The present article discusses a theory of tolerance and seeks to identify the critical problems associated with the position taken in the NAS report and subsequent reform initiatives. Specifically, it is argued that brute force attempts to absorb, current special education functions into regular classrooms will necessarily fail.
Gerber, M. M. (1988). Tolerance and technology of instruction: Implications for special education reform. Exceptional Children, 54(4), 309-314.
Three formative assessment techniques for the math classroom are discussed: observation and questioning, diagnostic interviews and problem-solving-based investigations.
Sammon, K. B., & Kobett, B. (1992). Linking instruction and assessment in the mathematics classroom. The Arithmetic Teacher, 39(6), 11.
A quantitative research synthesis (meta-analysis) was conducted on the literature concerning the effects of feedback on learning from computer-based instruction (CBI).
Azevedo, R., & Bernard, R. M. (1995). A meta-analysis of the effects of feedback in computer-based instruction. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 13(2), 111-127.
This article explores factors influencing the sustained use of Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) in math in one elementary school.
Baker, S., Gersten, R., Dimino, J. A., & Griffiths, R. (2004). The sustained use of research-based instructional practice: A case study of peer-assisted learning strategies in mathematics. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 5-24.
This paper theorizes that variations in learning and the level of learning of students are determined by the students' learning histories and the quality of instruction they receive.
Bloom, B. (1976). Human characteristics and school learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.
This book provides practitioners with a complete guide to implementing response to intervention (RTI) in schools.
Brown-Chidsey, R., & Steege, M. W. (2011). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice. Guilford Press.
Meta-analytic procedures were used to analyze the link between skill proficiency and interventions categorized as addressing acquisition or fluency needs. Results suggest that the skill-by-treatment paradigm may be useful for matching skill levels in math to successful interventions and illustrate the need for additional research examining fluency interventions, particularly for students with instructional-level skills.
Burns, Matthew & Codding, Robin & Boice, Christina & Lukito, G.. (2010). Meta-Analysis of Acquisition and Fluency Math Interventions With Instructional and Frustration Level Skills: Evidence for a Skill-by-Treatment Interaction. School Psychology Review. 39. 69-83.
The present study used the instructional hierarchy to compare the effects of three instructional interventions (listening passage preview, subject passage preview, and taped words) on subjects' oral reading performance on word lists and passages.
Daly III, E. J., & Martens, B. K. (1994). A comparison of three interventions for increasing oral reading performance: Application of the instructional hierarchy. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 27(3), 459-469.
Examines the Instructional Hierarchy, a conceptual framework for refining the notion of academic responding according to a learning hierarchy and describing treatment components (e.g., modeling, drill, reinforcement, etc.) that correspond to different stages of the learning hierarchy.
Daly III, E. J., Lentz Jr, F. E., & Boyer, J. (1996). The Instructional Hierarchy: A conceptual model for understanding the effective components of reading interventions. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(4), 369.
Brief experimental analyses of oral reading fluency were conducted with 4 participants who had been referred by teachers and parents for reading problems. The procedures involved the sequential application of reading interventions to improve students’ oral reading fluency.
Daly III, E. J., Martens, B. K., Hamler, K. R., Dool, E. J., & Eckert, T. L. (1999). A brief experimental analysis for identifying instructional components needed to improve oral reading fluency. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32(1), 83-94.
In the current study, constant time delay (CTD) was embedded in classroom activities and routines to teach counting to young children. In addition, nontarget information (the color of the object) was included in the task direction. A multiple-probe design across numbers replicated across children was used.
Daugherty, S., Grisham-Brown, J., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2001). The effects of embedded skill instruction on the acquisition of target and nontarget skills in preschoolers with developmental delays. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 21(4), 213-221.
The monograph presents 15 papers on the provision of special education services within the regular classroom.
Deno, E. N. (1973). Instructional Alternatives for Exceptional Children.
Over the last fifty years, there have been many educational reform efforts, most of which have had a relatively short lifespan and failed to produce the promised results. One possible reason for this is for the most part these innovations have been poorly implemented. In this chapter, the author proposes a data-based decision making approach to assuring high quality implementation.
