This book is compiled from the proceedings of the sixth summit entitled “Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance.” The 2011 summit topic was selected to help answer the following question: What basic practice has the potential for the greatest impact on changing the behavior of students, teachers, and school administrative personnel?
States, J., Keyworth, R. & Detrich, R. (2013). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Sixth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 3, pp. ix-xii). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.
Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules can be used to decrease, but not eliminate, excessive bids for teacher attention in a classroom. There are two primary methods of implementing a DRL: full session and spaced responding.
Becraft, J. L., Borrero, J. C., Mendres-Smith, A. E., & Castillo, M. I. (2017). Decreasing excessive bids for attention in a simulated early education classroom. Journal of Behavioral Education, 26(4), 371-393.
Dane and Schneider propose treatment integrity as a multi-dimensional construct and describe five dimensions that constitute the construct.
Dane, A. V., & Schneider, B. H. (1998). Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control. Clinical psychology review, 18(1), 23-45.
The impact of an intervention is influenced by how well it fis into the context of a classroom. This paper suggests a number of variables to consider and how they might be measured prior to the development of an intervention.
Detrich, R. (1999). Increasing treatment fidelity by matching interventions to contextual variables within the educational setting. School Psychology Review, 28(4), 608-620.
To produce better outcomes for students two things are necessary: (1) effective, scientifically supported interventions (2) those interventions implemented with high integrity. Typically, much greater attention has been given to identifying effective practices. This review focuses on features of high quality implementation.
Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258-271.
Presentation by Wing Institute with goals: Make the case that treatment integrity monitoring is a necessary part of service delivery; describe dimensions of treatment integrity; suggest methods for increasing treatment integrity; place treatment integrity within systems framework .
Detrich, R. (2015). Treatment integrity: A wicked problem and some solutions. Missouri Association for Behavior Analysis 2015 Conference. http://winginstitute.org/2015-MissouriABA-Presentation-Ronnie-Detrich
Over the last fifty years, there have been many educational reform efforts, most of which have had a relatively short lifespan and failed to produce the promised results. One possible reason for this is for the most part these innovations have been poorly implemented. In this chapter, the author proposes a data-based decision making approach to assuring high quality implementation.
Detrich, R. Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, and J. Twyman (Eds). Handbook on Innovations in Learning, 31. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing
Reform efforts tend to come and go very quickly in education. This paper makes the argument that the sustainability of programs is closely related to how well those programs are implemented.
Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2010). Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Unit of Sustainable Educational Programs. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 4-29.
The usual approach to determining if an intervention is effective for a student is to review student outcome data; however, this is only part of the task. Student data can only be understood if we know something about how well the intervention was implemented. Student data without treatment integrity data are largely meaningless because without knowing how well an intervention has been implemented, no judgments can be made about the effectiveness of the intervention. Poor outcomes can be a function of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of the intervention. Without treatment integrity data, there is a risk that an intervention will be judged as ineffective when, in fact, the quality of implementation was so inadequate that it would be unreasonable to expect positive outcomes.
Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.
For the best chance of producing positive educational outcomes for all children, two conditions must be met: (a) adopting effective empirically supported (evidence-based) practices and (b) implementing those practices with sufficient quality that they make a difference (treatment integrity)
Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2107). Overview of Treatment Integrity. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.
This study evaluated the impact of public feedback in RtI team meetings on the quality of implementation. Feedback improved poor implementation and maintained high level implementation.
Duhon, G. J., Mesmer, E. M., Gregerson, L., & Witt, J. C. (2009). Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance. Journal of School Psychology, 47(1), 19-37.
The first purpose of this review is to assess the impact of implementation on program outcomes, and the second purpose is to identify factors affecting the implementation process.
Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American journal of community psychology, 41(3-4), 327-350.
This paper summarizes survey results about the acceptability of different methods for monitoring treatment integrity and performance feedback.
Easton, J. E., & Erchul, W. P. (2011). An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(1), 56-77. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10474412.2011.544949?journalCode=hepc20.
To help states and districts make informed decisions about the PD they implement to improve reading instruction, the U.S. Department of Education commissioned the Early Reading PD Interventions Study to examine the impact of two research-based PD interventions for reading instruction: (1) a content-focused teacher institute series that began in the summer and continued through much of the school year (treatment A) and (2) the same institute series plus in-school coaching (treatment B).
Garet, M. S., Cronen, S., Eaton, M., Kurki, A., Ludwig, M., Jones, W., ... Zhu, P. (2008). The impact of two professional development interventions on early reading instruction and achievement. NCEE 2008-4030. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
This descriptive study examines the relationship between student teaching experiences and a teacher’s future effectiveness on the job. The primary finding is that teachers are more effective when the student demographics of their current schools are similar to the student demographics of the schools in which they did their student teaching. This study suggests that further experimental research be conducted to determine if the data hold up. If they do, the implication is that, in recruiting new teachers, school principals would be well served by choosing candidates whose student teaching experiences were in schools whose demographics match those of their own schools. Teacher preparation programs can also assist by assessing candidates’ preferences for where they plan on working and match student teaching placements to schools with similar demographics where new teachers are likely to be employed.
Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J. M., & Theobald, R. (2017). Does the match matter? Exploring whether student teaching experiences affect teacher effectiveness. American Educational Research Journal, 54(2), 325–359.
Technical issues (specification of treatment components, deviations from treatment protocols and amount of behavior change, and psychometric issues in assessing Treatment Integrity) involved in the measurement of Treatment Integrity are discussed.
Gresham, F. M. (1989). Assessment of treatment integrity in school consultation and prereferral intervention. School Psychology Review, 18(1), 37-50.
This study evaluated the differences in estimates of treatment integrity be measuring different dimensions of it.
Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., & Fallon, L. M. (2011). Treatment Integrity Assessment: How Estimates of Adherence, Quality, and Exposure Influence Interpretation of Implementation. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(3), 209-232.
This study examines adoption and implementation of the US Department of Education's new policy, the `Principles of Effectiveness', from a diffusion of innovations theoretical framework. In this report, we evaluate adoption in relation to Principle 3: the requirement to select research-based programs.
Hallfors, D., & Godette, D. (2002). Will the “principles of effectiveness” improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study. Health Education Research, 17(4), 461–470.
Used a direct observation-based approach to identify behavioral conditions in sending (i.e., special education) and in receiving (i.e., regular education) classrooms and to identify targets for intervention that might facilitate mainstreaming of behavior-disordered (BD) children.
Hoier, T. S., McConnell, S., & Pallay, A. G. (1987). Observational assessment for planning and evaluating educational transitions: An initial analysis of template matching. Behavioral Assessment.
The purposes of this manuscript are to propose core features that may apply to any practice or set of practices that proposes to be evidence-based in relation to School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS).
Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(8), 1.
“Contextual fit” is based on the premise that the match between an intervention and local context affects both the quality of intervention implementation and whether the intervention actually produces the desired outcomes for children and families.
Horner, R., Blitz, C., & Ross, S. (2014). The importance of contextual fit when implementing evidence-based interventions. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/77066/ib_Contextual.pdf
This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.
Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.
The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes.
Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological bulletin, 119(2), 254.
This book examines the use of video recording to to improve teacher performance. The book shows how every classroom can easily benefit from setting up a camera and hitting “record”.
Knight, J. (2013). Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction. (Pages 8-14). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
This paper examines school-based experimental studies with individuals 0 to 18 years between 1991 and 2005. Only 30% of the studies provided treatment integrity data. Nearly half of studies (45%) were judged to be at high risk for treatment inaccuracies.
McIntyre, L. L., Gresham, F. M., DiGennaro, F. D., & Reed, D. D. (2007). Treatment integrity of school‐based interventions with children in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1991–2005. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(4), 659–672.
This study compared the effects of discussing issues of implementation challenges and performance feedback on increasing the integrity of implementation. Performance feedback was more effective than discussion in increasing integrity.
Noell, G. H., & Witt, J. C. (2000). Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 271.
This book looks at how new ideas spread via communication channels over time. Such innovations are initially perceived as uncertain and even risky. To overcome this uncertainty, most people seek out others like themselves who have already adopted the new idea. Thus the diffusion process typically takes months or years. But there are exceptions: use of the Internet in the 1990s, for example, may have spread more rapidly than any other innovation in the history of humankind.
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.
This paper reviews options for treatment integrity measurement emphasizing how direct behavior rating technology might be incorporated within a multi-tiered model of intervention delivery.
Sanetti, L. M. H., Chafouleas, S. M., Christ, T. J., & Gritter, K. L. (2009). Extending Use of Direct Behavior Rating Beyond Student Assessment. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 34(4), 251-258.
The authors reviewed all intervention studies published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions between 1999-2009 to determine the percent of those studies that reported a measure of treatment integrity. Slightly more than 40% reported a measure of treatment integrity.
Sanetti, L. M. H., Dobey, L. M., & Gritter, K. L. (2012). Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 29-46.
The authors reviewed four school psychology journals between 1995-2008 to estimate the percent of intervention studies that reported some measure of treatment integrity. About 50% reported a measure of treatment integrity.
Sanetti, L. M. H., Gritter, K. L., & Dobey, L. M. (2011). Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008. School Psychology Review, 40(1), 72-84.
This book is written for school administrators, staff developers, behavior specialists, and instructional coaches to offer guidance in implementing research-based practices that establish effective classroom management in schools. The book provides administrators with practical strategies to maximize the impact of professional development.
Sprick, et al. (2010). Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies & Tools for Administrators & Coaches. Pacific Northwest Publishing.
Inattention to treatment integrity is a primary factor of failure during implementation. Treatment integrity is defined as the extent to which an intervention is executed as designed, and the accuracy and consistency with which the intervention is implemented
States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Treatment Integrity Strategies. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-treatment-integrity-strategies.
A summary of the available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience.
States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-overview
The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between training procedures and treatment integrity.
Sterling-Turner, H. E., Watson, T. S., Wildmon, M., Watkins, C., & Little, E. (2001). Investigating the relationship between training type and treatment integrity. School Psychology Quarterly, 16(1), 56.
In a randomized control study, Head Start teachers were assigned to either an intervention group that received intensive, ongoing professional development (PD) or to a comparison group that received the “business as usual” PD provided by Head Start. The PD intervention provided teachers with conceptual knowledge and instructional strategies that support young children’s development of vocabulary, alpha- bet knowledge, and phonological sensitivity.
Wasik, B. A., & Hindman, A. H. (2011). Improving vocabulary and pre-literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers through teacher professional development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 455.
This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on increasing the quality of implementation of interventions by teachers in a public school setting.
Witt, J. C., Noell, G. H., LaFleur, L. H., & Mortenson, B. P. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of ?the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 693.
More than two-thirds of students living in U.S. low-income urban areas have not demonstrated basic levels of math achievement. Teachers are confronted with a difficult task of meeting the needs of an increasingly academically diverse population of urban students. There is a well-confirmed knowledge base on effective instruction, but teachers need massive amounts of information for effective, sustainable improvement and data-driven decision making.
Ysseldyke, J., Spicuzza, R., Kosciolek, S., Teelucksingh, E., Boys, C., & Lemkuil, A. (2003). Using a curriculum-based instructional management system to enhance math achievement in urban schools. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 8(2), 247-265.