This article explores the theoretical underpinnings surrounding quality teaching in online settings as well as practical considerations for what teachers should know and be able to do in online environments.
Archambault, L., DeBruler, K., & Freidhoff, J. (2014). K-12 online and blended teacher licensure: Striking a balance between policy and preparedness. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 22(1), 83-106. Retrieved from
https://www.academia.edu/6459023/K-12_Online_ and_blended _Teacher_licensure_Striking_a_balance_between_Policy_ and_Preparedness
The National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES), 1999, is a telephone survey data collection program conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Based on NCES data, this report provides an estimate of the number of home-schooled students in the United States, characteristics of home-schooled children and their families, parents' reasons for home-schooling, and public school support for home-schoolers.
Bielick, S., Chandler, K., & Broughman, S. P. (2001). Homeschooling in the United States: 1999.
The authors discuss the emergence of the evidence-based practice movement and the challenges of integrating what we know from scientific research into daily practice with children and families.
Buysse, V., & Wesley, P. W. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice: How Did It Emerge and What Does It Mean for the Early Childhood Field?. Zero to Three (J), 27(2), 50-55.
The analysis in this report is based on 2019 application data from the FCC’s Schools and Libraries Program (“E-rate”). This data represents the best national source of current information on school district connectivity; specifically, what broadband services schools are buying and how much they are paying for these services
EducationSuperHighway. (2019). 2019 state of the states: The classroom connectivity gap is closed. https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/esh-sots-pdfs/2019%20State%20of%20the%20States.pdf
Research that claims to focus on students with disabilities in online learning environments should be designed and carried out with particular attention to educational and social outcomes. The Center on Online Learning and Students with Disabilities (COLSD) conducts research in alignment with these goals.
Franklin, T. O., East, T., & Mellard, D.F. (2015). Parent preparation and involvement in their child’s online learning experience: Superintendent Forum Proceedings Series. (Report No. 2). Lawrence, KS: Center on Online Instruction and Students with Disabilities, University of Kansas. http://www.centerononlinelearning.res.ku.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Superintendent_Topic_2_Summary_November2015.pdf
Research indicates children generally fare better in traditional schools when parents are
involved. However, scant research exists in alternative settings such as blended and online
Hasler Waters, L., Borup, J., & Menchaca, M. P. (2018). Parental involvement in K–12 online and blended learning. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 403–422). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf
This influential book is the result of 15 years research that includes over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. This is a great resource for any stakeholder interested in conducting a serious search of evidence behind common models and practices used in schools.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning. A synthesis of over, 800.
Online learning is sweeping across America. In the year 2000, roughly 45,000 K–12 students took an online course. In 2009, more than 3 million K–12 students did. What was originally a distance-learning phenomenon no longer is. Most of the growth is occurring in blended-learning environments, in which students learn online in an adult-supervised environment at least part of the time. As this happens, online learning has the potential to transform America’s education system by serving as the backbone of a system that offers more personalized learning approaches for all students.
Horn, M., & Staker, H. (2011). The rise of K–12 blended learning. Mountain View, CA: Innosight Institute.
This study examines the effects on early reading skills of three different methods of
presenting material with computer-assisted instruction.
Johnson, E. P., Perry, J., & Shamir, H. (2010). Variability in reading ability gains as a function of computer-assisted instruction method of presentation. Computers and Education, 55(1), 209–217.
The present study examined the effectiveness of two different school-home notes for increasing academic productivity and appropriate classroom behavior in five inattentive children.
Kelley, M. L., & McCain, A. P. (1995). Promoting academic performance in inattentive children: The relative efficacy of school-home notes with and without response cost. Behavior Modification, 19(3), 357-375.
In this discussion, we examine the relationship between science and education and delineate four reasons for characterizing science as an uninvited guest in schools.
Landrum, T. J., & Tankersley, M. (2004). Science in the schoolhouse: An uninvited guest. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(3), 207-212.
This paper provides an overview of parental involvement in traditional education, discusses its role in K-12 virtual schooling, and describes a study that validates a parental involvement assessment with a virtual school population.
Liu, F., Black, E., Algina, J., Cavanaugh, C., & Dawson, K. (2010). The validation of one parental involvement measurement in virtual schooling. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 9(2), 105–132.
This meta-analysis was designed to produce a statistical synthesis of studies contrasting learning outcomes for either fully online or blended learning conditions with those of face-to-face classroom instruction.
Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., & Bakia, M. (2013). The effectiveness of online and blended learning: A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Teachers College Record, 115(3), 1–47. https://archive.sri.com/sites/default/files/publications/effectiveness_of_online_and_blended_learning.pdf
This 2015 report is third in a series of annual reports on virtual education in the U.S.. It is organized in three major sections.
Molnar, A., Huerta, L., Shafer, S. R., Barbour, M.K., Miron, G., Shafer, S. R., & Gulosino, C. (2015). Virtual schools in the U.S. 2015: Politics, performance, policy, and research evidence. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/virtual-schools-annual-2015
This report provides disinterested scholarly analyses of the characteristics and performance of fulltime, publicly funded K-12 virtual schools; reviews the relevant available research related to virtual school practices; provides an overview of recent state legislative efforts to craft virtual schools policy; and offers policy recommendations based on the available evidence.
Molnar, A., Miron, G., Elgeberi, N., Barbour, M. K., Huerta, L., Shafer, S. R., & Rice, J. K. (2019). Virtual schools in the U.S. 2019. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. https://nepc.colorado.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Virtual%20Schools%202019.pdf
The 2017 NEPC Annual Report contributes to the existing evidence related to virtual education, and so to debates surrounding it. It provides objective analysis of the characteristics and performance of full-time, publicly funded K-12 virtual schools; available research on virtual school practices and policy; and an overview of recent state efforts to craft new policy
Molnar, A., Miron, G., Gulosino, C., Shank, C., Davidson, C., Barbour, M. K.,… Nitkin, D. (2017). Virtual schools in the U.S. 2017. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED574702.pdf
This report represents the latest survey information from the National Center for Education Statistics on the prevalence of homeschooling in the United States. This document uses the Parent and Family Involvement Survey of the 2003 National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) to estimate the number and percentage of homeschooled students in the United States in 2003 and to describe the characteristics of these students and their families.
Princiotta, D., & Bielick, S. (2006). Homeschooling in the United States: 2003. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2006-042. National Center for Education Statistics.
Homeschooling that a decade ago appeared to be cutting-edge and "alternative" now is bordering on "mainstream" in the United States. This article describes the findings regarding home education: (1) General facts and trends; (2) Reasons for home educating; (3) Academic performance comparisons; (4) Social, emotional, and psychological development; (5) Gender differences in children who are home educated; and (6) Success in the "Real World" of adulthood. Research designs to date do not conclusively "prove" that homeschooling produces superior results or has a negative impact on student achievement.
Ray, B. D. (2015). Research Facts on Homeschooling. National Home Education Research Institute.
The Institute of Educational Sciences released its latest data analysis on homeschooling. It provides statistics on the total number of students being homeschooled, characteristics of homeschooled students, and characteristics of learning with homeschooling.
Redford, J., Battle, D., and Bielick, S. (2016). Homeschooling in the United States: 2012 (NCES 2016-096). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
The COVID-19 pandemic has suddenly shifted classroom learning to the home and has required parents and other caregivers to take on the role of teacher and behavior manager. In many homes, this rapid shift in roles and a new learning environment for students has led to frustration and possible learning loss.
Taylor, M. (2020). Supporting Positive At-Home Behaviors Among Elementary Students. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, What Works Clearinghouse.