This paper: reviews research on beginning teacher induction programs, summarizing previous reviews of the topic; identifies various state- and local-level induction programs, analyzing best practices that exist today.
Arends, R. I., & Rigazio-DiGilio, A. J. (2000). Beginning Teacher Induction: Research and Examples of Contemporary Practice.
This paper addresses only the use of data on the learning gains of graduates’ students to evaluate teacher preparation programs. This paper offer six core principles for strong design based on the models developed in three pioneering states: Louisiana, North Carolina and Tennessee.
Teacher Preparation Program Student Performance Data Models: Six Core Design Principles. (2013). National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from https://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Teacher_Preparation_Program_Student_Performance_Data_Models_NCTQ_Report
This report presents PEDS findings from the 2011 and 2012 surveys, which reported on the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years. Some of the findings in this report counter common myths about higher education-based preparation programs. Others show that there is still much work to be done.
The Changing Teacher Preparation Profession: A Report from AACTE's Professional Education Data System (PEDS). (2013). Washington: American Association of College for Teacher Education.
This paper offer three strategies that will create the right conditions for states and institutions to reform poor-performing teacher preparation programs, improve preparation as a whole, and help keep more well-prepared teachers in the classroom after they graduate.
Aldeman, C., Carey, K., Dillon, E., Miller, B., & Silva, E. (2011). A measured approach to improving teacher preparation. Education Sector Policy Brief, 5-22.
This issue is the second in a three-part series on quality teaching. The other two issues in the series focus on teacher recruitment and teachers' career structures and work environment. This issue examines research and expert consensus on teacher preparation,
Allen, M. (2000). Teacher Preparation and Induction. Progress of Education Reform, 1999-2001, 2(3), n3.
State-level policy support for teacher induction programs can help teachers realize their full potential, keep them in the profession, promote greater student learning, and save money. Higher education institutions and school districts must work together to provide high-quality and well-designed induction programs.
American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). (2006). Teacher induction programs: Trends and opportunities. Policy Matters, 3(10), 1–4.
A 10-year comparison of graduates from 4- and 5-year teacher education programs at the same institution revealed significant differences between graduates of the two programs. Limitations of the study and alternative explanations for these differences are discussed.
Andrew, M. D. (1990). Differences between graduates of 4-year and 5-year teacher preparation programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 41, 45–51
This article describes the efforts of eleven universities and colleges to assess their teacher education programs based on broad, commonly held outcomes.
Andrew, M. D., & Schwab, R. L. (1995). Has reform in teacher education influenced teacher performance? An outcome assessment of graduates of an eleven-university consortium. Action in teacher education, 17(3), 43-53.
Using professional self-regulation in medicine as a model, the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future has proposed sweeping changes in how teachers are trained and licensed, claiming that the reforms are well-grounded in research. This paper argues that the research literature offers far less support for the Commission's recommendations than is claimed.
Ballou, D., & Podgursky, M. (2000). Reforming Teacher Preparation and Licensing: What is the Evidence?. Teachers College Record, 102(1), 5-27.
This paper proposes an incentive scheme for educators that links compensation to the ranks of their students within comparison sets.
Barlevy, G., & Neal, D. (2012). Pay for percentile. The American Economic Review, 102(5), 1805-1831.
This article reviewed a number of comprehensive instructional-mentoring programs and identified three critical factors that seem to be making a positive difference.
Barlin, D. (2010). Better mentoring, better teachers: Three factors that help ensure successful programs. Education Week, 29, 27.
The author uses teachers’ ratings on the North Carolina Educator Evaluation System to determine whether teacher preparation programs (TPPs) are associated with the evaluation ratings of their initially prepared teachers.
Bastian, K. C., Patterson, K. M., & Pan, Y. (2017). Evaluating teacher preparation programs with teacher evaluation ratings: Implications for program accountability and improvement. Journal of Teacher Education, 69(5), 429–447.
This study uses statewide completer survey data from North Carolina to assess whether perceptions of preparation quality and opportunities to learn during teacher preparation predict completers’ value-added estimates, evaluation ratings, and retention.
Bastian, K. C., Sun, M., & Lynn, H. (2018). What do surveys of program completers tell us about teacher preparation quality? Journal of Teacher Education, November 2019.
This policy brief lays out five components of a vision for the future and identifies opportunities to support teacher education reform. Examples of promising developments are also addressed that involve full-scale program redesign featuring collaboration across general and special education.
Blanton, L. P., Pugach, M. C., & Florian, L. (2011). Preparing general education teachers to improve outcomes for students with disabilities. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education; National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.ncld.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/aacte_ncld_recommendation.pdf
This paper assess the long-run implications of alternatively certified teachers.
Boyd, D., Dunlop, E., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Mahler, P., O’Brien, R., & Wyckoff, J. (2012). Alternative certification in the long run: A decade of evidence on the effects of alternative certification in New York City. In annual meeting of the American Education Finance and Policy Conference, Boston, MA.
This paper describes the essential features of the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Results from outcome research examining the effectiveness of PSI-based courses relative to traditional methods provide unequivocal support for the superiority of PSI.
Buskist, W., Cush, D., & DeGrandpre, R. J. (1991). The life and times of PSI. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1(2), 215-234.
The purpose of this overview is to provide information about the methods of teacher preparation, the current state of research on teacher preparation, challenges, trends, questions, and recommendations for those working to prepare teachers for success in the classroom.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Teacher Preparation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-pre-service.
The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on teacher induction programs, the impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations for teacher induction programs.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Induction. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/in-service-professional-induction.
This chapter from "Studying Teacher Education" focus on the research procedures and the impact claims of researchers who study the complex phenomenon commonly labeled as a methods course or a teacher-
education-related field experience in a school or community.
Clift, R. T., & Brady, P. (2005). Research on methods courses and field experiences. Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education, 309424.
This brief explores research that points to the opportunities and the challenges that evaluating teacher preparation programs differently presents.
Coggshall, J. G., Bivona, L., & Reschly, D. J. (2012). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Programs for Support and Accountability. Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED543773
This article outlines the challenges to creating productive clinical experiences for prospective teachers, and identifies strategies that have been found successful in confronting these challenges
Darling-Hammond, L. (2014). Strengthening clinical preparation: The holy grail of teacher education. Peabody Journal of Education, 89(4), 547-561.
New data and analysis from the National Council on Teacher Quality finds significant progress on the science of reading instruction in teacher preparation.
Drake, G., & Walsh, K. (2020). 2020 teacher prep review: Program performance in early reading instruction. Washington, D.C.: National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from www.nctq.org/publications/2020-Teacher-Prep-Review:-Program-Performance-in-Early-Reading-Instruction
This research examines meta-analyses on the topic to identify those practices that predictably lead to effective classroom instruction. The paper examines practices such as teacher degrees, preparation models, methods of course delivery, technology-based instruction, cooperative learning practices, instruction methods, field experience, field experience supervision, and induction practices.
Dunst, C. J., Hamby, D. W., Howse, R. B., Wilkie, H., & Annas, K. (2020). Research Synthesis of Meta-Analyses of Preservice Teacher Preparation Practices in Higher Education. Higher Education, 10(1).
This report describe teacher educators about their perspectives on the pressing questions surrounding teacher education and school reform today. Results show that education professors hold divided views on many issues.
Farkas, S., & Duffett, A. (2010). Cracks in the Ivory Tower? The Views of Education Professors Circa 2010. Thomas B. Fordham Institute.
This study employed a randomized experiment to examine differences in teacher and student learning from professional development (PD) in two modalities: online and face-to-face.
Fishman, B., Konstantopoulous, S., Kubitskey, B., Vath, R., Park, G., Johnson, H., & Edelson, D. C. (2013). Comparing the impact of online and face to face professional development in the context of curriculum implementation. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(5), 426–438.
Teaching methods and field experience courses that focus on teaching make up only a small fraction of the postsecondary coursework required for teachers, especially for prospective secondary teachers.
Floden, R., & Meniketti, M. (2009). Research on the effects of coursework in the arts and sciences and in the foundations of education. In Studying teacher education (pp. 273-320). Routledge.
A review of the literature demonstrates that schools are frequently called upon to improve by developing high levels of teacher collaboration. At the same time, there is a paucity of research investigating the extent to which teachers’ collaborative school improvement practices are related to student achievement.
Goddard, Y., Goddard, R., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2007). A theoretical and empirical investigation of teacher collaboration for school improvement and student achievement in public elementary schools. Teachers college record, 109(4), 877-896.
The goal of this paper was to document and analyze the research on the connection between teachers' preparation to teach special education students, their instructional practices once in the classroom, and their students' eventual learning achievement
Goe, L. (2006). The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved September, 3, 2009.
This paper provides the first empirical examination of National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) ratings, beginning with a descriptive overview of the ratings and documentation of how they evolved from 2013-2016, both in aggregate and for programs with different characteristics.
Goldhaber, D., & