In this paper, the authors show that the questions we asked are fundamental and that our meta-analytic techniques are appropriate, robust, and statistically correct. In sum, the results and conclusions of our meta-analysis are not altered by our critics’ protests and accusations.
Systematically applied W. R. Jenson's (1990, unpublished; see also G. Rhode et al, 1992) Mystery Motivator (MM) across 9 Ss (5 3rd-grade boys and 4 5th-grade boys) from 2 classrooms.
The debate over the effects of the use of extrinsic reinforcement in classrooms, businesses, and societal settings has been occurring for over 30 years. This article examines the debate with an emphasis on data-based findings. The extrinsic/intrinsic dichotomy is explored along with seminal studies in both the cognitive and behavioral literature.
Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practice. School Psychology Review, 33(3), 344-362.
The purpose of the SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory is to provide a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of the extent to which school personnel are applying the core features of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. The TFI is divided into three sections that can be used separately or in combination to assess the extent to which core features are in place.
Algozzine, B., Barrett, S., Eber, L., George, H., Horner, R., Lewis, T., Putnam, B., Swain-Bradway, J., McIntosh, K., & Sugai, G (2014). School-wide PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
The Benchmarks for Advanced Tiers (BAT) allows school teams to self-assess the implementation status of Tiers 2 (secondary, targeted) and 3 (tertiary, intensive) behavior support systems within their school. The BAT is based on factors drawn from the Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (I-SSET). School teams can use the BAT to build an action plan to delineate next steps in the implementation process.
Anderson, C., Childs, K., Kincaid, D., Horner, R. H., George, H., Todd, A. W., & Spaulding, S. (2009). Benchmarks for advanced tiers. Eugene, OR: Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon.
Although functional communication training (FCT) is an effective intervention for increasing appropriate forms of communicative behaviors and decreasing inappropriate forms of communication (ie, challenging behavior) in students with disabilities, its effectiveness might depend to some extent on the expertise of the interventionist.
Andzik, N. R., Cannella-Malone, H. I., & Sigafoos, J. (2016). Practitioner-implemented functional communication training: A review of the literature. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 41(2), 79-89.
Examined the effect of social skills intervention on the frequency of positive peer interaction (PI) in 4 moderately hearing-impaired preschool children (aged 5.5 yrs to 5.10 yrs).
Antia, S., & Kreimeyer, K. (1988). Maintenance of positive peer interaction in preschool hearing-impaired children. The Volta Review.
The purposes of this article are to describe (a) the context in which PBS and FBA are needed and (b) definitions and features of PBS and FBA.
applying positive behavior support
In response to the continuing gun violence in American schools, an interdisciplinary group of 19 scholars are proposing an eight-point plan to prevent future tragedies that have become common place in the nation. This one-page position statement proposes a public health approach to protecting children as well as adults from gun violence involves three levels of prevention: (1) universal approaches promoting safety and well-being for everyone; (2) practices for reducing risk and promoting protective factors for persons experiencing difficulties; and (3) interventions for individuals where violence is present or appears imminent.
Astor, R. et al. (2018). Call for Action to Prevent Gun Violence in the United States of America. University of Virginia.
This article examines issues in developing valid and reliable direct observation of behavior. Suggestions are made to minimize the problems that threaten validity and reliability. The discussion is concluded by an examination of costs and benefits of direct observation and who pays them and who benefits from them.
Baer, D. M., Harrison, R., Fradenburg, L., Petersen, D., & Milla, S. (2005). Some pragmatics in the valid and reliable recording of directly observed behavior. Research on Social Work Practice, 15(6), 440-451.
We compared immediate and delayed error correction during sight-word instruction with 5 students with developmental disabilities. Whole-word error correction immediately followed each error for words in the immediate condition. In the delayed condition, whole-word error correction was provided at the end of each session's three practice rounds. Immediate error correction was superior on each of the four dependent variables.
Barbetta, P. M., Heward, W. L., Bradley, D. M., & Miller, A. D. (1994). Effects of immediate and delayed error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of sight words by students with developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(1), 177-178.
The present study investigated the effects of a classroom behavior management technique based on reinforcers natural to the classroom, other than teacher attention.
Barrish, H. H., Saunders, M., & Wolf, M. M. (1969). Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom 1. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 2(2), 119-124.
This volume describes research aimed at identifying 10 model programs proven effective for violence prevention; describes the 10 programs selected from the more than 400 reviewed; and details the goals, targeted risk and protective factors, design, and other aspects of Life Skills Training, one of the model programs selected.
Botvin, G. J., Mihalic, S. F., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1998). Blueprints for violence prevention: Book five: Life skills training. Boulder, CO: Center for Study and Prevention of Violence.
This meta-analysis synthesized single-case research (SCR) on The Good Behavior Game across 21 studies, representing 1,580 students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 12.
Bowman-Perrott, L., Burke, M. D., Zaini, S., Zhang, N., & Vannest, K. (2016). Promoting positive behavior using the Good Behavior Game: A meta-analysis of single-case research. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(3), 180-190.
The main purpose of this study was to review pivotal response training and examine the efficacy of pivotal response training for children with autism spectrum disorder. Pivotal response training that focused on two of the three core features of autism spectrum disorder were found effective in influencing individual outcomes.
Bozkus-Genc, G., & Yucesoy-Ozkan, S. (2016). Meta-analysis of pivotal response training for children with autism spectrum disorder. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 51(1), 13-26.
This paper summarizes an approach to prevention partnerships developed over a decade and centered on the three-tiered Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) model.
Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E. T., Bloom, J., Barrett, S., Hershfeldt, P., Alexander, A., ... & Leaf, P. J. (2012). A state-wide partnership to promote safe and supportive schools: The PBIS Maryland initiative. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 39(4), 225-237.
The current study reports intervention effects on child behaviors and adjustment from an effectiveness trial of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics, 130(5), e1136-e1145.
Employing a conceptual framework of generalization strategies proposed by Stokes and Osnes (1986), the authors selectively reviewed the research literature concerning interventions to improve young children's social behavior and strategies for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social responding. Three basic strategies are discussed.
Brown, W. H., & Odom, S. L. (1994). Strategies and tactics for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 15(2), 99-118.
Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1996). The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results. Review of Educational Research, 66(1), 39–51.
The purpose of the present article is to resolve differences in previous meta-analytic findings and to provide a meta-analysis of rewards and intrinsic motivation that permits tests of competing theoretical explanations.
Cameron, J., Banko, K. M., & Pierce, W. D. (2001). Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues. The Behavior Analyst, 24(1), 1-44.
The authors evaluating effects of a school's implementation of check-in/check-out with two typically developing students in the school.
Campbell, A., & Anderson, C. M. (2008). Enhancing effects of check-in/check-out with function-based support. Behavioral Disorders, 33(4), 233-245.
The effects of long and short durations of positive practice overcorrection were studied, for the reduction of off-task behavior after an instruction to perform an object-placement task.
Carey, R. G., & Bucher, B. (1983). Positive practice overcorrection: The effects of duration of positive practice on acquisition and response reduction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16(1), 101-109.
This article (a)provide a definition of the evolving applied science of positive behavior support (PBS); (b)describe the background sources from which PBS has emerged; (c)give an overview of the critical features that, collectively, differentiate PBS from other approaches; and (d) articulate a vision for the future of PBS.
Carr, E. G., Dunlap, G., Horner, R. H., Koegel, R. L., Turnbull, A. P., Sailor, W., ... & Fox, L. (2002). Positive behavior support: Evolution of an applied science. Journal of positive behavior interventions, 4(1), 4-16.
This review of the literature examines the impact of performance feedback on two evidence-based classroom management strategies: praise and opportunities to respond (OTRs).
Cavanaugh, B. (2013). Performance feedback and teachers' use of praise and opportunities to respond: A review of the literature. Education and Treatment of Children, 111-137.
Peer mediated intervention (PMI) is a promising practice used to increase social skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PMIs engage typically developing peers as social models to improve social initiations, responses, and interactions.
Chang, Y. C., & Locke, J. (2016). A systematic review of peer-mediated interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in autism spectrum disorders, 27, 1-10.
This study sought to extend the work of Horner et al. (2010) in assessing the evidence base for SWPBS. However, unlike in the Horner et al. (2010) study, in this study the proposed criteria were applied to individual studies.
Chitiyo, M., May, M. E., & Chitiyo, G. (2012). An assessment of the evidence-base for school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children, 35(1), 1-24.
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a classwide positive peer reporting intervention known as ‘‘tootling’’ in conjunction with a group contingency procedure to reduce the number of disruptive behaviors in a third-grade inclusive classroom.
Cihak, D. F., Kirk, E. R., & Boon, R. T. (2009). Effects of classwide positive peer “tootling” to reduce the disruptive classroom behaviors of elementary students with and without disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 18(4), 267.
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a combined self-monitoring and static self-model prompts procedure on the academic engagement of three students with autism served in general education classrooms
Cihak, D. F., Wright, R., & Ayres, K. M. (2010). Use of self-modeling static-picture prompts via a handheld computer to facilitate self-monitoring in the general education classroom. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 136-149.
Treatment fidelity assessment is critical to evaluating the extent to which interventions, such as the Good Behavior Game, are implemented as intended and impact student outcomes. The assessment methods by which treatment fidelity data are collected vary, with direct observation being the most popular and widely recommended.
Collier-Meek, M. A., Fallon, L. M., & DeFouw, E. R. (2020). Assessing the implementation of the Good Behavior Game: Comparing estimates of adherence, quality, and exposure. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 45(2), 95-109.
The purpose of this study was to critically examine the positive approaches to behavioral intervention research and young children demonstrating challenging behavior. The results indicate an increasing trend of research using positive behavioral interventions with young children who demonstrate challenging behaviors. Most of the research has been conducted with children with disabilities between 3 and 6 years old.
Conroy, M. A., Dunlap, G., Clarke, S., & Alter, P. J. (2005). A descriptive analysis of positive behavioral intervention research with young children with challenging behavior. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 25(3), 157-166.
This volume describes basic concepts and strategies for thinking about instructional classroom management and reviews general strategies for rethinking and reorganizing a classroom to reflect an instructional classroom management approach. Instructional classroom management approaches student behavior based on the premise that strategies for teaching and managing social behavior are not different from strategies for teaching subject matter.
