The book is written for individuals interested in procedures for increasing consultation skills to assist parents, teachers, and other socialization agents to solve mental health and educational problems of children and youths.
Assessed the effects of 3 increasingly inclusive versions of the Behavioral Consultation (BC) model on problem behavior in mainstream classrooms in an effort to develop an effective and efficient approach to prereferral intervention.
Discusses the relationship between academic performance or achievement and classroom environment factors. Classroom variables are conceptualized as an academic ecology that involves a network of relationships among student and environmental factors that affect the acquisition of new skills and student engagement in academic work.
Within a problem-solving paradigm, the focus of the special education (SE) identification process is defining the accommodations and modifications that will help a child succeed in the educational environment. The purpose of this chapter is to outline a set of best practices to assist school psychologists and other educational professionals in meeting this goal.
The three-Tier Reading Model provides a process for delivering quality reading instruction and reducing the prevalence of reading difficulties in kindergarten through third-grade students.
University of Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. (2002). Introduction to the 3-Tier Reading Model: Reducing Reading Difficulties for Kindergarten Through Third Grade Students (4th ed.)
Explored in this article are (a) the long-standing relation between mental health and schools, (b) the current status of mental health programs and services in schools, (c) efforts to establish school-community collaboration, and (d) work related to reframing the approach to mental health in schools.
Adelman, H. S., & Taylor, L. (1998). Reframing mental health in schools and expanding school reform. Educational Psychologist, 33(4), 135-152.
This review (a) provides an overview of what schools currently do related to mental health and psychosocial concerns, (b) clarifies key emerging trends, and (c) explores implications for major systemic changes.
Adelman, H. S., & Taylor, L. (1999). Mental health in schools and system restructuring. Clinical Psychology Review, 19(2), 137-163.
This article explores this problem in terms of systemic change. Highlighted are basic ideas, phases, stages, steps, and lessons learned related to the planning, implementation, maintenance, and scale-up of school-based innovations
Adelman, H. S., & Taylor, L. (2003). On sustainability of project innovations as systemic change. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 14(1), 1-25.
This document is an analysis of the most recent developments in some states that are implementing standards-based IEPs.
Ahearn, E. (2006, May). Standards-Based IEPs: Implementation in Selected States. inForum. In Project Forum. Project Forum. Available from: National Association of State Directors of Special Education. 1800 Diagonal Road Suite 320, Alexandria, VA 22314.
The functional family therapy approach described in this book, a synthesis of interpersonal, behavioral, and systems orientations, represents a new evolutionary step in the treatment of families. The goal of this book is to provide a clear description of the procedures and structure necessary for the successful practice of family therapy.
Alexander, J., & Parsons, B. V. (1982). Functional family therapy. Monterey, CA, US: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
This study examined a highly successful, well‐documented, national program to prevent teenage pregnancy and school failure—the Teen Outreach program—to address a fundamental question: How well can a developmentally focused, broadly targeted prevention program address the needs of those students within the program who are at the highest risk of problematic behavior.
Allen, J. P., & Philliber, S. (2001). Who benefits most from a broadly targeted prevention program? Differential efficacy across populations in the Teen Outreach Program. Journal of Community Psychology, 29(6), 637-655.
The authors investigated the hypothesis that treatment acceptability influences teachers' use of a formative evaluation system (curriculum-based measurement) and, relatedly, the amount of gain effected in math for their students.
Allinder, R. M., & Oats, R. G. (1997). Effects of acceptability on teachers' implementation of curriculum-based measurement and student achievement in mathematics computation. Remedial and Special Education, 18(2), 113-120.
This document contains 13 articles concerned with the best practices in the supervision of school psychological services.
Allison, R. (2002). Best practices in supervision of school psychology staff. Best practices in school psychology IV, 115-130.
In general, social validity data reflect the social significance of target behaviors, the appropriateness of procedures, and the perceived importance of results. Intervention integrity data provide evidence that treatments are implemented in the intended fashion.
Armstrong, K. J., Ehrhardt, K. E., Cool, R. T., & Poling, A. (1997). Social validity and treatment integrity data: Reporting in articles published in the Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 1991-1995. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 9(4), 359-367.
An ecological model for school-based mental health services that targets urban low-income aggressive children—a highly vulnerable and underserved population—is presented.
Atkins, M. S., McKay, M. M., Arvanitis, P., London, L., Madison, S., Costigan, C., ... & Bennett, D. (1998). An ecological model for school-based mental health services for urban low-income aggressive children. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 25(1), 64-75.
In this chapter, concepts and practices concerning readiness for change are discussed as part of the larger frame of technology transfer interventions.
Backer, T. E. (1995). Assessing and enhancing readiness for change: Implications for technology transfer. NIDA research monograph, 155, 21-41.
In this paper, the author surveys 117 published and unpublished studies spanning more than 25 years. He structures the literature review using a conceptual model shown as Program Implementation Stages
Backer, T. E. (2001). Finding the balance: Program fidelity and adaptation in substance abuse prevention: A state-of-the-art review. Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.
The committee members, who were appointed by the US National Academy of Science for their creative thinking and knowledge of medicine, healthcare, and commerce, provide excellently researched evidence for the failure of the US healthcare system.
Baker, A. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st century. Bmj, 323(7322), 1192.
This article explores factors influencing the sustained use of Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) in math in one elementary school.
Baker, S., Gersten, R., Dimino, J. A., & Griffiths, R. (2004). The sustained use of research-based instructional practice: A case study of peer-assisted learning strategies in mathematics. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 5-24.
This Guide seeks to provide assistance to educational practitioners in evaluating whether an educational intervention is backed by rigorous evidence of effectiveness, and in implementing evidence-based interventions in their schools or classrooms.
Baron, J. (2004). Identifying and Implementing Education Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide. Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 26, 40-54.
This study presents a framework for integrating the diffusion of innovation theory into an economic evaluation utilizing a societal perspective, which affords the capturing of costs of all phases from adoption through implementation of EBPs for all stakeholders
Barrett, C. A., Pas, E. T., & Johnson, S. L. (2020). A Cost Analysis of the Innovation–Decision Process of an Evidence-Based Practice in Schools. School Mental Health, 12(3), 638-649.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 made important amendments to the federal special education law regarding the identification of students with learning disabilities. The book grounds RtI in law and policy predating IDEA 2004 in addition to walking the reader through the array of implementation issues.
Batsche, George, Judy Elliott, Janet L. Graden, Jeffrey Grimes, Joseph F. Kovaleski, David Prasse, D. J. Reschly, Judy Schrag, and W. David Tilly III. "Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation." Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education(2005).
The Child Development Project is a comprehensive school program to reduce risk and bolster protective factors among children.
Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Watson, M., & Solomon, D. (1996). Prevention effects of the Child Development Project: Early findings from an ongoing multisite demonstration trial. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11(1), 12-35.
This study looks at the issue of culture from a behavior analytic perspective. Baum postulates the key to understanding cultural evolution lies in understanding practices in the light of their environmental contexts and short-term and long-term consequences.
Baum, W. M. (2000). Being concrete about culture and cultural evolution. In N. Thompson and F. Tonneau (Eds.) Perspectives in Ethology (Vol. 13, pp. 181-212). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum
Self-conscious federal efforts to promote innovation in local educational practices have resulted in little consistent or identifiable improvement in student outcomes. Although such student outcomes may be disappointing, they do not accurately reflect the potential of innovative ideas because many innovations are not implemented according to plan. This interpretation of the problem stresses the complexity of the implementation process and locates the essence of the problem not in inadequacies of innovative plans but in the bureaucratic nature of the educational system itself.
Berman, P., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1974). Federal Programs Supporting Educational Change: A Model of Educational Change. Volume I.
This study evaluates an exemplary system of care designed to provide comprehensive mental health services to children and adolescents
Bickman, L., Noser, K., & Summerfelt, W. T. (1999). Long-term effects of a system of care on children and adolescents. The journal of behavioral health services & research, 26(2), 185-202.
The modified Research, Development, and Diffusion (RD&D) model as exemplified by
change agents in federal organizations were examined as a viable strategy for
disseminating social program innovations.
Blakely, C. H., Mayer, J. P., Gottschalk, R. G., Schmitt, N., Davidson, W. S., Roitman, D. B., & Emshoff, J. G. (1987). The fidelity‐adaptation debate: Implications for the implementation of public sector social programs. American journal of community psychology, 15(3), 253-268.
The modified Research, Development, and Diffusion (RD&D) model, as exemplified by change agents in federal organizations, was examined as a viable strategy for disseminating social program innovations. This study of seven nationally disseminated education and criminal justice projects was designed to refine the methodology for
measuring innovation implementation.
Blakely, C. H., Mayer, J. P., Gottschalk, R. G., Schmitt, N., Davidson, W. S., Roitman, D. B., & Emshoff, J. G. (2002). The fidelity-adaptation debate: Implications for the implementation of public sector social programs. In A Quarter Century of Community Psychology (pp. 163-179). Springer, Boston, MA.
This was a historic meeting among developers of evidence-based programs, leaders of various cultural, racial, and ethnic professional associations, and representatives of family associations. Evidence-based program implementation and cultural competence in human services have had parallel paths with limited intersection and dialogue.
Blase, K. A., & Fixsen, D. L. (2003). Evidence-based programs and cultural competence. Tampa, FL: National Implementation Research Network, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida.
The Hexagon Discussion and Analysis Tool helps organizations evaluate new and existing programs and practices. This tool is designed to be used by a team to ensure diverse perspectives are represented in a discussion of the six contextual fit and feasibility factors.
Blase, K., Kiser, L. and Van Dyke, M. (2013). The Hexagon Tool: Exploring Context. Chapel Hill, NC: National Implementation Research Network, FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
This report looks at the critical issues that are necessary for effective implementation of innovations.
Blase, K., Van Dyke, M., Fixsen, D., & Bailey, F. W. (2012). Implementation science: Key concepts, themes and evidence for practitioners in educational psychology. Handbook of implementation science for psychology in education, 13-34.
The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS).
Blonigen, B. A., Harbaugh, W. T., Singell, L. D., Horner, R. H., Irvin, L. K., & Smolkowski, K. S. (2008). Application of economic analysis to school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) programs. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 5–19. doi: 10.1177/1098300707311366
Focus groups with teachers of students with learning disabilities (n = 30) and teachers of students with emotional/behavior disorders (n = 19) were conducted to examine the the teachers’ perspectives about educational research and the extent to which they found research findings to be useful.
Boardman, A. G., Argüelles, M. E., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Klingner, J. (2005). Special education teachers' views of research-based practices. The Journal of Special Education, 39(3), 168-180.
This study is a meta-analysis of the research on the impact of comprehensive school reform (CSR) on student achievement. The research summarizes the specific effects of 29 widely implemented models.
Borman, G. D., Hewes, G. M., Overman, L. T., & Brown, S. (2003). Comprehensive school reform and achievement: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 73(2), 125-230.
evaluate the long-term efficacy of a school-based approach to drug abuse prevention.
Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Botvin, E. M., & Diaz, T. (1995). Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. Jama, 273(14), 1106-1112.
Students (N = 4,466) attending 56 schools in New York State were involved in a 3-year study testing the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention.
Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Tortu, S., & Botvin, E. M. (1990). Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: results of a 3-year study. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 58(4), 437.
This volume describes research aimed at identifying 10 model programs proven effective for violence prevention; describes the 10 programs selected from the more than 400 reviewed; and details the goals, targeted risk and protective factors, design, and other aspects of Life Skills Training, one of the model programs selected.
Botvin, G. J., Mihalic, S. F., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1998). Blueprints for violence prevention: Book five: Life skills training. Boulder, CO: Center for Study and Prevention of Violence.
The authors tested the effectiveness of 2 alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs among inner-city minority 7th-grade students (N = 639) from 6 New York City public schools.
Botvin, G. J., Schinke, S. P., Epstein, J. A., & Diaz, T. (1994). Effectiveness of culturally focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority youths. Psychology of addictive behaviors, 8(2), 116.
This article describes the characteristics of school mental health and social services in the United States, including state‐ and district‐level policies and school practices.
Brener, N. D., Martindale, J., & Weist, M. D. (2001). Mental health and social services: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000. Journal of School Health, 71(7), 305-312.
The best formative assessment involves both students and teachers in a recursive process. It starts with the teacher, who models the process for the students. At first, the concept of what good work "looks like" belongs to the teacher. The teacher describes, explains, or demonstrates the concepts or skills to be taught, or assigns student investigations—reading assigned material, locating and reading materials to answer a question, doing activities or experiments—to put content into students' hands.
Brookhart, S. M. (2010). Formative assessment strategies for every classroom: An ASCD action tool. ASCD.
The current study hypothesized that providing performance feedback, which has consistently been shown to increase implementation integrity, to PSTs would enhance the procedural integrity of the process.
Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550.
This chapter provides insights to the questions posed regarding implementation and ongoing practice of RTI, both at the state and local levels.
Callender, W. A. (2007). The Idaho results-based model: Implementing response to intervention statewide. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 331-342). Springer, Boston, MA.
This paper describes a survey of teachers trained in Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA). The study examined whether teachers: agreed that TESA interactions were useful with today's children; continued to practice the TESA coding and observation process after being trained; and would recommend TESA to colleagues.
Cantor, J., Kester, D., & Miller, A. (2000). Amazing Results! Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA) Follow-Up Survey of TESA-Trained Teachers in 45 States and the District of Columbia.
Explores existing models of the school as a health care service delivery setting and considers the implications of these models for the practice of psychology in schools.
Carlson, C. I., Paavola, J., & Talley, R. (1995). Historical, current, and future models of schools as health care delivery settings. School Psychology Quarterly, 10(3), 184.
Educators at all levels, from classroom teachers to national policymakers, routinely use and approve materials and techniques without testing or evaluating them. This costs schools millions of dollars and does not yield the results educators and the public are clamoring for.
Carnine, D. (1993). Facts Over fads. Education Week, 40.
in this perspective, the author challenge us to accept the responsibility of moving education forward by doing more than paying lip service to the translation of research into practice.
Carnine, D. (1999). Campaigns for moving research into practice. Remedial and Special Education, 20(1), 2-35.
In this report, the rationale, development, implementation, and evaluation of a school-based mental health services program for high-risk children with serious emotional and behavioral problems is described.
Catron, T., & Weiss, B. (1994). The Vanderbilt school-based counseling program: An interagency, primary-care model of mental health services. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2(4), 247-253.
Over many decades, educators have developed countless interventions and theories about how to create lasting change. In other words, implementation research is an endeavor to understand if and how educational efforts are accomplishing their goals.
Century, J., & Cassata, A. (2016). Implementation research: Finding common ground on what, how, why, where, and who. Review of Research in Education, 40(1), 169-215.
This document is one of a series of reports based on the Special Education Expenditure Project, a study of the nation's spending on special education and related services based on analysis of data for the 1999-2000 school year.
Chambers, J. G., Parrish, T. B., & Harr, J. J. (2002). What Are We Spending on Special Education Services in the United States, 1999-2000? Report. Special Education Expenditure Project (SEEP).
The School-Wide Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ) was initially developed and validated in 2005 to address the need for an efficient method of measuring implementation of school-wide PBS that would also provide feedback to guide teams toward higher levels of implementation. Over the last 5 years the exposure and use of the instrument has increased.
Childs, K. E., Kincaid, D., & George, H. P. (2011). The revised school-wide PBS Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ). OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
Two school-based primary prevention interventions for adolescent depressive symptomatology and disorder were examined in separate studies with high school samples of 9th and 10th-grade adolescents.
Clarke, G. N., Hawkins, W., Murphy, M., & Sheeber, L. (1993). School-based primary prevention of depressive symptomatology in adolescents: Findings from two studies. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8(2), 183-204.
This article draws on a review of theoretical and empirical literature on scale, relevant research on reform implementation, and original research to synthesize and articulate a more multidimensional conceptualization
Coburn, C. E. (2003). Rethinking scale: Moving beyond numbers to deep and lasting change. Educational researcher, 32(6), 3-12.
Congress should redefine “professional development” and reengineer Title IIA to focus strictly on continuous performance improvement—of people and organizations—while keeping implementation flexible. A new Title IIA would make certain that state, district, and school leaders have the capacity required to manage professional development activities and resources more effectively to achieve Title II’s vital student achievement goals.
Coggshall, J. G. (2015). II, Part A: Don't Scrap It, Don't Dilute It, Fix It. Education Policy Center at American Institutes for Research.
Treatment fidelity assessment is critical to evaluating the extent to which interventions, such as the Good Behavior Game, are implemented as intended and impact student outcomes. The assessment methods by which treatment fidelity data are collected vary, with direct observation being the most popular and widely recommended.
Collier-Meek, M. A., Fallon, L. M., & DeFouw, E. R. (2020). Assessing the implementation of the Good Behavior Game: Comparing estimates of adherence, quality, and exposure. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 45(2), 95-109.
This study examines obstacles encountered by 33 educators along with suggested interventions to overcome impediments to effective delivery of classroom management interventions or behavior support plans. Having the right classroom management plan isn’t enough if you can’t deliver the strategies to the students in the classroom.
Collier‐Meek, M. A., Sanetti, L. M., & Boyle, A. M. (2019). Barriers to implementing classroom management and behavior support plans: An exploratory investigation. Psychology in the Schools, 56(1), 5-17.
A randomized experiment of Comer's School Development Program was conducted in 23 middle schools in Prince George's County, Maryland. Quasiexperimental analyses showed that the program theory may be correct in many of its predictions about student changes in psychological and social outcomes, but not achievement
Cook, T. D., Habib, F. N., Phillips, M., Settersten, R. A., Shagle, S. C., & Degirmencioglu, S. M. (1999). Comer's school development program in Prince George's County, Maryland: A theory-based evaluation. American Educational Research Journal, 36(3), 543-597.
Using fifth through eighth-grade students, the Comer School Development Program was evaluated in 10 inner city Chicago schools over 4 years, contrasting them with nine randomly selected no-treatment comparison schools.
Cook, T. D., Murphy, R. F., & Hunt, H. D. (2000). Comer's School Development Program in Chicago: A theory-based evaluation. American Educational Research Journal, 37(2), 535-597.
Person-centered education is a counseling-originated, educational psychology model, overripe for meta-analysis, that posits that positive teacher-student relationships are associated with optimal, holistic learning. It includes classical, humanistic education and today’s constructivist learner-centered model.
Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 77(1), 113-143.
An analysis of national and state placement patterns of students with serious emotional disturbance (SED) between 1988 and 1991 is reported. Relationships among state rates of placement across placement options and several economic and demographic variables also are examined.
Coutinho, M. J., & Oswald, D. (1996). Identification and placement of students with serious emotional disturbance. Part II: National and state trends in the implementation of LRE. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4(1), 40-52.
The purpose of this study was to investigate gender and ethnicity disproportionality among students identified as having emotional disturbance (ED) and relationships between identification and sociodemographic factors.
Coutinho, M. J., Oswald, D. P., Best, A. M., & Forness, S. R. (2002). Gender and sociodemographic factors and the disproportionate identification of culturally and linguistically diverse students with emotional disturbance. Behavioral Disorders, 27(2), 109-125.
Cronbach discuss the past and future place within psychology of two historic streams of method, thought, and affiliation which run through the last century of our science. One stream is experimental psychology; the other, correlational psychology.
Cronbach, L. J. (1957). The two disciplines of scientific psychology. American psychologist, 12(11), 671.
In order to engage effectively in system-level consultation, school psychologists need to call upon three areas of expertise: (a) understanding human behavior from a social systems perspective, (b) ability to use collaborative planning and problem solving procedures, and (c) familiarity with principles for organizational change
Curtis, M. J., & Stollar, S. A. (2002). Best practices in system-level change.
Taking Response to Intervention to Scale: Developing and Implementing a Quality Response-to-Intervention Process
Daly, III, E. J., Kupzyk, S., Bossard, M., Street, J., & Dymacel, R. (2008). Taking Response to Intervention to Scale: Developing and Implementing a Quality Response-to-Intervention Process. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 9(2), 102-127.
The authors examined the extent to which program integrity (i.e., the degree to which programs were implemented as planned) was verified and promoted in evaluations of primary and early secondary prevention programs published between 1980 and 1994.
Dane, A. V., & Schneider, B. H. (1998). Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control?. Clinical psychology review, 18(1), 23-45.
This seven-year study of the Coalition Campus Schools Project in New York City documented a unique “birthing” process for new, small schools that were created as part of a network of reform-oriented schools in a context of systemwide reform.
Darling-Hammond, L., Ancess, J., & Ort, S. W. (2002). Reinventing high school: Outcomes of the coalition campus schools project. American educational research journal, 39(3), 639-673.
Problems associated with the school psychologists traditional assessment functions and methodology are identified and contrasted with the need for assessment information that can contribute meaningfully to the formulation and evaluation of educational interventions.
Deno, S. L. (1986). Formative evaluation of individual student programs: A new role for school psychologists. School Psychology Review.
The purpose of this article is to describe what RTI is and what is not. This article also considers the evidence base for RTI and discusses the implications for practitioners.
Detrich, R., & Keyworth, R. (2009). Response to Intervention: What It Is and What It Is Not. JEBPS Vol 9-N2, 60.
Reform efforts tend to come and go very quickly in education. This paper makes the argument that the sustainability of programs is closely related to how well those programs are implemented.
Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2010). Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Unit of Sustainable Educational Programs. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 4-29.
a mini-series from School Psychology Review about Academic Enablers to Improve Student Performance: Considerations for Research and Practice.
DiPerna, J., & Elliott, S. N. (2002). Promoting academic enablers to improve student performance: Considerations for research and practice [Special issue]. School Psychology Review, 31(3).