Detrich, R. Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, and J. Twyman (Eds). Handbook on Innovations in Learning, 31. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing
The articles in this special issue suggest that a focus upon specific educational practices has far mor e potential for advancing the field o f special (and general) education than an emphasis upon philosophies, metatheories, theories, or psychological schools that we will refer to as ideologies.
Dixon, R., & Carnine, D. (1994). Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education. The Journal of Special Education, 28(3), 356-367.
C-SAIL was established in July 2015 as a resource on the implementation and effects of college and career readiness standards. The Center is funded through a grant from the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.
Edgerton, A. Polikoff, M., Desimone, L. (2017). How is policy affecting classroom instruction?. Evidence Speaks Reports. Volume 2, #14. The Center on Standards, Alignment, Instruction, and Learning (C-SAIL).
Active learning instructional strategies can be created and used to engage students in (a) thinking critically or creatively, (b) speaking with a partner, in a small group, or with the entire class, (c) expressing ideas through writing, (d) exploring personal attitudes and values, (e) giving and receiving feedback, and (f) reflecting upon the learning process
Eison, J. (2010). Using active learning instructional strategies to create excitement and enhance learning. Jurnal Pendidikantentang Strategi Pembelajaran Aktif (Active Learning) Books, 2(1), 1-10.
This study designed to discover which models were superior in teaching basic skills and which excelled in teaching higher-order thinking skills, also which models had kids with the strongest sense of personal responsibility and which kids had the highest self-images.
Engelmann, S. (2007). Teaching needy kids in our backward system: 42 years of trying. ADI Press.
This book compares what actually occurred since publication of A System of Logic with some of the more probable scenarios of what could have happened if education had been framed as a science that resides on a logical-empirical base.
Englemann, S., & Carnine, D. (2016). Could John Stuart Mill have saved our schools?. Attainment Company Inc.
This paper identified and discussed some of the more pressing challenges and associated ethical dilemmas of implementing EBP in social work and strategies to manage them, in the hopes of affirming that the process of EBP is both feasible and practicable.
Farley, A. (2009). The challenges of implementing evidence based practice: ethical considerations in practice, education, policy, and research. Social Work & Society, 7(2), 246-259.
The current investigation is part of an ongoing line of research designed to identify critical instructional components for training new staff members in the implementation of behavior-analytic procedures, with the goal of approximating the efficiency of
indirect instructional methods while retaining the effectiveness of more direct methods.
Fisher, W. W., Kelley, M. E., & Lomas, J. E. (2003). Visual aids and structured criteria for improving visual inspection and interpretation of single‐case designs. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 36(3), 387-406.
We offer a comparative investigation of the compensation and benefits afforded to cooperating teachers (CTs) by teacher education programs (TEPs) in 1957-1958 and 2012-2013. This investigation replicates and extends a description of the compensation practices of 20 US TEPs published by VanWinkle in 1959.
Fives, H., Mills, T. M., & Dacey, C. M. (2016). Cooperating teacher compensation and benefits: Comparing 1957-1958 and 2012-2013. Journal of Teacher Education, 67(2), 105-119.
This article examines the lecture as a pedagogical genre, as “a site where differences between media are negotiated” (Franzel) as these media coevolve. This examination shows the lecture as bridging oral communication with writing and newer media technologies, rather than as being superseded by newer electronic and digital forms.
Friesen, N. (2011). The lecture as a transmedial pedagogical form: A historical analysis. Educational researcher, 40(3), 95-102.
This article describes a research program conducted over the past 8 years to address how technology can be used to surmount these implementation difficulties. The research program focused on one variety of objective, ongoing assessments known as curriculum-based measurement, in the areas of reading, spelling, and math.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1993). Technological advances linking the assessment of students' academic proficiency to instructional planning. Journal of Special Education Technology, 12(1), 49-62.
This article reviews an inductive assessment model for building instructional programs that satisfy the requirement that satisfy the requirement that special education be planned to address an individual student's need.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1994). Strengthening the connection between assessment and instructional planning with expert systems. Exceptional Children, 61(2), 138.
These papers provide up-to-date, informative summaries of current knowledge and a base from which further venture into the critical area of instructional intervention in special education can occur.
Gersten, R., Schiller, E. P., & Vaughn, S. R. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary special education research: Syntheses of the knowledge base on critical instructional issues. Routledge.
This paper confirms the predominance of lecture and adds to the existing literature by asking why principles instructors have selected their particular teaching methods.
Goffe, W. L., & Kauper, D. (2014). A survey of principles instructors: Why lecture prevails. The Journal of Economic Education, 45(4), 360-375.
Testing in the nation's schools is among the most debated issues in public education today.
Much of this discussion has centered on how much we are testing students and how we use
test results to evaluate teachers, inform instructional practice, and hold schools and
Hart, R., Casserly, M., Uzzell, R., Palacios, M., Corcoran, A., & Spurgeon, L. (2015). Student Testing in America's Great City Schools: An Inventory and Preliminary Analysis. Council of the Great City Schools.
Offering a concise introduction into the ‘Visible Learning Story’, the book provides busy teachers with a guide to why the Visible Learning research is so vital and the difference it can make to learning outcomes.
Hattie, J., & Zierer, K. (2019). Visible Learning Insights. Routledge.
The contributing authors present literature reviews, conceptual analyses, and data from several original studies; they describe advancements in curricula, classroom and schoolwide interventions, and teacher training programs; and they offer personal perspectives on the current status and future directions of behavior analysis in education.
Heward, W. L., Heron, T. E., Neef, N. A., Peterson, S. M., Sainato, D. M., Cartledge, G. Y., Gardner, R., Peterson, L. D., Hersh, S. B., Dardig, J. C. (2005). Focus on behavior analysis in education: Achievements, challenges, and opportunities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.
This study investigated the effects of feedback and remediation as instructional strategies on junior secondary school students' achievement in mathematics.
James, A.O. & Folorunso, A.M. (2012). Effect of feedback and remediation on students' achievement in junior secondary school mathematics. International Education Studies, 5(5), 153-162.
This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.
Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.
Managing Classroom Behavior summarizes principles of good instruction, the acting-out cycle, and how to work with students, other teachers, and parents.
Kauffman, J. M., Mostert, M. P., & Hallahan, D. P. (1993). Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach. New York: Allyn and Bacon.
The nature of effective instruction for students with specific learning disability is explored.
Kavale, K. A. (2005). Effective Intervention for Students with Specific Learning Disability: The Nature of Special Education. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 13(4), 127-138.
This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school.
Knight, J. (2006). Instructional Coaching. School Administrator, 63(4), 36.
A meta-analysis of findings from 108 controlled evaluations showed that mastery learning programs have positive effects on the examination performance of students in colleges, high schools, and the upper grades in elementary schools.
Kulik, C., Kulik, J., & Bangert-Drowns, R. (1990). Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 60, 265-299.
A meta‐analysis of the relationship between science instruction and student engagement was performed. The 16 studies represented a total of 4518 students and 376 teachers from the United States and Australia.
Kumar, D. D. (1991). A Meta‐analysis of the Relationship between Science Instruction and Student Engagement. Educational Review, 43(1), 49-61.
In this discussion, we examine the relationship between science and education and delineate four reasons for characterizing science as an uninvited guest in schools.
Landrum, T. J., & Tankersley, M. (2004). Science in the schoolhouse: An uninvited guest. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(3), 207-212.
This article identifies a number of conceptual and methodological issues that should be considered when conducting and interpreting reading intervention research.
Lyon, G. R., & Moats, L. C. (1997). Critical conceptual and methodological considerations in reading intervention research. Journal of learning disabilities, 30(6), 578-588.
This programed text includes a self-test of its contents and demonstrates hoe to specify instructional objectives by behavior observable in a leraner, and how to write objectives, define desired terminal behavior, and state criteria of successful learning.
Mager, R. F. (1962). Preparing instructional objectives.
This study focused on preservice general education teachers who were prepared to use an evidence-based teaching practice and the effects the practice had on their pupils’ academic performance.
Maheady, L., Harper, G. F., Mallette, B., & Karnes, M. (2004). Preparing preservice teachers to implement class wide peer tutoring. Teacher Education and Special Education, 27(4), 408-418.
This paper presents an early field-based course and applied teaching project to examine teaching practices and pupil outcomes.
Maheady, L., Jabot, M., Rey, J., & Michielli-Pendl, J. (2007). An early field-based experience and its impact on pre-service candidates' teaching practice and their pupils' outcomes. Teacher Education and Special Education, 30(1), 24-33.
This report attempts to summarize the most important and interesting trends emerging from TIMSS across the past two decades. The report is organized from macro to micro perspectives. The first chapter provides an overview of student achievement worldwide. The second and third chapters explore curriculum and instruction. The fourth and fifth chapters narrow the focus to two topics of interest among policymakers.
Mullis, I. V., Martin, M. O., & Loveless, T. (20). years of TIMSS: International trends in mathematics and science achievement, curriculum, and instruction. TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College and International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA).
This article presents findings from the authors' exploratory study of 12 instructionally effective
school districts (IESD) in California.
Murphy, J., & Hallinger, P. (1988). Characteristics of instructionally effective school districts. The Journal of educational research, 81(3), 175-181.
The aim of this study is to examine difference in the effect of instructional methods (lecture-discussion versus group discussion) and teaching talent on teacher trainees student learning outcomes. It was conducted by a quasi-experimental design using the factorialized (2 x 2) version of the nonequivalent control group design.
Mutrofin, M., Degeng, I., Ardhana, I. W., & Setyosari, P. (2019). The Effect of Instructional Methods (Lecture-Discussion versus Group Discussion) and Teaching Talent on Teacher Trainees Student Learning Outcomes.
Internships are central to teacher preparation, but many novice teachers do not feel such student teaching experiences prepared them for teaching realities. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to understand the effects of guiding teacher candidates through common video-recording and self-reflection activities during student teaching internships to determine whether such activities improve teacher candidates’ reflective abilities and instructional skills.
Nagro, S. A., DeBettencourt, L. U., Rosenberg, M. S., Carran, D. T., & Weiss, M. P. (2017). The effects of guided video analysis on teacher candidates’ reflective ability and instructional skills. Teacher Education and Special Education, 40(1), 7-25.
This report present the panel’s conclusions, an indication of the readiness for application in the classroom of the results of this research, and, if appropriate, a strategy for rapidly disseminating this information to facilitate effective reading instruction in the schools.
National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups(NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.
This report provides new information on the impact of teacher quality on student achievement and offers specific steps states should take to remedy the persistent practice of denying the best teachers to the children who need them the most.
Peske, H. G., & Haycock, K. (2006). Teacher inequality: How poor and minority students are shortchanged on teacher quality. Retrieved from The Education Trust website: http:// www.edtrust.org/dc/publication/teaching-inequality-how-poor-and-minority-students-areshortchanged-on-teacher-qualit
Reading fluency instruction: Moving beyond accuracy, automaticity, and prosody.
Rasinski, T. (2006). Reading fluency instruction: Moving beyond accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. The Reading Teacher, 59(7), 704-706.
This book examines the major themes of instruction and gives a step-by-step outline of the consultation process from referral to the final report.
Rosenfield, S. (2013). Instructional consultation. Routledge.
As school districts work out next year's instructional format and take stock of their teacher workforce, districts in a position to hire are also readying themselves for a potentially unprepared influx of novice teachers. School administrators have the difficult task of ensuring that new teachers are effective regardless of setting, while also having to bridge the learning loss exacerbated by last spring's dramatic turn of school.
Saenz-Armstrong, P. (2020). Supporting teachers through mentoring and collaboration. Washington, DC: National Council on Teaching Quality.
This study examines the influence of principal leadership in high schools on classroom instruction and student achievement through key organizational factors, including professional capacity, parent–community ties, and the school’s learning climate.
Sebastian, J., & Allensworth, E. (2012). The Influence of Principal Leadership on Classroom Instruction and.
In 2 experiments, each involving different mathematical operations, we compared 2 training procedures for teaching component math skills in terms of their effects on the learning and long-term maintenance of composite skills.
Singer-Dudek, Jessica & Greer, R.. (2005). A Long-Term Analysis of the Relationship Between Fluency and the Training and Maintenance of Complex Math Skills. The Psychological Record. 55. 10.1007/BF03395516.
This paper presents the results of a rigorous experiment examining the impact of pay for performance on student achievement and instructional practice.
Springer, M. G., Ballou, D., Hamilton, L., Le, V. N., Lockwood, J. R., McCaffrey, D. F., ... & Stecher, B. M. (2011). Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching (POINT). Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness.
