Direct Behavior Rating Beyond Student Assessment. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 34(4), 251-258. 

Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies.

This study evaluated four methods for teachers self reporting how well they implemented an intervention.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Chafouleas, S. M., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Kilgus, S. P. (2013). Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 28(3), 261-276. 

Increasing teacher treatment integrity of behavior support plans through consultation and implementation planning

This study evaluates the efficacy of the Implementation Planning Protocol as a means for increasing treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Collier-Meek, M. A., Long, A. C. J., Byron, J., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2015). Increasing teacher treatment integrity of behavior support plans through consultation and implementation planning. Journal of School Psychology, 53(3), 209-229.

Using implementation planning to increase teachers' adherence and quality to behavior support plans

This paper evaluated the impact of Implementation Planning on teacher level of treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Collier-Meek, M. A., Long, A. C. J., Kim, J., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2014). Using implementation planning to increase teachers' adherence and quality to behavior support plans. Psychology in the Schools, 51(8), 879-895.

Increasing teacher treatment integrity through performance feedback provided by school personnel

If educational programs are to be effective they must be implemented with sufficient integrity to assure benefits. To have a significant impact on schools, solutions must be scalable. This study evaluated the effects of using existing school personnel to provide performance feedback to teachers regarding the quality of implementation.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Fallon, L. M., & Collier-Meek, M. A. (2013). Increasing teacher treatment integrity through performance feedback provided by school personnel. Psychology in the Schools, 50(2), 134-150.

Applying adult behavior change theory to support mediator-based intervention implementation.

This paper proposes considering treatment integrity as adult behavior change and methods for improving treatment integrity may  be enhanced by drawing from the literature on adult behavior change.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Kratochwill, T. R., & Long, A. C. J. (2013). Applying adult behavior change theory to support mediator-based intervention implementation. School Psychology Quarterly, 28(1), 47. Retrieved from http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/kmlab/files/2013/09/Sanetti-2013.pdf

Effects of Verbal and Graphic Performance Feedback on Behavior Support Plan Implementation in a Public Elementary School

This study evaluated the relative benefits of verbal feedback and verbal plus grahic feedback as a means for increasing treatment integrity.  The verbal plus graphic feedback was more effective than verbal feedback alone.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Luiselli, J. K., & Handler, M. W. (2007). Effects of Verbal and Graphic Performance Feedback on Behavior Support Plan Implementation in a Public Elementary School. Behavior Modification, 31(4), 454-465.

Increasing the Rigor of Procedural Fidelity Assessment: An Empirical Comparison of Direct Observation and Permanent Product Review Methods.

This paper reviews methods for assessing treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L., & Collier-Meek, M. (2014). Increasing the Rigor of Procedural Fidelity Assessment: An Empirical Comparison of Direct Observation and Permanent Product Review Methods. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 60-88.

Providing Immediate Feedback to Co-Teachers Through Bug-in-Ear Technology: An Effective Method of Peer Coaching in Inclusion Classrooms.

This study utilized a “bug in the ear” device to provide immediate feedback on implementation of specific teaching practices.

Scheeler, M. C., Congdon, M., & Stansbery, S. (2010). Providing Immediate Feedback to Co-Teachers Through Bug-in-Ear Technology: An Effective Method of Peer Coaching in Inclusion Classrooms. Teacher Education & Special Education, 33(1).

Effects of Corrective Feedback Delivered via Wireless Technology on Preservice Teacher Performance and Student Behavior.

This paper describes the use of wireless technology to give feedback to students in a teacher prep program about their integrity of implementation.

Scheeler, M. C., McAfee, J. K., & Ruhl, K. L. (2006). Effects of Corrective Feedback Delivered via Wireless Technology on Preservice Teacher Performance and Student Behavior. Teacher Education & Special Education, 29(1).

Providing Performance Feedback to Teachers: A Review.

This paper reviews the empirical research on the effectiveness of performance feedback as a means of influencing teacher implementation of interventions.

Scheeler, M. C., Ruhl, K. L., & McAfee, J. K. (2004). Providing Performance Feedback to Teachers: A Review. Teacher Education & Special Education, 27(4).

Advances in Treatment Integrity Research: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Conceptualization, Measurement, and Enhancement of Treatment Integrity.

This paper reviews perspectives on treatment integrity from psychotherapy, substance abuse treatment, prevention science, and school psychology.

Schulte, A. C., Easton, J. E., & Parker, J. (2009). Advances in Treatment Integrity Research: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Conceptualization, Measurement, and Enhancement of Treatment Integrity. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 460-475.

The Effect of Performance Feedback on Teachers' Treatment Integrity: A Meta-Analysis of the Single-Case Literature.

This study is a meta-analysis of studies using performance feedback to improve treatment integrity.  The overall result was that performance feedback had moderate effects on integrity.

Solomon, B., Klein, S. A., & Politylo, B. C. (2012). The Effect of Performance Feedback on Teachers’ Treatment Integrity: A Meta-Analysis of the Single-Case Literature. School Psychology Review, 41(2), 160-175.

An Analog Investigation of the Relationship Between Treatment Acceptability and Treatment Integrity

This study examined the relationship between treatment acceptability and treatment integrity.

Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Watson, T. S. (2002). An Analog Investigation of the Relationship Between Treatment Acceptability and Treatment Integrity. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11(1), 39-50.

The effects of direct training and treatment integrity on treatment outcomes in school consultation

This study compared indirect training and direct training methods as a means of impacting levels of treatment integrity.  Direct training methods produced better outcomes.

Sterling-Turner, H. E., Watson, T. S., & Moore, J. W. (2002). The effects of direct training and treatment integrity on treatment outcomes in school consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(1). 

Evaluating the Treatment Fidelity of Parents Who Conduct In-Home Functional Communication Training with Coaching via Telehealth.

This study evaluated the level of treatment integrity when parents were conductiong function communication training while being coached via telehealth.

Suess, A., Romani, P., Wacker, D., Dyson, S., Kuhle, J., Lee, J., . . . Waldron, D. (2014). Evaluating the Treatment Fidelity of Parents Who Conduct In-Home Functional Communication Training with Coaching via Telehealth. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 34-59.

The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity on Child Compliance during Treatment with a Three-Step Prompting Procedure

This study evaluated the effects of three different levels of treatment integrity on compliance to a three-step prompting procedure.  Levels of complaince varied with levels of integrity.

Wilder, D. A., Atwell, J., & Wine, B. (2006). The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity on Child Compliance during Treatment with a Three-Step Prompting Procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39(3), 369-373. 

 

Effects of Verbal and Graphed Feedback on Treatment Integrity.

This study evaluated the effects of graphed feedback alone compared to the effects of graphed feedback plus verbal feedback.  The combined graphed and verbal resulted in slightly better performance.

Zoder-Martell, K., Dufrene, B., Sterling, H., Tingstrom, D., Blaze, J., Duncan, N., & Harpole, L.-. (2013). Effects of Verbal and Graphed Feedback on Treatment Integrity. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 29(4).

Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process
This study examines the importance of implementation integrity for problem-solving teams (PST) and response-to-intervention models.
Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550.
From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) as federal policy required the use of scientifically based instruction to improve educational outcomes. It is a long way from policy to impacting what actually happens in a classroom. In this chapter, the author reviews what is known from implementation science to assure that policy becomes practice.
Detrich, R. (2008). From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA. In Grigorenko, E. L. (Ed.) Educating Individuals with Disabilities: IDEIA 2004 and Beyond, 85. Springer Publishing Company
Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform
At the heart of any educational reform effort is how well the practices of that effort are implemented in classrooms. In this paper, the author reviews what is known about effective implementation and proposes a data-based approach to scaling up quality of implementation in educational settings.
Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258-271.
A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) emphasizing scientifically based instruction became law in 2001. In this paper, the authors review the progress that has been made in implementing NCLB and conclude that the greatest threat to its effectiveness is the quality of the implementation of the scientifically based instructional practices.
Detrich, R., & Lewis, T. (2012). A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1098300712460278.
Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions
The article discusses treatment integrity.
Gresham, F. M. (2009). Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 533-540.
Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980-?1990.
The authors reviewed seven journals known for publishing behavioral intervention research in school settings were reviewed to establish the percent of articles that reported treatment integrity measures between 1980-1990. Only 14% reported measures of treatment integrity.
Gresham, F. M., Gansle, K. A., Noell, G. H., Cohen, S., & Rosenblum, S. (1993). Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980-1990. School Psychology Review, 254-272.
Treatment integrity in learning disabilities intervention research: Do we really know how treatments are implemented
The authors reviewed three learning disabilities journals between 1995-1999 to determine what percent of the intervention studies reported measures of treatment integrity. Only 18.5% reported treatment integrity measures.
Gresham, F. M., MacMillan, D. L., Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E., & Bocian, K. M. ?(2000). Treatment integrity in learning disabilities intervention research: Do we really know how treatments are implemented. Learning Disabilities ?Research & Practice, 15(4), 198-205.
Toward Developing a Science of Treatment Integrity: Introduction to the Special Series
This article provides an overview of the current state of conceptual models of treatment integrity and suggest future directions for research, practice, and policy related to treatment integrity.
Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2009). Toward Developing a Science of Treatment Integrity: Introduction to the Special Series. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 445-459.
Balancing Fidelity With Flexibility and Fit: What Do We Really Know About Fidelity of Implementation in Schools
Treatment fidelity is critical for the effective implementation of evidence-based practices. It is assumed that evidence-based practices implemented with high fidelity will result in improved outcomes, whereas low fidelity will lead to poorer outcomes. This article discusses treatment fidelity as well as the implications for measuring and analyzing it in relation to student outcomes.
Harn, B., Parisi, D., & Stoolmiller, M. (2013). Balancing Fidelity With Flexibility and Fit: What Do We Really Know About Fidelity of Implementation in Schools?. Exceptional Children, 79(2), 181-193.
Treatment integrity of school-based interventions with children in the journal of applied behavior analysis 1991-2005.
The authors reviewed all intervention studies published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis between 1991-2005 that occurred in school settings to determine the percent of studies that reported treatment integrity measures. In this review, 30% of the studies reported treatment integrity.
McIntyre, L. L., Gresham, F. M., DiGennaro, F. D., & Reed, D. D. (2007). Treatment integrity of school-based interventions with children in the ?journal of applied behavior analysis 1991-2005. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(4), 659-672.
The Use of Weekly Performance Feedback to Increase Teacher Implementation of a Pre-referral Academic Intervention
This study investigates the effects of performance feedback on the implementation of a reinforcer-based classroom intervention.
Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review.
The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention.
Accurate implementation of an intervention is a pre-requisite to determining its effectiveness. The study examined the effects of weekly performance feedback on the accuracy of implementation of an academic intervention.
Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review, 27, 613-627.
Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback
This study evaluated the effects of consultation and performance feedback in a public school setting.
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). ?Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 77-88.
Treatment Implementation Following Behavioral Consultation in Schools: A Comparison of Three Follow-up Strategies
This study examines teachers' implementation of treatment plans following consultation.
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Slider, N. J., Connell, J. E., Gatti, S. L., Williams, K. L., ... & Duhon, G. J. (2005). Treatment implementation following behavioral consultation in schools: A comparison of three follow-up strategies. School Psychology Review.
Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009
The authors reviewed all intervention studies published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions between 1999-2009 to determine the percent of those studies that reported a measure of treatment integrity. Slightly more than 40% reported a measure of treatment integrity.
Sanetti, L. M. H., Dobey, L. M., & Gritter, K. L. (2012). Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 29-46.
Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008
The authors reviewed four school psychology journals between 1995-2008 to estimate the percent of intervention studies that reported some measure of treatment integrity. About 50% reported a measure of treatment integrity.
Sanetti, L. M. H., Gritter, K. L., & Dobey, L. M. (2011). Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008. School Psychology Review, 40(1), 72-84.
Treatment integrity: a review of intervention studies conducted with children with autism
The authors reviewed nine journals that published intervention studies on children and adolescents with autism between the years 1993-2003 to determine the percent of studies that reported a measure of treatment integrity. In this review, about 15% of the studies reported a measure of treatment integrity.
Wheeler, J. J., Baggett, B. A., Fox, J., & Blevins, L. (2006). Treatment integrity: a review of intervention studies conducted with children with autism. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 21(1), 45-54.
Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of ?the independent variable
This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on increasing the quality of implementation of interventions by teachers in a public school setting.
Witt, J. C., Noell, G. H., LaFleur, L. H., & Mortenson, B. P. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of ?the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 693.
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