This volume of the Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act includes a number of modules reporting on the results of the National Assessment, as stipulated in Section 674(b)(4)(B) of the IDEA Amendments of 1997.
Division of Educational Services, Office of Special Education Programs. (2001). Twenty-third annual report to congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
This article reviews implementation issues in prevention trials and specifically highlights the study of implementation in the 34 programs determined to be effective in a recent review conducted by the Prevention Research Center for the Center for Mental Health Services.
Domitrovich, C. E., & Greenberg, M. T. (2000). The study of implementation: Current findings from effective programs that prevent mental disorders in school-aged children. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 11(2), 193-221.
Almost every state in the United States has revamped its principal evaluation policies since 2009, yet we know little about how they are implemented. Based on interviews and document analysis in 21 small- and medium-sized school districts, we found that superintendents’ sense making shaped their implementation of policy.
Donaldson, M. L., Mavrogordato, M., Youngs, P., Dougherty, S., & Al Ghanem, R. (2021). “Doing the ‘Real’Work”: How Superintendents’ Sensemaking Shapes Principal Evaluation Policies and Practices in School Districts. AERA Open, 7, 2332858420986177.
This study evaluated the effect feedback to student peer tutors had on the level of treatment integrity in implementing a peer tutoring program.
Dufrene, B. A., Noell, G. H., Gilbertson, D. N., & Duhon, G. J. (2005). Monitoring Implementation of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring: Identifying and Intervening With Students Who Do Not Maintain Accurate Implementation. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 74-86.
This book presents a wide variety of exemplary programs addressing behavioral and social problems, school failure, drug use, injuries, child abuse, physical health, and other critical issues.
Durlak, J. A. (1997). Successful prevention programs for children and adolescents. Springer Science & Business Media.
The first purpose of this review is to assess the impact of implementation on program outcomes, and the second purpose is to identify factors affecting the implementation process.
Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American journal of community psychology, 41(3-4), 327-350.
A review of school‐based drug abuse prevention programs was conducted for 1989–1994. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, interviews were conducted with a panel of 15 leading experts in prevention research. Key elements of promising prevention curricula were identified.
Dusenbury, L., & Falco, M. (1995). Eleven components of effective drug abuse prevention curricula. Journal of school health, 65(10), 420-425.
To help inform drug abuse prevention research in school settings about the issues surrounding implementation, the authors conducted a review of the fidelity of implementation research literature spanning a 25-year period.
Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Falco, M., & Hansen, W. B. (2003). A review of research on fidelity of implementation: implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings. Health education research, 18(2), 237-256.
This paper summarizes survey results about the acceptability of different methods for monitoring treatment integrity and performance feedback.
Easton, J. E., & Erchul, W. P. (2011). An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(1), 56-77. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10474412.2011.544949?journalCode=hepc20.
Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of research findings and other evidence-based practices into routine practice, and, hence, to improve the quality and effectiveness of health services and care. This relatively new field includes the study of influences on healthcare professional and organisational behaviour.
Eccles, M. P., & Mittman, B. S. (2006). Welcome to implementation science.
Based on the experiences of the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) and reviews of literature addressing implementation failures, observations about failures to "scale up" are presented.
Elias, M. J., Zins, J. E., Graczyk, P. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2003). Implementation, sustainability, and scaling up of social-emotional and academic innovations in public schools. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 303-319.
a brief overview of findings from the Blueprints for Violence Prevention-Replication Initiative is presented, identifying factors that enhance or impede a successful implementation of these programs.
Elliott, D. S., & Mihalic, S. (2004). Issues in disseminating and replicating effective prevention programs. Prevention Science, 5(1), 47-53.
Examines the fundamental characteristics of and reviews empirical research on performance assessment of diverse groups of students, including those with mild disabilities. Discussion of the technical qualities of performance assessment and barriers to its advancement leads to the conclusion that performance assessment should play a supplementary role in the evaluation of students with significant learning problems
Elliott, S. N. (1998). Performance Assessment of Students' Achievement: Research and Practice. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 13(4), 233-41.
This section includes tools and resources that can help school leaders, teachers, and other stakeholders be more strategic in their decision-making about planning, implementing, and evaluating evidence-based interventions to improve the conditions for learning and facilitate positive student outcomes.
Elliott, S. N., Witt, J. C., & Kratochwill, T. R. (1991). Selecting, implementing, and evaluating classroom interventions. Interventions for achievement and behavior problems, 99-135.
The causes of long-term continuity in the level of children's school performance are not completely understood. Some of the continuity undoubtedly stems from the persistence of cognitive status. This article reports on a follow-up study of school children in Baltimore that shows that it can also be related to the child's early social environment.
Entwisle, D. R., & Hayduk, L. A. (1988). Lasting effects of elementary school. Sociology of Education, 147-159.
Presents some of the current best practices in services for children and their families, as well as in the research and evaluation of these services.
Epstein, M. H., Kutash, K. E., & Duchnowski, A. E. (1998). Outcomes for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders and their families: Programs and evaluation best practices. Pro-Ed.
This paper describes a 4-year project that partnered psychologists based in universities and those in educational service districts to support development and implementation of school-wide academic and behavioral support systems in four elementary schools across four districts, representing different communities with varying demographic characteristics within one state in the north-central region of the United States.
Ervin, R. A., Schaughency, E., Goodman, S. D., McGlinchey, M. T., & Matthews, A. (2006). Merging research and practice agendas to address reading and behavior school-wide. School Psychology Review, 35(2), 198.
this paper is a mini-series from Scool Psychology Review. This special issue review highlights current research effort in American schools on bullying and peer victimization. and how this research can inform prevention and intervention planning.
Espelage, D. L., & Swearer Napolitano, S. M. (2003). Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here?[Mini-series].
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between school climate and children's academic and social development in the early elementary school years, controlling for maternal education and family resources, and to determine whether factors underlying school climate influence those outcomes.
Esposito, C. (1999). Learning in urban blights: School climate and its effect on the school performance of urban, minority, low-income children. School Psychology Review, 28(3), 365.
This paper explores the implementation of a professional development program (PDP) for school principals. Two methods for measuring fidelity of implementation of the PDP are examined
exploring the nature of implementatiion
This paper describes the results of a process evaluation focused on discovering common implementation obstacles faced by schools implementing the Life Skills Training (LST) drug prevention program.
Fagan, A. A., & Mihalic, S. (2003). Strategies for enhancing the adoption of school‐based prevention programs: Lessons learned from the Blueprints for Violence Prevention replications of the Life Skills Training program. Journal of Community Psychology, 31(3), 235-253.
The purpose of this commentary is to consider the crisis in education and the complex role teachers play in our society; to examine critically major aspects of the traditional modus operandi of behavior analysis that are counterproductive to teacher use; and to identify practices related to promoting greater teacher use and thereby enhancing the relevance of behavioral technology in education.
Fantuzzo, J., & Atkins, M. (1992). Applied behavior analysis for educators: Teacher centered and classroom based. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 37.
The purpose of this article is to present a conceptual framework for advancing mental health science and practice for vulnerable children that is in accord with the Surgeon General’s priorities for change.
Fantuzzo, J., McWayne, C., & Bulotsky, R. (2003). Forging strategic partnerships to advance mental health science and practice for vulnerable children. School Psychology Review, 32(1), 17-37.
Fueled by public incidents and growing evidence of deficiencies in care, concern over the quality and outcomes of care has increased in both the United Kingdom and the United States. Both countries have launched a number of initiatives to deal with these issues.
Ferlie, E. B., & Shortell, S. M. (2001). Improving the quality of health care in the United Kingdom and the United States: a framework for change. The Milbank Quarterly, 79(2), 281-315.
A growing number of evidence-based psychotherapies hold the promise of substantial benefits for children, families, and society. For the benefits of evidence-based programs to be realized on a scale sufficient to be useful to individuals and society, evidence-based psychotherapies need to be put into practice outside of controlled clinical trials.
Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Duda, M. A., Naoom, S. F., & Van Dyke, M. (2010). Implementation of evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents: Research findings and their implications for the future.
This chapter discusses a solution-oriented and incremental approach to solving major social
Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Timbers, G. D., & Wolf, M. M. (2001). In search of program implementation: 792 replications of the Teaching-Family Model. Offender rehabilitation in practice: Implementing and evaluating effective programs, 149-166.
This is a comprehensive literature review of the topic of Implementation examining all stages beginning with adoption and ending with sustainability.
Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., & Friedman, R. M. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature.
Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., Friedman, R. M., Wallace, F., Burns, B., ... & Shern, D. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature.
Quality indicators of prereferral interventions (i.e., behavioral definition, direct measure, step-by-step plan, treatment integrity, graphing of results, and direct comparison to baseline) were investigated as predictors of prereferral intervention outcomes with a sample of regular education teachers and related services personnel on the same 312 students.
Flugum, K. R., & Reschly, D. J. (1994). Prereferral interventions: Quality indices and outcomes. Journal of School Psychology, 32(1), 1-14.
This study examined the factors that are important to successful implementation and sustainability of evidence-based interventions in school settings
Forman, S. G., Olin, S. S., Hoagwood, K. E., Crowe, M., & Saka, N. (2009). Evidence-based interventions in schools: Developers’ views of implementation barriers and facilitators. School Mental Health, 1(1), 26.
Use of early detection and ongoing assessment of response as a basis for more focused intervention is described. Primary and secondary prevention issues also are discussed in relation to this approach.
Forness, S. R., Kavale, K. A., MacMillan, D. L., Asarnow, J. R., & Duncan, B. B. (1996). Early detection and prevention of emotional or behavioral disorders: Developmental aspects of systems of care. Behavioral Disorders, 21(3), 226-240.
To implement RTI for prevention and identification, schools must make decisions about six components that constitute the process. The authors recommendation is that schools employ three tiers, with only one tier separating general and special education.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2007). A model for implementing responsiveness to intervention. Teaching exceptional children, 39(5), 14-20.
The main enemies of large-scale reform are overload and extreme
fragmentation, Mr. Fullan points out. The three stories he outlines here serve
to lend coherence to an otherwise disjointed system.
Fullan, M. (2000). The three stories of education reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(8), 581-584.
This book is written for individuals at all levels of the educational system. All key players will find a chapter on their own roles, as well as chapters on other roles and agencies with whom they must interact.
Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change. Routledge.
Sustainability has eight core elements, each carrying implications for those in the superintendency. In this article, the author expands on these eight core elements for sustainability.
Fullan, M. (2005). Resiliency and sustainability. The School Administrator, 62 (2).
Fullan, M., Bertani, A., & Quinn, J. (2004). New Lessons for Districtwide Reform. Educational Leadership, 61(7), 42.
This chapter describes some of the critical conceptual issues related to intervention implementation, and provides a selected review of the research regarding the assessment and assurance of intervention implementation.
Gansle, K. A., & Noell, G. H. (2007). The fundamental role of intervention implementation in assessing response to intervention. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 244-251). Springer, Boston, MA.
The Rand Corporation just released its report evaluating the impact of the Principal Pipeline Initiative (PPI),a project supported by the Wallace Foundation to create and implement a strategic process for school leadership talent management. This report documents what the PPI districts were able to accomplish, describing the implementation of the PPI and its effects on student achievement, other school outcomes, and principal retention.
Gates, Susan M., Matthew D. Baird, Benjamin K. Master, and Emilio R. Chavez-Herrerias, Principal Pipelines: A Feasible, Affordable, and Effective Way for Districts to Improve Schools, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RR-2666-WF, 2019.
This article describes the procedures and utility of the Benchmarks of Quality as part of a comprehensive evaluation plan to assess the universal level of implementation fidelity of behavior support for a school. However, results can also be examined to determine the level of implementation fidelity across a district or state for ongoing behavioral training and technical assistance planning.
George, H. P., & Childs, K. E. (2012). Evaluating implementation of schoolwide behavior support: Are we doing it well?. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 56(4), 197-206.
This two‐level study of child welfare and juvenile justice case management teams addresses construct, measurement, and composition issues that plague multilevel research on organizational culture and climate.
Glisson, C., & James, L. R. (2002). The cross‐level effects of culture and climate in human service teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 23(6), 767-794.
This study examines the implementation of Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) for struggling readers that had been proven to work in early grades. The findings highlight the importance of considering context and implementation, in addition to evidence of effectiveness, when choosing an intervention program. Not only do schools need to adopt programs supported by evidence, but equally educators need to implement them consistently and effectively if students are to truly benefit from an intervention.
Gonzalez, N. (2018). When evidence-based literacy programs fail. Phi Delta Kappan, 100(4), 54–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721718815675
We, the people, appear to understand that the linchpin of each American's necessary apprenticeship in a democracy is a qualified, caring, competent classroom teacher, Mr. Goodlad points out. The role of Presidents and governors is to cheer us on, not to mislead us with the mythology of school reform.
Goodlad, J. I. (2002). Kudzu, rabbits, and school reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 84(1), 16-23.
This article assesses these differences using data from 981 Black and White male and female adolescents and latent variable structural equations techniques.
Gottfredson, D. C., & Koper, C. S. (1996). Race and sex differences in the prediction of drug use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(2), 305-313.
The study uses data from 2018 Black and White males and females and latent-variable structural equations techniques to examine group differences in the measurement of risk factors for substance use.
Gottfredson, D. C., & Koper, C. S. (1997). Race and sex differences in the measurement of risk for drug use. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 13(3), 325-347.
A 3-year study in eight middle schools tested a program to improve adolescent conduct. The program sought to increase clarity of school rules and consistency of rule enforcement, improve classroom organization and management, increase the frequency of communication with the home regarding student behavior, and increase reinforcement of appropriate behavior.
Gottfredson, D. C., Gottfredson, G. D., & Hybl, L. G. (1993). Managing adolescent behavior a multiyear, multischool study. American Educational Research Journal, 30(1), 179-215.
This project was undertaken to develop a comprehensive account of the levels of problem behaviors in schools. It also looked at what schools do to prevent problem behaviors and how they promote a safe and orderly environment.
Gottfredson, G. D., Gottfredson, D. C., Czeh, E. R., Cantor, D., Crosse, S. B., & Hantman, I. (2000). National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools. Final Report.
This report has been developed to help stimulate researchers and practitioners to place greater emphasis on how they conceptualize and measure implementation of evidence-based prevention programs
Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C. E., Graczyk, P. A., & Zins, J. E. (2005). The study of implementation in school-based preventive interventions: Theory, research, and practice. Promotion of Mental Health and Prevention of Mental and Behavioral Disorders 2005 Series V3, 21.
This study examined the effectiveness of the PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum the emotional development of school-aged children.
Greenberg, M. T., Kusche, C. A., Cook, E. T., & Quamma, J. P. (1995). Promoting emotional competence in school-aged children: The effects of the PATHS curriculum. Development and psychopathology, 7(1), 117-136.
The report examines the effect of state funding systems and high stakes testing on special
Greene, J. P., & Forster, G. (2002). Effects of Funding Incentives on Special Education Enrollment. Civic Report.
This column suggests an intervention continuum to be used that extends beyond the current model, providing a matrix that aligns social-emotional or behavioral skills with specific interventions shown to be effective for students who fall under other disability labels.
Gresham, F. M., Lane, K. L., & O'Shaughnessy, T. E. (2002). Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Boston, MA: Allya and Bacon.
Discusses educational changes from a system perspective. Sets forth a series of assertions based on eight years of experience with special-education reform initiatives in Iowa. Presents generalizations from an experiential base regarding critical components and characteristics of change process. Gives specific recommendations for persons contemplating educational innovative initiatives.
Grimes, J., & Tilly III, W. D. (1996). Policy and Process: Means to Lasting Educational Change. School Psychology Review, 25(4), 465-76.
To determine if a commonly used violence prevention curriculum, Second Step: A Violence Prevention Curriculum, leads to a reduction in aggressive behavior and an increase in prosocial behavior among elementary school students.
Grossman, D. C., Neckerman, H. J., Koepsell, T. D., Liu, P. Y., Asher, K. N., Beland, K., ... & Rivara, F. P. (1997). Effectiveness of a violence prevention curriculum among children in elementary school: A randomized controlled trial. Jama, 277(20), 1605-1611.
In this issue you will find both a brief introduction to the new Empirically Supported Interventions Section and the first of a two-part substantive discussion of vital issues pertaining to this topic. A companion piece further extending this analysis will follow shortly in a subsequent issue.
Gutkin, T. B. (2000). Empirically supported interventions: Initiating a new standing section in School Psychology Quarterly. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(1), 1.
This study evaluated the differences in estimates of treatment integrity be measuring different dimensions of it.
Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., & Fallon, L. M. (2011). Treatment Integrity Assessment: How Estimates of Adherence, Quality, and Exposure Influence Interpretation of Implementation. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(3), 209-232.
For decades, schools have taught children the strategies of struggling readers, using a theory about reading that cognitive scientists have repeatedly debunked. And many teachers and parents don't know there's anything wrong with it.
Hanford, E. (2019). At a loss for words: How a flawed idea is teaching millions of kids to be poor readers. APM Reports. https://www.apmreports.org/story/2019/08/22/whats-wrong-how-schools-teach-reading
This book provides a complete guide to implementing a wide range of problem-solving assessment methods: functional behavioral assessment, interviews, classroom observations, curriculum-based measurement, rating scales, and cognitive instruments.
Harrison, P. L. (2012). Assessment for intervention: A problem-solving approach. Guilford Press.
Although the current evidence based fad has turned into a debate about test scores, this book is about using evidence to build and defend a model of teaching and learning. A major contribution is a fascinating benchmark/dashboard for comparing many innovations in teaching and schools.
Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge.
To examine the long-term effects of an intervention combining teacher training, parent education, and social competence training for children during the elementary grades on adolescent health-risk behaviors at age 18 years.
Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Hill, K. G. (1999). Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 153(3), 226-234.
This article provides an overview of multisystemic therapy (MST). Specifically, the theoretical and empirical foundations for the demonstrated clinical and cost-effectiveness of MST in treating children and adolescents presenting serious clinical problems and their families are discussed.
Henggeler, S. W. (2001). Multisystemic therapy. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 18(3), 75-85.
Validated a measure of clinical supervision practices, further validated a measure of therapist adherence, and examined the association between supervisory practices and therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment model (i.e., multisystemic therapy [MST]) in real-world clinical settings.
Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Liao, J. G., Letourneau, E. J., & Edwards, D. L. (2002). Transporting efficacious treatments to field settings: The link between supervisory practices and therapist fidelity in MST programs. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(2), 155-167.
States and districts across the country are implementing new principal evaluation systems that include measures of the quality of principals' school leadership practices and measures of student achievement growth. Because these evaluation systems will be used for high- stakes decisions, it is important that the component measures of the evaluation systems fairly and accurately differentiate between effective and ineffective principals.
Herrmann, M., & Ross, C. (2016). Measuring principals’ effectiveness: Results from New Jersey’s first year of statewide principal evaluation. Mathematica Policy Research Reports available from https://econpapers. repec. org/paper/mprmprres/5f9c12f1d7404636aaf2e98e5abfaf6 f. htm.
In this review, we explore the extent to which researchers evaluating the efficacy of Tier 2 elementary reading interventions within the framework of Response to Intervention reported on fidelity of implementation and alignment of instruction between tiers. However, researchers frequently neglect to report on fidelity of intervention in Tier 1, potentially limiting claims that can be made about the efficacy of subsequent Tier 2 intervention.
Hill, D. R., King, S. A., Lemons, C. J., & Partanen, J. N. (2012). Fidelity of implementation and instructional alignment in response to intervention research. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 27(3), 116-124.
Here six authorities in public education discuss how local philanthropies can overcome them even if school districts cannot. Making School Reform Work identifies new institutions that can be created by foundations and civic groups to remedy deficiencies in local school governance, formulate bold reforms, and guarantee implementation.
Hill, P. T., & Harvey, J. (Eds.). (2004). Making school reform work: New partnerships for real change. Brookings Institution Press.
Like proponents of standards-based reform in other states, Washington State policy and business leaders assumed that the establishment of a performance-based system would change the behavior of teachers, parents, school administrators, and students.
Hill, P. T., Lake, R. J., Petrilli, M. J., & Cohen, M. (2002). Standards and accountability in Washington state. Brookings papers on education policy, (5), 199-234.
This paper examines five dimensions when implementing RtI: the tier model, identification of “at risk students”, preventative treatment, progress monitoring, and strategies for nonresponders.
Hintze, J. M. (2008). Conceptual and empirical issues related to developing a response-to-intervention framework. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=17426155176752854167&hl=en&inst=569367360547434339&oi=scholarr
This outstanding textbook presents innovative interventions for youth with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Community Treatment for Youth is designed to fill a gap between the knowledge base and clinical practice through its presentation of theory, practice parameters, training requirements, and research evidence.
Hoagwood, K. I. M. B. E. R. L. Y., Burns, B. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). A profitable conjunction: From science to service in children’s mental health. Community treatment for youth: Evidence-based interventions for severe emotional and behavioral disorders, 327-338.
This report, preceded as it was by the seminal report of the Surgeon General on Mental Health (2000) and followed by the Surgeon General’s Youth Violence (2001) and Culture, Race and Ethnicity Reports (2002), represented a critical shift in federal health priorities.
Hoagwood, K., & Johnson, J. (2003). School psychology: A public health framework: I. From evidence-based practices to evidence-based policies. Journal of School Psychology, 41(1), 3-21.
Implementing Change: Patterns, Principles, and Potholes, by Gene E. Hall and Shirley M. Hord, is a comprehensive resource for those interested in learning more about change in general and specifically the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM).
Hord, S. M., & Hall, G. (2014). Implementing change-Patterns, principles, and potholes. Pearson Education (us).
The Monitoring Advanced Tiers Tool (MATT) is a coach-guided, self-assessment tool that allows school teams to progress monitor their initial implementation of Tier II (secondary, targeted) and Tier III (tertiary, intensive) behavior support systems within their school. The MATT follows the factor structure of the Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (ISSET), and the Benchmark of Advanced Tiers (BAT). The MATT is intended to be an efficient and constructive method for teams to monitor and guide their implementation of Tier II and Tier III behavior support practices.
Horner, R. H., Sampson, N. K., Anderson, C. M., Todd, A. W., & Eliason, B. M. (2013). Monitoring advanced tiers tool. Eugene: Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon.
Schools throughout the country are now encouraged to implement school-wide positive behavior support (PBS) procedures as a way to improve their behavioral climate, safety, and social culture. The School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET; Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, Todd, & Horner, 2001) was created to provide a rigorous measure of primary prevention practices within school-wide behavior support.
Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool (SET) a research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 3-12.
“Contextual fit” is based on the premise that the match between an intervention and local context affects both the quality of intervention implementation and whether the intervention actually produces the desired outcomes for children and families.
Horner, R., Blitz, C., & Ross, S. (2014). The importance of contextual fit when implementing evidence-based interventions. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/77066/ib_Contextual.pdf
This book presents clear and functional techniques for deciding what students with learning disabilities should be taught and how. This book can also function as a tool to assist pre-service teachers (students) with deciding how to teach and what to teach to regular/non-special education children.
Howell, K. W. (1993). Curriculum-based evaluation: Teaching and decision making. Cengage Learning.
This study examined the relationships between 2 carefully specified dimensions of teacher efficacy (general and personal teaching efficacy) and aspects of a healthy school climate (institutional integrity, principal influence, consideration, resource support, morale, and academic emphasis).
Hoy, W. K., & Woolfolk, A. E. (1993). Teachers' sense of efficacy and the organizational health of schools. The elementary school journal, 93(4), 355-372.
This book offers the basis for answering these and other questions. The authors demonstrate the significant relationship that exists between school health and academic performance. They then present the measures, developed over many years of careful research, that can best test the organizational climate of any school.
Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1991). Open schools, healthy schools: Measuring organizational climate. Corwin Press.
This paper describes “how” to effectively implement lasting school improvement initiatives that maximize leadership, develop talent, amplify instructional transformation, and shift the culture.
Jackson, K., R., Fixsen, D., and Ward, C. (2018). Four Domains for Rapid School Improvement: An Implementation Framework. The Center on School Turnaround.
The Second Edition of this essential handbook provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the science that informs best practices for the implementation of response to intervention (RTI) processes within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) to facilitate the academic success of all students.
Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K., & VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of multi-tiered systems of support. Springer.
A meta-analysis was undertaken to synthesize research results about the effectiveness of mainstream service programs for minority juvenile delinquents relative to White delinquents.
Jo Wilson, S., Lipsey, M. W., & Soydan, H. (2003). Are mainstream programs for juvenile delinquency less effective with minority youth than majority youth? A meta-analysis of outcomes research. Research on Social Work Practice, 13(1), 3-26.
This article presents an informed definition of sustainability and an associated planning model for sustaining innovations (pertinent to both infrastructure and interventions) within organizational, community, and state systems.
Johnson, K., Hays, C., Center, H., & Daley, C. (2004). Building capacity and sustainable prevention innovations: a sustainability planning model. Evaluation and program planning, 27(2), 135-149.
The book is an attempt to extend the description and explanation of organizational processes we have shifted from an earlier emphasis on traditional concept of individual psychology and interpersonal relationship.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (Vol. 2, p. 528). New York: Wiley.
Addressing research-to-practice issues effectively requires getting researchers to do better research and getting policymakers to make better choices.
Kauffman, J. M. (1996). Research to practice issues. Behavioral Disorders, 22(1), 55-60.
Response to Intervention (RtI) has gained increased attention with the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. Since RtI was introduced at the policy level as a mechanism for use in the learning disability identification process, much of the implementation work has focused on this application.
Keller‐Margulis, M. A. (2012). Fidelity of implementation framework: A critical need for response to intervention models. Psychology in the Schools, 49(4), 342-352.
Ninety-four children (aged 9-13 years) with anxiety disorders were randomly assigned to cognitive behavioral treatment or waiting-list control.
Kendall, P. C., Flannery-Schroeder, E., Panichelli-Mindel, S. M., Southam-Gerow, M., Henin, A., & Warman, M. (1997). Therapy for youths with anxiety disorders: A second randomized clincal trial. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 65(3), 366.
This book provides information on the process and skills of data visualization, teaching the concepts and skills of how to present data and inspiring effective visual design.
Kirk, A. (2016). Data visualisation: a handbook for data driven design. Sage.
Scientists have discredited claims that listening to classical music enhances intelligence, yet this so-called "Mozart Effect" has actually exploded in popularity over the years.
Krakovsky, M. (2005). Dubious “Mozart effect” remains music to many Americans’ ears. Stanford, CA: Stanford Report
This report presents an overview of issues related to evidence-based practice and the role that the school psychology profession can play in developing and disseminating evidence-based interventions.
Kratochwill, T. R., & Shernoff, E. S. (2003). Evidence-based practice: Promoting evidence-based interventions in school psychology. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(4), 389.
The task force on interventions by the American Psychological Association (APA, Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 1995) stimulated considerable enthusiasm among many about the role of ESIs in practice.
Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2000). Diversifying theory and science: Expanding the boundaries of empirically supported interventions in school psychology. Journal of School Psychology, 38(4), 349-358.
The inauguration of the ESI section of School Psychology Quarterly represents a new era in research for our profession that we hope will usher in advancements for both the science and practice of school psychology.
Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2000). Empirically supported interventions: Announcing a new standing section of School Psychology Quarterly. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(1), 69.
This chapter provides an overview of some of the conceptual and foundation features of RTI.
Kratochwill, T. R., Clements, M. A., & Kalymon, K. M. (2007). Response to intervention: Conceptual and methodological issues in implementation. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 25-52). Springer, Boston, MA.
By using data collected for the National Longitudinal Evaluation of Comprehensive School Reform (NLECSR), this article explores the factors that predict CSR model implementation and the ways that CSR model implementation varies.
Kurki, A., Boyle, A., & Aladjem, D. K. (2006). Implementation: Measuring and explaining the fidelity of CSR implementation. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 11(3-4), 255-277.
This workbook helps program developers and community leaders identify basic issues in: sustaining promising initiatives, addressing strategic details, and developing a comprehensive plan. It includes a guide and five step-by-step modules that help initiative leaders identify specific resources and strategies that are needed to successfully sustain effective programs and services.
Langford, B. H., & Flynn, M. (2003). Sustainability planning workbook. Finance Project.
An old disagreement over how to teach children to read -- whole-language versus phonics -- has re-emerged in California, in a new form. Previously confined largely to education, the dispute is now a full-fledged political issue there, and is likely to become one in other states.
Lemann, N. (1997). The reading wars. The Atlantic Monthly, 280(5), 128–133.
This article describes Effective Behavioral Support, a systems approach to enhancing the capacity of schools to adopt and sustain use of effective processes for all students.
Lewis, T. J., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effective behavior support: A systems approach to proactive schoolwide management. Focus on Exceptional Children, 31(6), 1.
This paper examines the evidence-based education issues that come into play with the implementation of a Positive Behavior Support school culture.
Lewis-Palmer, T., & Barrett, S. (2007). Establishing and sustaining statewide positive behavior supports implementation: A description of Maryland’s model. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 8(1), 45-61.
Lin, M., Lake, V. E., & Rice, D. (2008). Teaching anti-bias curriculum in teacher education programs: What and how. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35(2), 187-200.
in this article, the author describes the policies of precision teaching.
Lindsley, O. R. (1990). Precision teaching: By teachers for children. Teaching Exceptional Children, 22(3), 10-15.
The bulletin describes the procedures used to select studies for the meta-analysis, presents the methods of analysis used to answer the above questions, and then discusses effective interventions for noninstitutionalized and institutionalized offenders.
Lipsey, M. W. (2000). Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
This study examines key substance use, delinquency, and school-based aggressive behavior outcomes at a 1-year follow-up for a cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered to aggressive children and their parents at the time of these children's transition to middle school.
Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2003). Effectiveness of the Coping Power Program and of classroom intervention with aggressive children: Outcomes at a 1-year follow-up. Behavior Therapy, 34(4), 493-515.
In 1986, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) position paper, "Rights without Labels," was published. This document was radical because it acknowledged that serious problems existed in the educational classification system and proposed the necessity of serving students with special needs within the general education setting without labeling them.
Lockwood, A., & Coulter, A. (2017). Rights without Labels: Thirty Years Later. Communique, 45(6).
This meta-analysis of behavior management strategies includes single-subject designed studies of 838 students from 22 studies for K-12 classrooms. The study finds the behavior management strategies are highly effective for improving student conduct. Interventions that used an individual or group contingency demonstrated large effects and were the most common behavior management strategies used. The study finds few studies included diverse populations other than African-American students.They also find a need to improve upon the quality of available studies on the classroom management strategies.
Long, A. C. J., Miller, F. G., & Upright, J. J. (2019). Classroom management for ethnic–racial minority students: A meta-analysis of single-case design studies. School Psychology, 34(1), 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/spq0000305
The successful implementation of school-based behavioral interventions requires school personnel to be competent with program content and procedures. An unfortunate trend within school-based behavioral intervention research is that the core intervention components and implementation features are often not fully described.
Maggin, D. M., & Johnson, A. H. (2015). The reporting of core program components: an overlooked barrier for moving research into practice. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 59(2), 73-82.
Assessing fidelity of implementation of school-based interventions is a critical factor in successful implementation and sustainability. The Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI) was developed as a comprehensive measure of all three tiers of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) and is intended to measure the extent to which the core features of SWPBIS are implemented with fidelity.
Massar, M. M., McIntosh, K., & Mercer, S. H. (2019). Factor validation of a fidelity of implementation measure for social behavior systems. Remedial and Special Education, 40(1), 16-24.
Full and durable implementation of school-based interventions is supported by regular evaluation of fidelity of implementation. Multiple assessments have been developed to evaluate the extent to which schools are applying the core features of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS).
McIntosh, K., Massar, M. M., Algozzine, R. F., George, H. P., Horner, R. H., Lewis, T. J., & Swain-Bradway, J. (2017). Technical adequacy of the SWPBIS tiered fidelity inventory. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19(1), 3-13.
This paper empirically evaluates factor related to sustained implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support.
MCINTOSH, K., MERCER, S., HUME, A., FRANK, J L., TURRI, M. G., & MATHEWS, S. (2013). Factors Related to Sustained Implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support. Exceptional Children, 79(3), 293-311.
We should stop being so embarrassed by uncertainty and embrace it as a strength rather than a weakness of scientific reasoning
McIntyre, L., (2019, May 22). How to reverse the assault on science. Scientific American. https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/how-to-reverse-the-assault-on-science1/
This comprehensive approach recognizes that school environments can be adaptive systems with the potential to prevent or ameliorate behavior problems.
McLaughlin, M. J., Leone, P. E., Meisel, S., & Henderson, K. (1997). Strengthen school and community capacity. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 5(1), 15-23.
Several reliable and valid fidelity surveys are commonly used to assess Tier 1 implementation in School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS); however, differences across surveys complicate consequential decisions regarding school implementation status when multiple measures are compared. Compared with other measures, the PBIS Self-Assessment Survey (SAS) was more sensitive to differences among schools at higher levels of implementation. Implications for SWPBIS research and fidelity assessment are discussed.
Mercer, S. H., McIntosh, K., & Hoselton, R. (2017). Comparability of fidelity measures for assessing tier 1 school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19(4), 195-204.
This article describes the results of a process evaluation focused on discovering common implementation obstacles faced by 42 sites implementing eight of the Blueprints programs. This evaluation revealed that most sites involved in the project faced many challenges when implementing in real-world settings
Mihalic, S. F., & Irwin, K. (2003). Blueprints for violence prevention: From research to real-world settings—factors influencing the successful replication of model programs. Youth violence and juvenile justice, 1(4), 307-329.
This Report describes the Blueprints programs, presents lessons learned about program implementation, and provides recommendations for program designers, funders, and implementing agencies and organizations.
Mihalic, S., Ballard, D., Michalski, A., Tortorice, J., Cunningham, L., & Argamaso, S. (2002). Blueprints for violence prevention, violence initiative: Final process evaluation report. Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
This position paper contends that the whole language approach to reading instruction has been disproved by research and evaluation but still pervades textbooks for teachers, instructional materials for classroom use, some states' language-arts standards and other policy documents, teacher licensing requirements and preparation programs, and the professional context in which teachers work.
Moats, L. C. (2000). Whole language lives on: The illusion of “balanced” reading instruction. Washington, DC: DIANE Publishing.
Child study teams (CSTs) are involved in making decisions about many aspects of the delivery of special services to handicapped students. However, a number of factors inhibit the decision-making process within CSTs. These factors have their origins in the implementation of the team process at the local education agency (LEA) level, the preparation of CST members to participate in team decision making, and in the difficulties encountered in communicating discipline-specific information.
Moore, K. J., Fifield, M. B., Spira, D. A., & Scarlato, M. (1989). Child study team decision making in special education: Improving the process. Remedial and Special Education, 10(4), 50-58.
The Classroom Environment Scale (CES) helps create a positive school climate in which more students succeed. The instrument evaluates the effects of course content, teaching methods, teacher personality, class composition and characteristics of the overall classroom environment.
Moors, R.H., & Trickett, E. J. (1979). Classroom Environment Scale Manual (2nd Ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Council.
Reschly, D. J. (1988). Obstacles, starting points, and doldrums notwithstanding: Reform/revolution from outcomes criteria. School Psychology Review, 17(3), 495-501.
n response to comments by M. Will, J. F. Kovaleski, G. W. Hynd, and J. M. Kauffman (see PA, Vol 76:3298, 3279, 3276, and 3277, respectively), the present author extends critical discussion of critical points and clarifies issues of disagreement in his article on a revolution in school psychological services as a result of the special education reform movement.
The Workgroup reviewed the NIMH research portfolio that extends from academic research settings to large, State-wide service systems, to the moving target of “front-line” clinical care. The review made vividly clear the need for mutually enriching interaction between research and both practice and service systems.
National Institute of Mental Health. (1999). Bridging science and service: A report by the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Clinical Treatment and Services Research Workgroup.
In the school setting, teams are abundant, often serving multiple purposes, having various titles, and consisting of diverse members. Teams are considered an essential component of Response to Intervention (RtI) and are the vehicle through which data‐based decision making occurs at the school, grade, small‐group, and individual student level.
Nellis, L. M. (2012). Maximizing the effectiveness of building teams in response to intervention implementation. Psychology in the Schools, 49(3), 245-256.
The chapter describes five categories of theoretical approaches that achieve three overarching aims: process models, which are aimed at describing and/or guiding the process of translating research into practice; determinant frameworks, classic theories and implementation theories, which are aimed at understanding and/or explaining what influences implementation outcomes; and evaluation frameworks, which are aimed at evaluating implementation. Awareness of how the approaches differ is important to facilitate the selection of relevant approaches.
Nilsen, P. (2020). Making sense of implementation theories, models, and frameworks. In Implementation Science 3.0 (pp. 53-79). Springer, Cham.
This chapter presents a taxonomy that distinguishes among different categories of theories, models and frameworks used in implementation science. The chapter describes five categories of theoretical approaches that achieve three overarching aims: process models, which are aimed at describing and/or guiding the process of translating research into practice; determinant frameworks, classic theories and implementation theories, which are aimed at understanding and/or explaining what influences implementation outcomes; and evaluation frameworks, which are aimed at evaluating implementation.
Nilsen, P. (2020). Making sense of implementation theories, models, and frameworks. In Implementation Science 3.0 (pp. 53-79). Springer, Cham.
Examined the treatment integrity with which general education teachers implemented a reinforcement based intervention designed to improve the academic performance of elementary school students
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 77.
Education researchers are being asked to conduct rigorous, scientifically based studies of K–12 curriculum interventions; therefore, the need for measuring fidelity of implementation and empirically relating it to outcomes (the chief rationale for this review) is warranted to ensure internal and external validity. The results of this review indicate that there are too few studies to guide researchers on how fidelity of implementation to core curriculum interventions can be measured and related to outcomes, particularly within efficacy and effectiveness studies, where the requirements for fidelity measures differ.
O’Donnell, C. L. (2008). Defining, conceptualizing, and measuring fidelity of implementation and its relationship to outcomes in K–12 curriculum intervention research. Review of educational research, 78(1), 33-84.
In this article, implementation is proposed as the link between evidence-based practices and positive outcomes. Strategies for promoting implementation through “enlightened professional development” are proposed.
Odom, S. L. (2009). The tie that binds: Evidence-based practice, implementation science, and outcomes for children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 29(1), 53-61.
Naomi Oreskes offers a bold and compelling defense of science, revealing why the social character of scientific
knowledge is its greatest strength—and the greatest reason we can trust it.
Oreskes, N. (2019). Why trust science? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Research on students with serious emotional disturbances (SED) suggests that these children are significantly underidentified. National special education data bear out this conclusion to a large extent.
Oswald, D. P., & Coutinho, M. J. (1995). Identification and placement of students with serious emotional disturbance. Part I: Correlates of state child-count data. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 3(4), 224-229.
This guide for parents outlines what they need to know about the legislation.
Paige, R. (2002). What to know and where to go parent’s guide to no child left behind a new era in education. Washington, DC: US Dept. of Education, Office of the Secretary.
We sought to identify, examine, and summarize empirical literature focused on early childhood behavior interventions examined using a single case research designs (SCD) and published between 2001 and 2018. The findings of the current review suggest: promoting implementation fidelity through implementation support to improve social validity outcomes, providing guidelines for timing and frequency of social validity assessment, and development of social validity assessment tools designed to assess each of the social validity dimensions.
Park, E. Y., & Blair, K. S. C. (2019). Social validity assessment in behavior interventions for young children: A systematic review. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 39(3), 156-169.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of historical trends in the funding of special education programs, to discuss current issues, and to consider alternative directions for the future
Parrish, T. B. (1996). Special Education Finance: Past, Present, and Future. Policy Paper Number 8.
This article examines the state of progress of evidence-based educational policies in Europe and identifies organizations for the generation and dissemination of evidence. Further, it discusses some of the most relevant challenges facing the development of evidence-informed education policies in Europe.
Pellegrini, M., & Vivanet, G. (2020). Evidence-based policies in education: Initiatives and challenges in Europe. ECNU Review of Education, 2096531120924670.
This article examines variations in patterns in the enactment of a large-scale kindergarten through Grade 12 science inquiry program. Student data reports in the GLOBE program provide a useful measure of implementation because key design elements in the program are student collection and reporting of local environmental data.
Penuel, W. R., & Means, B. (2004). Implementation variation and fidelity in an inquiry science program: Analysis of GLOBE data reporting patterns. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(3), 294-315.
The purpose of the current investigation was to assess the relationship between the integrity with which social skills interventions were implemented in early childhood special education classrooms and 3 factors: teacher ratings of intervention acceptability, consultative support for implementation, and individual child outcomes.
Peterson, C. A., & McCONNELL, S. R. (1996). Factors related to intervention integrity and child outcome in social skills interventions. Journal of early intervention, 20(2), 146-164.
Recognizing that what, how, and how much children learn in school depends in large part on the social and emotional competence they developed as preschoolers, this monograph examines the current state of research regarding the social and emotional risk and protective factors that predict early school problems or success.
Peth-Pierce, R. (2000). A Good Beginning: Sending America's Children to School with the Social and Emotional Competence They Need To Succeed.
This award-winning twelve-volume reference covers every aspect of the ever-fascinating discipline of psychology and represents the most current knowledge in the field. This ten-year revision now covers discoveries based in neuroscience, clinical psychology's new interest in evidence-based practice and mindfulness, and new findings in social, developmental, and forensic psychology.
Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B., Stuhlman, M., Reynolds, W. M., & Miller, G. E. (2003). Handbook of psychology: Educational psychology.
The purpose of this study was to identify the most important perceived enablers and barriers regarding sustainability of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. School personnel representing 860 schools implementing or preparing to implement school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports completed an open-ended survey of factors regarding its sustainability.
Pinkelman, S. E., McIntosh, K., Rasplica, C. K., Berg, T., & Strickland-Cohen, M. K. (2015). Perceived enablers and barriers related to sustainability of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. Behavioral Disorders, 40(3), 171-183.
This article introduces the special series in School Psychology Review on "Emerging models for promoting children's mental health: Linking systems for prevention and intervention." This article describes existing problems with the mental health system and priorities tha have been identified as targets for change.
Power, T. J. (2003). Promoting children's mental health: Reform through interdisciplinary and community partnerships. School Psychology Review, 32(1), 3.
This article identify five areas that subsume the major activities of problem solving or non categorical service delivery. They are (1) assessment for interventions (2) support for interventions (3) parent involvement (4) problem solving collaboration (5) resources for students as a part of general education.
Prasse, D. P., & Schrag, J. A. (1999). Providing noncategorical, functional, classroom-based supports for students with disabilities: Legal parameters. AUTHOR Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Tilly, W. David, III, Ed.; Grimes, Jeffrey P., Ed. TITLE Functional and Noncategorical Identification and, 201.
This book confronts the widespread impression that policy or program implementation should be easy, arguing instead that implementation, even under the best of circumstances, is exceedingly difficult.
Pressman, J. L., & Wildavsky, A. (1973). Implementation: How great expectations in Washington are dashed in Oakland.
This research paper reports on testing the hypothesis that music and spatial task performance are causally related. Two complementary studies are presented that replicate and explore previous findings.
Rauscher, F. H., Shaw, G. L., & Ky, C. N. (1993). Music and spatial task performance. Nature, 365(6447), 611–611.
The focus of the book is on essential concepts in educational statistics, understanding when to use various statistical tests, and how to interpret results. This book introduces educational students and practitioners to the use of statistics in education and basic concepts in statistics are explained in clear language.
Ravid, R. (2019). Practical statistics for educators. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Our nation faces a daunting challenge in making sure that we have a sufficient supply of well-educated, well-prepared teachers for our children. There is surely widespread agreement that good teachers are vital to our future. However, there is not widespread agreement about how we accomplish this goal. Some propose that we raise standards for entry into the teaching profession, while others suggest that we lower unnecessary barriers.
Ravitch, D. (2003, August 23). A brief history of teacher professionalism. U. S. Department of Education, White House Conference on Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers.
Presents an analysis and critique of current school psychological services that emphasize unresolved dilemmas in the current system, which are interpreted as establishing the basis for special education reform.
Reschly, D. J. (1988). Special education reform: School psychology revolution. School Psychology Review.
This chapter describe and contrast different paradigms for the design and delivery of school psychological services, analyze problems in the traditional delivery system, and review major policy and reform statements. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the knowledge base, underlying principles, and strategies that form the basis for psychological services that emphasize problem solving, functional assessment, and educational accountability.
Reschly, D. J., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2002). Paradigm shift: The past is not the future.
This page describes the conflict of interest and what should we do about it.
Resources for Research Ethics Education. (2001). What is a conflict of interest? San Diego, CA: University of California, San Diego. http://research-ethics.org/topics/conflicts-of-interest/
Drawing on normative, empirical, and critical literatures, this review explores the role of school administrators in responding to the needs of diverse students. Three administrative tasks are highlighted: fostering new meanings about diversity, promoting inclusive school cultures and instructional programs, and building relationships between schools and communities.
Riehl, C. J. (2000). The principal's role in creating inclusive schools for diverse students: A review of normative, empirical, and critical literature on the practice of educational administration. Review of educational research, 70(1), 55-81.
The roles and functions of 52 school psychologists from Iowa and Tennessee were examined. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test differences between reported time spent on prereferral, assessment, intervention, consultation, and curriculum‐based assessment
Roberts, A. H., & Rust, J. O. (1994). Role and function of school psychologists, 1992–93: A comparative study. Psychology in the Schools, 31(2), 113-119.
This book looks at how new ideas spread via communication channels over time. Such innovations are initially perceived as uncertain and even risky. To overcome this uncertainty, most people seek out others like themselves who have already adopted the new idea. Thus the diffusion process typically takes months or years. But there are exceptions: use of the Internet in the 1990s, for example, may have spread more rapidly than any other innovation in the history of humankind.
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.
This review examined the overlap between state-created curriculum evaluation tools and The Hexagon Tool created by the National Implementation Research Network. The author followed systematic procedures while conducting a web search and visiting each state’s department of education website in search of curriculum evaluation tools.
Rolf, R., R. (2019). State Department of Education Support for Implementation Issues Faced by School Districts during the Curriculum Adoption Process. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/student-research-2019.
This review will briefly address the nature of conflicts of interest in research, including the importance of both financial and non-financial conflicts, and the potential effectiveness and limits of various strategies for managing such conflicts.
Romain, P. L. (2015). Conflicts of interest in research: Looking out for number one means keeping the primary interest front and center. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine, 8(2), 122–127.
This paper provides a synthetic review of research on school-based mental health services.
Rones, M., & Hoagwood, K. (2000). School-based mental health services: A research review. Clinical child and family psychology review, 3(4), 223-241.
This book examines the major themes of instruction and gives a step-by-step outline of the consultation process from referral to the final report.
Rosenfield, S. (2013). Instructional consultation. Routledge.
This chapter examines what happens when schools engage in a process of comprehensive
school reform (CSR)
Rowan, B., Camburn, E., & Barnes, C. (2004). Benefiting from comprehensive school reform: A review of research on CSR implementation. Putting the pieces together: Lessons from comprehensive school reform research, 1-52.
This What Works Clearinghouse practice guide provides educators and administrators with four evidence-based recommendations for reducing dropout rates in middle and high schools. The guide offers specific, strategies; examples of how to implement the practices; advice on how to overcome obstacles; and a summary of the supporting evidence.
Rumberger, R. W., et al. (2017). Educator’s Practice Guide: Preventing Dropout in Secondary School. IES National Center for Education and Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
This literature review examines the use of school-based positive behavior support (PBS), an alternative to traditional disciplinary practices that includes databased decision making and team collaboration.
Safran, S. P., & Oswald, K. (2003). Positive behavior supports: Can schools reshape disciplinary practices?. Exceptional children, 69(3), 361-373.
Evidence-based interventions benefit learners only when they are implemented fully. Yet many educators struggle with successful implementation. Step-by-step procedures are presented for assessing existing implementation efforts and using a menu of support strategies to promote intervention fidelity.
Sanetti, L. M. H., & Collier-Meek, M. A. (2019). Supporting successful interventions in schools: Tools to plan, evaluate, and sustain effective implementation. Guilford Publications.
The paper provides a review of the literature from two areas: current models of public policy implementation and policy learning. It then goes on to describe the fieldwork which took place with National Health Service capital project teams and the nature of the data analysis which, amongst other techniques, used.
Schofield, J. (2004). A model of learned implementation. Public administration, 82(2), 283-308.
Education created RTT under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 to provide incentives for states to reform K-12 education in areas such as improving the lowest performing schools and developing effective teachers and leaders. In 2010, Education awarded 12 states nearly $4 billion in RTT grant funds to spend over 4 years. A state's RTT application and scope of work included the state's plans for development and
implementation of teacher and principal evaluation systems by participating school districts
Scott, G. A. (2013). Race to the Top: States Implementing Teacher and Principal Evaluation Systems Despite Challenges. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives. GAO-13-777. US Government Accountability Office.
Twenty-eight investigations were identified in which general education teachers were surveyed regarding their perceptions of including students with disabilities in their classes. Research synthesis procedures were employed to summarize responses and examine the consistency of responses across time, geographical location, and item type.
Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1996). Teacher perceptions of mainstreaming/inclusion, 1958–1995: A research synthesis. Exceptional children, 63(1), 59-74.
The leadership stories in the book demonstrate the many ways that the core ideas in The Fifth Discipline, many of which seemed radical when first published in 1990, have become deeply integrated into people's ways of seeing the world and their managerial practices.
Senge, P. M. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. Broadway Business.
This paper will describe a set of five measure-able indicators from three domains of evaluation that schools can use to obtain frequent feedback on the impact of their RTI system on reading instruction and achievement.
Shapiro, E. S., & Clemens, N. H. (2009). A conceptual model for evaluating system effects of response to intervention. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 35(1), 3-16.
This book offers the latest in evidence-based measures that have proven to create safer, more effective schools. The book emphasizes the interwoven nature of violence and academic underachievement, the importance of prevention and early intervention, the need to integrate intervention and remediation services in a seamless delivery system, and the enormous protective benefits of school success in all areas of a child's life.
Shinn, M. R., Walker, H. M., & Stoner, G. E. (2002). Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches. National Association of School Psychologists.
This chapter examine the intricacies of teaching beginning reading in schools and describe a pre- vention model of schoolwide beginning reading improvement.
Simmons, D. C., Kame’enui, E. J., Good, R. H., Harn, B. A., Cole, C., & Braun, D. (2002). Building, implementing, and sustaining a beginning reading improvement model: Lessons learned school by school. Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches, 537-570.
This article describes Success for All, a comprehensive reform program for elementary
schools, with a focus on strategies the program uses to increase the chances that the
program will remain in use over extended periods.
Slavin, R. E. (2004). Built to last: Long-term maintenance of success for all. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 61-66.
The authors propose educational design research and communities of practice as frameworks through which to realize the promise of Pasteur's quadrant.
Smith, G. J., Schmidt, M. M., Edelen-Smith, P. J., & Cook, B. G. (2013). Pasteur's Quadrant as the Bridge Linking Rigor With Relevance. Exceptional Children, 79(2), 147-161.
These publications have laid out guidelines to successfully implement the changes that they suggest will improve students' understandings of science. In keeping with these suggestions, several research groups have created, piloted, and implemented curricular programs in schools in the hopes of increasing students' science content understanding as well as their complex reasoning skills.
Songer, N. B., & Gotwals, A. W. (2005, April). Fidelity of implementation in three sequential curricular units. In Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.
This paper examines a range of education failures: common mistakes in how new practices are selected, implemented, and monitored. The goal is not a comprehensive listing of all education failures but rather to provide education stakeholders with an understanding of the importance of vigilance when implementing new practices.
States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2020). Why Practices Fail. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/roadmap-overview
The debate about the safety of calcium-channel antagonists provided an opportunity to study financial conflicts of interest in medicine. This project was designed to examine the relation between authors' published positions on the safety of calcium-channel antagonists and their financial interactions with the pharmaceutical industry.
Stelfox, H. T., Chua, G., O'Rourke, K., & Detsky, A. S. (1998). Conflict of interest in the debate over calcium-channel antagonists. New England Journal of Medicine, 338(2), 101–106.
The authors argue that, although conceptualizing school psychology as primarily an indirect service specialty has advanced our thinking about effective service delivery, conceptualizing school psychological services from a public health perspective will provide an even broader framework that can increase both the efficacy and efficiency of school psychologists' work.
Strein, W., Hoagwood, K., & Cohn, A. (2003). School psychology: A public health perspective: I. Prevention, populations, and systems change. Journal of School Psychology, 41(1), 23-38.
The thesis of this paper is that the current problem behavior of students in elementary and middle schools requires a preventive, whole-school approach. The foundation for such an approach lies in the emerging technology of positive behavior support.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2002). The evolution of discipline practices: School-wide positive behavior supports. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 24(1-2), 23-50.
This article focuses on what we know and need to know about school-wide applications of effective practices and systems for preventing problem behaviors.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2008). What we know and need to know about preventing problem behavior in schools. Exceptionality, 16(2), 67-77.
The purpose of this chapter is to describe those characteristics of schoolwide positive behavior support (SW-PBS) practices and systems that establish and maintain an effective, efficient, and relevant social culture in which teaching and learning are maximized.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Defining and describing schoolwide positive behavior support. In Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 307-326). Springer, Boston, MA.
The purpose of this article is to provide one perspective on the source and features of RtI and how RtI provides a useful framework for implementing SWPBS.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Responsiveness-to-intervention and school-wide positive behavior supports: Integration of multi-tiered system approaches. Exceptionality, 17(4), 223-237.
Positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) was first introduced with the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1997. In this article, we describe the 25-year history of the PBIS implementation experience, including the core features of PBIS as a multitiered framework and the process and outcomes for implementing PBIS across over 26,000 schools. We also summarize the national outcome data of PBIS implementation and conclude with a discussion of future directions and considerations, focusing on sustainability and scaling.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2020). Sustaining and scaling positive behavioral interventions and supports: Implementation drivers, outcomes, and considerations. Exceptional Children, 86(2), 120-136.