This study used Hierarchical Multivariate Linear models to investigate relationships between principals' behaviors and district principal evaluation purpose, focus, and assessed leadership activities in 13 school districts in Michigan. The study found that principals were more likely to engage in learning-centered leadership behaviors when the purposes of evaluation included principal professional development, school restructuring, and accountability; when the focus of evaluation was related to instructional leadership; and when evaluation addressed leadership in school goal setting, curriculum design, teacher professional development and evaluation, and monitoring student learning.
Sun, M., & Youngs, P. (2009). How does district principal evaluation affect learning-centered principal leadership? Evidence from Michigan school districts. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 8(4), 411-445.
Five recent studies of methods to prevent reading difficulties were examined in light of the goal that every child should acquire adequate word reading skills during early elementary school.
Torgesen, J. K. (2000). Individual differences in response to early interventions in reading: The lingering problem of treatment resisters. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 15(1), 55-64.
This article layout two sets of findings: (1) what we know about the kind of instruction that weak readers need in kindergarten through second grade to prevent them from ever entering the downward spiral, and (2) what we know about the effectiveness of interventions that make use of this knowledge.
Torgesen, J. K. (2004). Preventing early reading failure. American Educator, 28(3), 6-9.
Sixty children with severe reading disabilities were randomly assigned to two instructional
programs that incorporated principles of effective instruction but differed in depth and extent
of instruction in phonemic awareness and phonemic decoding skills
Torgesen, J. K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Voeller, K. K., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of learning disabilities, 34(1), 33-58.
A group experimental design compared passive reading, covert responding to frame blanks, and actively typing answers to blanks with and without immediate confirmation of correctness. Results strongly supported the effectiveness of requiring the student to supply fragments of a terminal repertoire while working through a program.
Tudor, R. M., & Bostow, D. E. (1991). Computer‐programmed instruction: The relation of required interaction to practical application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(2), 361-368.
Two studies are reported that provide correlational and experimental evidence for causal relationships between linguistic coding deficits and reading disability.
Vellutino, F. R., & Scanlon, D. M. (1987). Phonological coding, phonological awareness, and reading ability: Evidence from a longitudinal and experimental study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982-), 321-363.
In this study, the National Council on Teacher Quality makes a unique effort to learn what aspiring teachers are taught about reading instruction.
Walsh, K., Glaser, D., & Wilcox, D. D. (2006). What education schools aren't teaching about reading and what Elementary teachers aren't learning. National Council on Teacher Quality.
Within Our Grasp: Achieving Higher Admissions Standards in Teacher Prep is the tenth annual publication in the State Teacher Policy Yearbook report series released by the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ). This report focuses on teacher preparation program compliance with admissions policies required at the state level
Walsh, K., Joseph, N., and Lewis, A. (2016). Within Our Grasp: Achieving Higher Admissions Standards in Teacher Prep. National Council on Teacher Quality.
If teachers are to have a significant impact on student learning it is necessary for them to be well trained and prepared for the role of teacher. This report examined the effectiveness of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and My TeachingPartner Pre-K. The NBPTS is a professional certification program for teachers that have taught at least three years and can meet the NBPTS standards. My TeachingPartner Pre-K incorporates multiple media and coaching to prepare early education teachers. The results of the What Works Clearinghouse review of NBPTS is that it had mixed effects in mathematics in grades 3-8 and no discernable effect on English language arts achievement. There were no studies that met WWC standards for review so no judgment can be made about its effectiveness. The results of this review highlight the necessity of evaluating the effectiveness of teacher training programs. The stakes are very high for the students and families being served by teachers and nationally very large amount of money is spent on training teachers. It would be nice to know which approaches to teacher professional development are effective and which have no beneficial effect.
What Works Clearinghouse, Institute for Education Science (2018). National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Certification Intervention Report. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/InterventionReport/689
Peer-mediated instruction and intervention (PMII) is a systematic, evidence-based method for addressing the social-communication needs of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite existing research on this practice, gaps remain in the implementation of PMII. The purpose of this empirical review was to examine recent applications of this evidence-based practice and systematically assess the quality of the analytic approaches implemented.
Zagona, A. L., & Mastergeorge, A. M. (2018). An empirical review of peer-mediated interventions: Implications for young children with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 33(3), 131-141.