Darch, C.B., & Kame’enui, E.J. (1995). Instructional Classroom Mangement: A Proactive Approach to Behavior Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
This meta-analysis of single-case research synthesized the results of 29 studies examining the effectiveness of school-based peer management interventions.
Dart, E. H., Collins, T. A., Klingbeil, D. A., & McKinley, L. E. (2014). Peer management interventions: A meta-analytic review of single-case research. School Psychology Review, 43(4), 367-384.
This study examines the effect of using active supervision, pre-correction, and daily data review on occurrences of minor behavioral incidents in a sixth grade general education classroom. The results suggest a functional relationship between the use of the teacher-training package and concomitant decreases in minor behavioral incidents.
De Pry, R.L., & Sugai, G. (2002). The effect of active supervision and pre-correction on minor behavioral incidents in a sixth grade general education classroom. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11, 255-264.
A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.
Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological bulletin, 125(6), 627.
The purpose of this article is to discuss classwide peer tutoring as an effective instructional procedure. The article is organized into three major sections:(a) general principles of instruction,(b) description of classwide peer tutoring procedures, and (c) review of effectiveness data concerning classroom process (ie, ecological and behavioral factors) and student achievement outcomes.
Delquadri, J., Greenwood, C. R., Whorton, D., Carta, J. J., & Hall, R. V. (1986). Classwide peer tutoring. Exceptional children, 52(6), 535-542.
This study investigated the effects of self-graphing on improving the reactivity of self-monitoring procedures for two students with learning disabilities.
DiGangi, S. A., Maag, J. W., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1991). Self-graphing of on-task behavior: Enhancing the reactive effects of self-monitoring on on-task behavior and academic performance. Learning Disability Quarterly, 14(3), 221-230.
The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of a tootling intervention, in which students report on peers' appropriate behavior, modified to incorporate ClassDojo technology, on class-wide disruptive behavior and academically engaged behavior.
Dillon, M. B. M., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dart, E. H., Barry, C. T., & Codding, R. (2019). The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms. School Psychology Review, 48(1).
The purpose of this article is to address some of the key points of confusion, identify areas of overlap and distinction, and facilitate a constructive and collegial dialog between proponents of the PBS and ABA perspectives.
Dunlap, G., Carr, E. G., Horner, R. H., Zarcone, J. R., & Schwartz, I. (2008). Positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis: A familial alliance. Behavior Modification, 32(5), 682-698.
Two analyses investigated the effects of choice making on the responding of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral challenges.
Dunlap, G., DePerczel, M., Clarke, S., Wilson, D., Wright, S., White, R., & Gomez, A. (1994). Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(3), 505-518.
Could there be a behavioral vaccine, nearly as simple as antiseptic handwashing, which might significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity of multiproblem behavior? Yes, there could be. This paper details what one might be and how it might become as common as a doctor or nurse washing hands with an antiseptic solution
Embry, D. D. (2002). The Good Behavior Game: A best practice candidate as a universal behavioral vaccine. Clinical child and family psychology review, 5(4), 273-297.
In this systematic literature review, we examined the effects of coaching teachers and other educators to increase their use of behavior-specific praise, a low-intensity teacher-delivered strategy previously determined to be a potentially evidence-based practice based on Council for Exceptional Children’s (CEC) Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. Research has shown that traditional lecture-style short-duration professional development does not typically lead to lasting change in teacher behavior, but follow-up observations with continued support are much more likely to produce desired outcomes.
Ennis, R. P., Royer, D. J., Lane, K. L., & Dunlap, K. D. (2020). The impact of coaching on teacher-delivered behavior-specific praise in pre-K–12 settings: A systematic review. Behavioral Disorders, 45(3), 148-166.
Presents some of the current best practices in services for children and their families, as well as in the research and evaluation of these services.
Epstein, M. H., Kutash, K. E., & Duchnowski, A. E. (1998). Outcomes for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders and their families: Programs and evaluation best practices. Pro-Ed.
This guide explores the challenges involved in providing the optimum climate for learning and provides recommendations for encouraging positive behavior and reducing negative behavior.
Epstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, K. (2008). Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom. IES Practice Guide, 20(8), 12-22.
The review contains a comprehensive evaluation of studies that have directly compared school‐based, teacher‐ vs. student‐management interventions.
Fantuzzo, J. W., Polite, K., Cook, D. M., & Quinn, G. (1988). An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher‐vs. student‐management classroom interventions. Psychology in the Schools, 25(2), 154-163.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on task behaviour. Continuous data collection indicated that following training in the appropriate use of praise, as specified by Canter, all three teachers successfully increased their rates of praising. Of the 24 children, all but one evidenced increases in levels of on‐task behaviour.
Ferguson, E. & Houghton, S. (1992). The effects of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on-task behaviour. Educational Studies, 18(1), 83-93.
The purpose of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study1 (BTES) was to identify teaching activities and classroom conditions that foster student learning in ele-mentary schools. The study focused on instruction in reading and mathematics at grades two and five.
Fisher, C. W., Berliner, D. C., Filby, N. N., Marliave, R., Cahen, L. S., & Dishaw, M. M. (1981). Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview. The Journal of classroom interaction, 17(1), 2-15.
Leading experts present evidence-based procedures for supporting positive behaviors and reducing problem behaviors with children and adults in diverse contexts. Chapters delve into applications in education, autism treatment, addictions, behavioral pediatrics, and other areas.
Fisher, W. W., Piazza, C. C., & Roane, H. H. (2011). Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
The purposes of this review were to (a) describe and quantify the effect of the Good Behavior Game on various challenging behaviors in school and classroom settings and (b) understand characteristics of the intervention that may affect the magnitude of the outcomes
Flower, A., McKenna, J. W., Bunuan, R. L., Muething, C. S., & Vega Jr, R. (2014). Effects of the Good Behavior Game on challenging behaviors in school settings. Review of educational research, 84(4), 546-571.
This paper summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem-solving.
Friman, P. C., & Poling, A. (1995). Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(4), 583-590.
The purpose of this classroom-based experiment was to explore methods for helping students generate conceptual mathematical explanations during peer-mediated learning activities.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Phillips, N. B., Karns, K., & Dutka, S. (1997). Enhancing students' helping behavior during peer-mediated instruction with conceptual mathematical explanations. The Elementary School Journal, 97(3), 223-249.
Three group-oriented contingency systems (interdependent, dependent, and independent) were compared in a modified reversal design to evaluate each system's effectiveness in controlling the disruptive behavior of a self-contained classroom of educable mentally retarded children.
Gresham, F. M., & Gresham, G. N. (1982). Interdependent, dependent, and independent group contingencies for controlling disruptive behavior. The Journal of Special Education, 16(1), 101-110.
This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.
Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.
This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.
Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.
This overview describes strategies for how school personnel can respond when disruptive behavior occurs, including (1) negative consequences that can be applied as primary interventions, (2) functional behavior assessment, and (3) function-based, individualized interventions characteristic of the secondary or tertiary tiers of a multitiered system of support.
Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Decreasing Inppropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-inappropriate-behaviors.
The authors evaluated four methods for increasing the practicality of functional communication training (FCT) by decreasing the frequency of reinforcement for alternative behavior.
Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., & Thompson, R. H. (2001). Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34(1), 17-38.
To examine the long-term effects of an intervention combining teacher training, parent education, and social competence training for children during the elementary grades on adolescent health-risk behaviors at age 18 years.
Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Hill, K. G. (1999). Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 153(3), 226-234.
Teachers experience high levels of stress and emotional exhaustion while teaching in classrooms with too much student misbehavior. This situation created a negative learning environment in which the teachers were not able to complete their lesson plans on a daily basis. Fortunately, a simple strategy was used to effectively respond to these challenging behaviors.
Haydon, T., & Musti-Rao, S. (2011). Effective use of behavior-specific praise: A middle school case study. Beyond Behavior, 20(2).
This outstanding textbook presents innovative interventions for youth with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Community Treatment for Youth is designed to fill a gap between the knowledge base and clinical practice through its presentation of theory, practice parameters, training requirements, and research evidence.
Hoagwood, K. I. M. B. E. R. L. Y., Burns, B. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). A profitable conjunction: From science to service in children’s mental health. Community treatment for youth: Evidence-based interventions for severe emotional and behavioral disorders, 327-338.
A study was designed to investigate if a combination of positive behavior supports-based interventions such as behavior-specific praise and reduced teacher reprimands might improve on-task behavior.
Hollingshead, A., Kroeger, S. D., Altus, J., & Trytten, J. B. (2016). A case study of positive behavior supports-based interventions in a seventh-grade urban classroom. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 60(4), 1-8.
In this issue of JPBI, the forum is dedicated to comments from administrators, teachers, parents, students, and specialists who are participating in efforts to establish school-wide behavior support.
Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2000). School-wide behavior support: An emerging initiative. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 231.
The Monitoring Advanced Tiers Tool (MATT) is a coach-guided, self-assessment tool that allows school teams to progress monitor their initial implementation of Tier II (secondary, targeted) and Tier III (tertiary, intensive) behavior support systems within their school. The MATT follows the factor structure of the Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (ISSET), and the Benchmark of Advanced Tiers (BAT). The MATT is intended to be an efficient and constructive method for teams to monitor and guide their implementation of Tier II and Tier III behavior support practices.
Horner, R. H., Sampson, N. K., Anderson, C. M., Todd, A. W., & Eliason, B. M. (2013). Monitoring advanced tiers tool. Eugene: Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon.
The School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET; Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, Todd, & Horner, 2001) was created to provide a rigorous measure of primary prevention practices within school-wide behavior support. In this article, the authors describe the SET and document its psychometric characteristics.
Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool (SET) a research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 3-12.
Schools throughout the country are now encouraged to implement school-wide positive behavior support (PBS) procedures as a way to improve their behavioral climate, safety, and social culture. The School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET; Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, Todd, & Horner, 2001) was created to provide a rigorous measure of primary prevention practices within school-wide behavior support.
Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool (SET) a research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 3-12.
Four secondary school teachers were systematically observed teaching four different classes. Measures of class on‐task behaviour and teacher use of praise and reprimand were made during each observation session.
Houghton, S., Wheldall, K., Jukes, R. O. D., & Sharpe, A. (1990). The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behaviour in four British secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 60(3), 255-265.
This evaluation used Messick's construct validity as a conceptual framework for an empirical study assessing the validity of use, utility, and impact of office discipline referral (ODR) measures for data-based decision making about student behavior in schools.
Irvin, L. K., Horner, R. H., Ingram, K., Todd, A. W., Sugai, G., Sampson, N. K., & Boland, J. B. (2006). Using office discipline referral data for decision making about student behavior in elementary and middle schools: An empirical evaluation of validity. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(1), 10-23.
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a well-documented group contingency designed to reduce disruptive behavior in classroom settings. However, few studies have evaluated the GBG with students who engage in severe problem behavior in alternative schools, and there are few demonstrations of training teachers in those settings to implement the GBG.
Joslyn, P. R., & Vollmer, T. R. (2020). Efficacy of teacher‐implemented Good Behavior Game despite low treatment integrity. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 53(1), 465-474.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention for whole classes, and for students with disruptive behaviors who are at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD).
Kamps, D., Wills, H. P., Heitzman-Powell, L., Laylin, J., Szoke, C., Petrillo, T., & Culey, A. (2011). Class-wide function-related intervention teams: Effects of group contingency programs in urban classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 13(3), 154-167.supp
Managing Classroom Behavior summarizes principles of good instruction, the acting-out cycle, and how to work with students, other teachers, and parents.
Kauffman, J. M., Mostert, M. P., & Hallahan, D. P. (1993). Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach. New York: Allyn and Bacon.
This chapter traces the history of behavior modification as a general movement. Individual conceptual approaches and techniques that comprise behavior modification are obviously important in tracing the history, but they are examined as part of the larger development rather than as ends in their own right.
Kazdin, A. E. (1982). History of behavior modification. In International handbook of behavior modification and therapy (pp. 3-32). Springer, Boston, MA.
The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of classroom behavior management used by teachers, tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985–1986 school year. This article reports on impact to age 19–21.
Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., ... & Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and alcohol dependence, 95, S5-S28.
This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator—an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention—as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools.
Kowalewicz, E. A., & Coffee, G. (2014). Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention. School Psychology Quarterly, 29(2), 138.
This study examined the impact of two class‐wide positive behavior support programs. The Mystery Motivator and Get 'Em On Task interventions were implemented in an alternating treatments design with fifth grade participants to decrease off‐task behaviors.
Kraemer, E. E., Davies, S. C., Arndt, K. J., & Hunley, S. (2012). A comparison of the Mystery Motivator and the Get'Em On Task interventions for off‐task behaviors. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 163-175.
Coaching with embedded video-analysis is a method for providing teacher consultation services utilizing technology to record teaching sessions, watch and analyze recordings, identify a target area for improvement, and use the information gained to improve practice. As general education teachers’ role in positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) grows and more students with severe and challenging behavior are educated in general education classrooms, coaching with video-analysis may be useful to improve implementation fidelity and sustainability of evidence-based classroom management practices.
Lane, C., Neely, L., Castro-Villarreal, F., & Villarreal, V. (2020). Using Coaching with Video Analysis to Improve Teachers’ Classroom Management Practices: Methods to Increase Implementation Fidelity. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(3), 543-569.
The bulletin describes the procedures used to select studies for the meta-analysis, presents the methods of analysis used to answer the above questions, and then discusses effective interventions for noninstitutionalized and institutionalized offenders.
Lipsey, M. W. (2000). Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
The authors investigated the relative effects of self-recording of attentive behavior and self-recording of academic productivity with 5 upper elementary-aged special education students in their special education classroom.
Lloyd, J. W., Bateman, D. F., Landrum, T. J., & Hallahan, D. P. (1989). Self‐recording of attention versus productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22(3), 315-32
This study examines key substance use, delinquency, and school-based aggressive behavior outcomes at a 1-year follow-up for a cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered to aggressive children and their parents at the time of these children's transition to middle school.
Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2003). Effectiveness of the Coping Power Program and of classroom intervention with aggressive children: Outcomes at a 1-year follow-up. Behavior Therapy, 34(4), 493-515.
The purpose of this study was to provide an example of a group contingency classwide intervention called Anchor the Boat that operationally defined behavioral expectations, taught those expectations using teacher-directed instruction and role playing, and reinforced students when they met the behavioral criteria.
Lohrmann, S. & Talerico, J. (2004). Anchor the boat: A classwide intervention to reduce problem behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 6(2), 113–120. https://doi.org/10.1177/10983007040060020601
This study examined the types and frequency of schools’ social expectations and behavioral indicators as they were written into their behavior matrices
Lynass, L., Tsai, S. F., Richman, T. D., & Cheney, D. (2012). Social expectations and behavioral indicators in school-wide positive behavioral supports: A national study of behavioral matrices. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(3), 153–161. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300711412076
This study investigated the effectiveness of the mystery motivator intervention as a means to remediate mathematics homework accuracy and completion problems in five fifth-grade students.
Madaus, M. M., Kehle, T. J., Madaus, J., & Bray, M. A. (2003). Mystery motivator as an intervention to promote homework completion and accuracy. School Psychology International, 24(4), 369-377.
This is a study of the effects on classroom behavior of Rules, Ignoring Inappropriate Behaviors, and showing Approval for Appropriate Behavior.
Madsen Jr, C. H., Becker, W. C., & Thomas, D. R. (1968). Rules, praise, and ignoring: Elements of elementary classroom control. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(2), 139.
Interventions for challenging behavior are more likely to be effective when based on the results of a functional behavioral assessment. Research to date suggests that staff members in educational settings may not have the requisite levels of expertise or support to implement behavioral assessment procedures and design corresponding behavior support plans.
McCahill, J., Healy, O., Lydon, S., & Ramey, D. (2014). Training educational staff in functional behavioral assessment: A systematic review. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 26(4), 479-505.
Given the increased risk factors in the transition from middle school to high school, this study tracked academic and school discipline records for students receiving general and special education services as they transitioned from Grade 8 to Grade 9
McIntosh, K., Brigid Flannery, K., Sugai, G., Braun, D. H., & Cochrane, K. L. (2008). Relationships between academics and problem behavior in the transition from middle school to high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(4), 243-255.
Several reliable and valid fidelity surveys are commonly used to assess Tier 1 implementation in School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS); however, differences across surveys complicate consequential decisions regarding school implementation status when multiple measures are compared. Compared with other measures, the PBIS Self-Assessment Survey (SAS) was more sensitive to differences among schools at higher levels of implementation. Implications for SWPBIS research and fidelity assessment are discussed.
Mercer, S. H., McIntosh, K., & Hoselton, R. (2017). Comparability of fidelity measures for assessing tier 1 school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19(4), 195-204.
This Report describes the Blueprints programs, presents lessons learned about program implementation, and provides recommendations for program designers, funders, and implementing agencies and organizations.
Mihalic, S., Ballard, D., Michalski, A., Tortorice, J., Cunningham, L., & Argamaso, S. (2002). Blueprints for violence prevention, violence initiative: Final process evaluation report. Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
A within-subjects multiple baseline across subjects design was employed to assess the effects of a self-management intervention involving self-recording and goal setting on the academic behaviour of three Year 4 (8-year-old) boys during language (poetry and story writing) lessons
Moore, D. W., Prebble, S., Robertson, J., Waetford, R., & Anderson, A. (2001). Self-recording with goal setting: A self-management programme for the classroom. Educational Psychology, 21(3), 255-265.
Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of a brief prompting intervention (verbal and visual reminder of classroom rules) to improve classroom behavior for an elementary student during small-group reading instruction in a special education classroom (Study 1) and for three high school students with mild disabilities in an inclusive general education classroom (Study 2).
Moore, T. C., Alpers, A. J., Rhyne, R., Coleman, M. B., Gordon, J. R., Daniels, S., … Park, Y. (2019). Brief prompting to improve classroom behavior: A first-pass intervention option. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 21(1), 30–41. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300718774881
This paper is designed to help educators understand research findings on promising interventions for students with a history of behavior problems. It reviews programs for preventing such problems from recurring among children and adolescents with chronic antisocial behavior.
National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (1999). Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems. Washington, DC: Author.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning instructional practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavior disorders.
Nelson, J.R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, M. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62.
Examined the treatment integrity with which general education teachers implemented a reinforcement based intervention designed to improve the academic performance of elementary school students
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 77.
this article traces the history of institutional disciplinary measures, showing that the underlying philosophical orientation toward social control exacts a heavy toll on students, teachers, and the entire school community by producing prison-like schools that remain unsafe.
Noguera, P. (1995). Preventing and producing violence: A critical analysis of responses to school violence. Harvard Educational Review, 65(2), 189-213.
The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures
Nolan, J. D., Houlihan, D., Wanzek, M., & Jenson, W. R. (2014). The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures. School Psychology International, 35(2), 191-205.
The present report evaluates the accuracy of a reinforcer survey by comparing the survey results to the results of subsequent reinforcer assessments for 20 children using a concurrent-operants arrangement to assess relative reinforcer preference.
Northup, J. (2000). Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 335-338.syste
This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS).
Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., & Stormont, M. (2013). Classroom-level positive behavior supports in schools implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying areas for enhancement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(1),39–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300712459079
This study sought to compare the differential effects of using student-selected rewards and mystery rewards while implementing the Mystery Motivator. Three elementary classes participated in the study.
Robichaux, N. M., & Gresham, F. M. (2014). Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards. School Psychology Review, 43(3).
The authors report a randomized field experiment (N = 15,329) that tests the impact of two types of symbolic awards on student attendance: preannounced awards (prospective) and surprise awards (retrospective).
Robinson, C., Gallus, J., Lee, M., & Rogers, T. (2018). The Demotivating Effect (and Unintended Message) of Retrospective Awards.
The present study assessed the relative strength of daily rule review and rehearsal on student behavior when such procedures were added to a token economy. The token program was designed to increase appropriate classroom behaviors of disruptive boys attending a multi categorical resource room.
Rosenberg, M. S. (1986). Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students. Behavioral Disorders, 11(4), 239-248.
The authors conducted a systematic literature review to explore this low-intensity, teacher-delivered strategy, applying Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) quality indicators and standards to determine whether BSP can be considered an evidence-based practice (EBP).
Royer, D. J., Lane, K. L., Dunlap, K. D., & Ennis, R. P. (2019). A systematic review of teacher-delivered behavior-specific praise on K–12 student performance. Remedial and Special Education, 40(2), 112-128.
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a series of program variables used to modify the time a subject spent attending in an experimental restaurant setting.
Rusch, F. R., Connis, R. T., & Sowers, J. A. (1978). The modification and maintenance of time spent attending using social reinforcement, token reinforcement and response cost in an applied restaurant setting. Journal of Special Education Technology, 2(1), 18-26.
This study evaluates the effect of implementation planning, a treatment integrity promotion strategy that includes detailed logistical planning and barrier identification adapted from an adult behavior change theory from heath psychology (i.e., the Health Action Process Approach).
Sanetti, L. M. H., Collier-Meek, M. A., Long, A. C. J., Kim, J., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2014). Using implementation planning to increase teachers’ adherence to quality behavior support plans. Psychology in the Schools, 51(8), 879–895. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21787
For more than 10 years, the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions has published, among other types of articles, behavioral intervention outcome studies related to positive behavior support. Operationally defining interventions is important to facilitating replication studies and adoption of intervention in applied settings.
Sanetti, L. M. H., Dobey, L. M., & Gritter, K. L. (2012). Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions from 1999 to 2009. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 29-46.
This article presents an example of how school time was monitored to facilitate a cost analysis of school-wide systems of positive behavior support (PBS).
Scott, T. M., & Barrett, S. B. (2004). Using staff and student time engaged in disciplinary procedures to evaluate the impact of school-wide PBS. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 21-27.
This study evaluated the effects of an elementary physical education curriculum in which development of positive social skills, including leadership and conflict‐resolution behaviors, was the primary focus
Sharpe, T., Brown, M., & Crider, K. (1995). The effects of a sportsmanship curriculum intervention on generalized positive social behaviors of urban elementary school students. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(4), 401-416.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1279847/pdf/jaba00006-0016.pdf
The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.
Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.
In the current study, a withdrawal design was used to investigate a corollary system. Fourth-grade students were trained to observe and report peers’ prosocial behaviors (i.e., tootle), and interdependent group contingencies and public posting were used to reinforce those reports.
SkINNER, C. H., CASHwELL, T. H., & SkINNER, A. L. (2000). Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer‐monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors. Psychology in the Schools, 37(3), 263-270.
In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.
States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.
The thesis of this paper is that the current problem behavior of students in elementary and middle schools requires a preventive, whole-school approach. The foundation for such an approach lies in the emerging technology of positive behavior support.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2002). The evolution of discipline practices: School-wide positive behavior supports. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 24(1-2), 23-50.
The purpose of this article is to describe how effective practices are incorporated into an approach termed schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS)
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence based practices. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 62-83.
Positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) was first introduced with the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1997. In this article, we describe the 25-year history of the PBIS implementation experience, including the core features of PBIS as a multitiered framework and the process and outcomes for implementing PBIS across over 26,000 schools. We also summarize the national outcome data of PBIS implementation and conclude with a discussion of future directions and considerations, focusing on sustainability and scaling.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2020). Sustaining and scaling positive behavioral interventions and supports: Implementation drivers, outcomes, and considerations. Exceptional Children, 86(2), 120-136.
This article focuses on the systemic implementation features of SWPBS as a means of increasing the accurate adoption and sustained implementation of effective behavioral practices at the individual student, classroom, and school-wide levels. This article describes SWPBS, suggest how SWPBS might be implemented at broader systems levels, and discuss research and practice implications.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. R. (2006). A promising approach for expanding and sustaining school-wide positive behavior support. School psychology review, 35(2), 245.
This research brief provide an introductory overview of the cost of implementation of SWPBIS, as a school-wide approach to reduce suspensions, compared to the cost of school dropout.
Swain-Bradway, J., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Bradshaw, C., & McIntosh, K. (2017). What are the economic costs of implementing SWPBIS in comparison to the benefits from reducing suspensions. PBIS evaluation brief). Eugene, OR: OSEP TA Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
Two years of office referral data are presented in evaluation of a school-wide behavioral support program designed to define, teach, and reward appropriate student behavior in a rural middle school (grades 6, 7, and 8).
Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen, J., ... & Hall, S. (1997). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7(1), 99-112.
The present study replicates and extends previous research on stimulus control by arranging teacher attention for preschooler's mands into a multiple schedule and conducting a component analysis of the effects of schedule‐correlated stimuli and contingency‐specifying stimuli (rules) on the development of discriminated manding.
Tiger, J. H., & Hanley, G. P. (2004). Developing stimulus control of preschooler mands: An analysis of schedule-correlated and contingency-specifying stimuli. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(4), 517–521. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2004.37-517
This review describes the game and its numerous variations and adaptations, as well as empirical findings specific to the variety of target behaviors and participants to which it has been applied.
Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969–2002. Behavior Modification, 30(2), 225–253. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445503261165
This review describes the game and its numerous variations and adaptations, as well as empirical findings specific to the variety of target behaviors and participants to which it has been applied. I
Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969-2002. Behavior modification, 30(2), 225-253.
This paper discusses four types of violence then briefly review the risk literature in order to highlight promising targets for intervention. Then the authors organize their review of the efficacy of specific approaches by the specific level targeted.
Tolan, P., & Guerra, N. (1994). What works in reducing adolescent violence. An empirical review of the field boulde.-CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a class-wide multiple schedule on differentiated rates of student recruitment of teacher attention in two public elementary classrooms.
Torelli, J. N., Lloyd, B. P., Diekman, C. A., & Wehby, J. H. (2017). Teaching stimulus control via class-wide multiple schedules of reinforcement in public elementary school classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19(1), 14–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300716632878
The U.S. Department of Education (ED) is issuing this resource guide to assist states, school districts, charter school operators, school staff, parents, students, and other stakeholders who are seeking to develop school climate and school discipline policies and practices that are both locally tailored and grounded in recognized promising practices and research. ED's
U. S. Department of Education. (2014). Guiding principles: A resource guide for improving school climate and discipline.Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/school-discipline/guiding-principles.pdf.school cli
This report, the first Surgeon General's report on youth violence in the United States, summarizes an extensive body of research and seeks to clarify seemingly contradictory trends, such as the discrepancies noted above between official records of youth violence and young people's self-reports of violent behaviors.
U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General—Executive Summary. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Service; and National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health.
To address situations where consensus is difficult to achieve, this article outlines a process that assesses and summarizes the views of all school-based staff and then facilitates discussions based on the aggregated data.
Valenti, M. W., & Kerr, M. M. (2015). Addressing individual perspectives in the development of schoolwide rules: A data-informed process. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(4), 245–253. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300714544405
The effects of specific verbal praise by an experienced male physical education specialist on the off-task behavior of three second-grade students were studied.
Van der Mars, H. (1989). Effects of specific verbal praise on off-task behavior of second-grade students in physical education. Journal of teaching in Physical Education, 8(2), 162-169.
practitioners of behavior management & students who are just learning the basics of applied behavior analysis will find this new edition packed with useful information from the original version
Van Houten, R., & Hall, R. V. (2001). The measurement of behavior: Behavior modification. Pro-ed.
The purpose of the current study was to assess the efficacy of a multiple schedule plus rules indicative of the availability of attention for hand raises during circle time in typical preschool classrooms
Vargo, K. K., Heal, N. A., Epperley, K., & Kooistra, E. (2014). The effects of a multiple schedule plus rules on hand raising during circle time in preschool classrooms. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(3), 326–343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-014-9199-3
This text provides practical guidelines and techniques for effectively managing acting out behavior in elementary students. It attempts to characterize acting-out behavior in the context of schooling; describe what is known about coping effectively with it; and illustrate applications of successful interventions.
Walker, H. M. (1995). The acting-out child: Coping with classroom disruption. Sopris West, 1140 Boston Ave., Longmont, CO 80501.
This article provides a reconceptualization of the role of schools in preventing antisocial behavior problems among children and youth.
Walker, H. M., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Bullis, M., Sprague, J. R., Bricker, D., & Kaufman, M. J. (1996). Integrated approaches to preventing antisocial behavior patterns among school-age children and youth. Journal of emotional and behavioral disorders, 4(4), 194-209.
A major goal of this article (and of our much larger book) is to communicate and adapt this knowledge base for effective use by educators in coping with the rising tide of antisocial students populating today's schools.
Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2003). Heading off disruptive behavior: How early intervention can reduce defiant behavior—and win back teaching time. American Educator, 26(4), 6-45.
This classic in the literature of child violence and antisocial behavior has been updated to include coverage of the most recent and important school safety, prevention, and universal intervention programs.
Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Antisocial behavior in school: Evidence based practices. Belmont, CA: Thomson.
In this article, we report the results from a randomized evaluation of the Safe and Civil Schools (SCS) model for school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. Thirty-two elementary schools in a large urban school district were randomly assigned to an initial training cohort or a wait-list control group.
Ward, B., & Gersten, R. (2013). A randomized evaluation of the safe and civil schools model for positive behavioral interventions and supports at elementary schools in a large urban school district. School Psychology Review, 42(3), 317-333.
The present study examined the effects of the Class-wide Function-related Intervention Team (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention, on the on-task behavior of six elementary school children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in a self-contained, urban classroom
Weeden, M., Wills, H. P., Kottwitz, E., & Kamps, D. (2016). The effects of a class-wide behavior intervention for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 42(1), 285-293.
This study had two primary purposes: first, to demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple behavior management system, and second, to begin the process of providing some guidance for the application of similar systems.
Wheatley, R. K., West, R. P., Charlton, C. T., Sanders, R. B., Smith, T. G., & Taylor, M. J. (2009). Improving behavior through differential reinforcement: A praise note system for elementary school students. Education and treatment of children, 32(4), 551-571.
This systematic review synthesizes the characteristics, methodological quality, and outcomes of 15 single-subject studies and one group design study examining CICO.
Wolfe, K., Pyle, D., Charlton, C. T., Sabey, C. V., Lund, E. M., & Ross, S. W. (2016). A systematic review of the empirical support for check-in check-out. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(2), 74-88.