This article focuses on the systemic implementation features of SWPBS as a means of increasing the accurate adoption and sustained implementation of effective behavioral practices at the individual student, classroom, and school-wide levels. This article describes SWPBS, suggest how SWPBS might be implemented at broader systems levels, and discuss research and practice implications.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. R. (2006). A promising approach for expanding and sustaining school-wide positive behavior support. School psychology review, 35(2), 245.
This checklist is designed to be completed by the PBIS Team once a quarter to monitor activities for implementation of PBIS in a school. The team should complete the Action Plan at the same time to track items that are In Progress or Not Yet Started items.
Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., & Lewis-Palmer, T. L. (2001). Team implementation checklist (TIC). Eugene, OR: Educational and Community Supports.
The EBS Survey is used by school staff for initial and annual assessment of effective behavior support systems in their school. The survey summary is used to develop an action plan for implementing and sustaining effective behavioral support systems throughout the school.
Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., & Todd, A. W. (2000). Effective behavior support: Self-assessment survey. Eugene: University of Oregon.
There are many rationales for group, rather than individual, decision making. Theorized advantages include more information to contribute to the decision, more diverse perspectives to inform deliberation, and greater efficiency for implementation.
Supovitz, J. A., & Tognatta, N. (2013). The impact of distributed leadership on collaborative team decision making. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 12(2), 101-121.
Reports a study that analyzed relationships among supportive principal behavior, faculty collegiality, faculty trust, and effectiveness. Data from 2,777 middle school teachers indicated that supportive principals, not teacher behavior, promoted trust in the principal. Teacher collegiality, not principal behavior, fostered trust among colleagues.
Tarter, C. J. (1995). Middle School Climate, Faculty Trust, and Effectiveness: A Path Analysis. Journal of Research and development in Education, 29(1), 41-49.
This article highlights a framework of general phases and specific steps for di usion of major new approaches across a school district. The overlapping phases are seen as encompassing: (a) creating readiness, (b) initial implementation, (c) institutionalization, and (d) ongoing evolution. The discussion includes lessons learned in applying the framework.
Taylor, Perry Nelson, Howard S. Adelman, L. (1999). Scaling-up reforms across a school district. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 15(4), 303-325.
This study examined the fidelity of problem-solving implementation by multidisciplinary
teams (MDTs) in 227 schools and the relationship to student outcomes.
Telzrow, C. F., McNamara, K., & Hollinger, C. L. (2000). Fidelity of problem-solving implementation and relationship to student performance. School Psychology Review, 29(3), 443.
This article summarize changes and challenges that school personnel will face in order to implement The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA).
Even when schools within a system reflect closely the demands of their progenitor and achieve both the appearance and reality of a high degree of similarity, differences do exist. The organizational climate of schools is one such difference.
Thomas, A. R. (1976). The organizational climate of schools. International Review of Education, 22(4), 441-463.
This chapter presents the conceptual and operational underpinnings of a problem-solving special education system designed to improve educational results for students with disabilities.
Tilly, W. D. III. (2002). Best Practices in School Psychology as a Problem-Solving Enterprise. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology IV (pp. 21-36). Washington, DC, US: National Association of School Psychologists.
This paper discusses four types of violence then briefly review the risk literature in order to highlight promising targets for intervention. Then the authors organize their review of the efficacy of specific approaches by the specific level targeted.
Tolan, P., & Guerra, N. (1994). What works in reducing adolescent violence. An empirical review of the field boulde.-CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.
This paper describes the problem of publication bias with reference to its history in a number of fields, with special reference to the area of educational research.
Torgerson, C. J. (2006). Publication bias: The Achilles’ heel of systematic reviews? British Journal of Educational Studies, 54(1), 89-102. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-8527.2006.00332.x
A group experimental design compared passive reading, covert responding to frame blanks, and actively typing answers to blanks with and without immediate confirmation of correctness. Results strongly supported the effectiveness of requiring the student to supply fragments of a terminal repertoire while working through a program.
Tudor, R. M., & Bostow, D. E. (1991). Computer‐programmed instruction: The relation of required interaction to practical application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(2), 361-368.
This text offers a pragmatic assessment of the role of police and school crime through the perspective of esteemed academicians and practitioners. School Crime and Policing hopes to spark awareness and encourage preparedness for the safety of our schools and our communities.
Turk, W. L. (Ed.). (2004). School crime and policing. Prentice Hall.
This report, the first Surgeon General's report on youth violence in the United States, summarizes an extensive body of research and seeks to clarify seemingly contradictory trends, such as the discrepancies noted above between official records of youth violence and young people's self-reports of violent behaviors.
U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General—Executive Summary. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Service; and National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health.
Using the data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), this Data Point summarizes the number of U.S. adults with low levels of English literacy and describes how they differ by nativity status1 and race/ethnicity.
U.S. Department of Education. (2019). Data point: Adult literacy in the United States. https://nces.ed.gov/datapoints/2019179.asp
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the largest nationally representative and continuing assessment of what America's students know and can do in various subject areas.
U.S. Department of Education. (2020). National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/
This website contains information regarding the Committee process, including the regulations, laws, policies, and guidelines that govern disclosures and conflict of interest.
University of California, San Francisco. (2013). Conflict of interest in research. https://coi.ucsf.edu
Simple experimental studies randomize study participants into two groups: a treatment group that includes participants who receive the offer to participate in a program or intervention, and a control group that includes participants who do not receive that offer. Such studies primarily address questions about the program impacts on the average outcomes of participants.
Unlu, F., Bozzi, L., Layzer, C., Smith, A., Price, C., & Hurtig, R. (2016). Linking implementation fidelity to impacts in an RCT (pp. 108-137). Routledge.
This Twenty-second Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) marks the 25th anniversary of the passage of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.
US Department of Education. (2000). Twenty-second annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
The purpose of the conference was to engage a group of citizens in a thoughtful, meaningful dialogue about issues of prevention, identification, recognition, and referral of children with mental health needs to appropriate, evidence-based treatments or services.
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health: A national action agenda.
Implementation fidelity is often thought of as a necessary condition to achieve internal validity and as having a relation to student outcomes. To examine the nature of this relation, we reviewed reading intervention studies for students in K-12 in which measures of implementation fidelity were included in final data analysis.
van Dijk, W., Lane, H., & Gage, N. A. (2019). The Relation Between Implementation Fidelity and Students’ Reading Outcomes: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implementation of a systematic
response to intervention (RTI) model on the identification and evaluation of children for
VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Gilbertson, D. (2007). A multi-year evaluation of the effects of a response to intervention (RTI) model on identification of children for special education. Journal of School Psychology, 45(2), 225-256.
Two studies are reported that provide correlational and experimental evidence for causal relationships between linguistic coding deficits and reading disability.
Vellutino, F. R., & Scanlon, D. M. (1987). Phonological coding, phonological awareness, and reading ability: Evidence from a longitudinal and experimental study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982-), 321-363.
This text provides practical guidelines and techniques for effectively managing acting out behavior in elementary students. It attempts to characterize acting-out behavior in the context of schooling; describe what is known about coping effectively with it; and illustrate applications of successful interventions.
Walker, H. M. (1995). The acting-out child: Coping with classroom disruption. Sopris West, 1140 Boston Ave., Longmont, CO 80501.
This article provides a reconceptualization of the role of schools in preventing antisocial behavior problems among children and youth.
Walker, H. M., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Bullis, M., Sprague, J. R., Bricker, D., & Kaufman, M. J. (1996). Integrated approaches to preventing antisocial behavior patterns among school-age children and youth. Journal of emotional and behavioral disorders, 4(4), 194-209.
This classic in the literature of child violence and antisocial behavior has been updated to include coverage of the most recent and important school safety, prevention, and universal intervention programs.
Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Antisocial behavior in school: Evidence based practices. Belmont, CA: Thomson.
Expanded School Mental Health Programs: Advancing Reform and Closing the Gap Between Research and Practice
Weist, M. D., & Christodulu, K. V. (2000). Expanded school mental health programs: Advancing reform and closing the gap between research and practice. Journal of School Health, 70(5), 195-200.
The authors discuss the growing movement in the United States to develop expanded school mental health programs. These programs represent partnerships between schools and community mental health agencies to expand the range of mental health services provided by schools.
Weist, M. D., Lowie, J. A., Flaherty, L. T., & Pruitt, D. (2001). Collaboration among the education, mental health, and public health systems to promote youth mental health. Psychiatric Services, 52(10), 1348-1351.
This paper review findings bearing on the efficacy of psychosocial treatments and medications under controlled experimental conditions. It also reports evidence, where available, on the effectiveness of both classes of treatment with clinically referred youth treated in real-world clinical contexts.
Weisz, J. R., & Jensen, P. S. (1999). Efficacy and effectiveness of child and adolescent psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Mental Health Services Research, 1(3), 125-157.
Developed by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), this report presents current weaknesses in the education of students with learning problems (those having difficulties learning for any of a variety of reasons) and suggested strategies for correcting those weaknesses.
Will, M. C. (1986). Educating children with learning problems: A shared responsibility. Exceptional children, 52(5), 411-415.
Treatment integrity is essential for the implementation of interventions in schools as it determines the accuracy or consistency with which different components of a treatment are implemented. There are no current standards regarding the best practices in treatment integrity measurement; however, higher integrity is associated with enhanced student outcomes.
Wilson, E. (2017). Generalizability of multiple measures of treatment integrity: An empirical replication.
This article provides a brief review and a critique of behavioral consultation. Specifically, the procedures utilized within BC for assessment of the problem, development of an intervention, implementation of the intervention, and plan evaluation are overly reliant on indirect methods of behavior assessment and behavior change.
Witt, J. C., Gresham, F. M., & Noell, G. H. (1996). What's behavioral about behavioral consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 7(4), 327-344.
This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on increasing the quality of implementation of interventions by teachers in a public school setting.
Witt, J. C., Noell, G. H., LaFleur, L. H., & Mortenson, B. P. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of ?the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 693.
The current review sought to describe the implementation and evaluation of trauma-focused school practices as represented in the published literature. Through a systematic literature search, we identified 39 articles describing trauma-focused practices implemented in school settings with elementary populations and coded data regarding these interventions’ characteristics as well as their implementation and evaluation procedures.
Zakszeski, B. N., Ventresco, N. E., & Jaffe, A. R. (2017). Promoting resilience through trauma-focused practices: A critical review of school-based implementation. School mental health, 9(4), 310-321.
Evidence-based classroom management practices have profound effects on student outcomes. Yet teachers commonly struggle to effectively implement these practices, imploring the provision of implementation supports within a multitiered framework for promoting teachers’ practices.
Zakszeski, B., Thomas, L., & Erdy, L. (2020). Tier I implementation supports for classroom management: A pilot investigation targeting teachers’ praise. School Psychology, 35(2), 111.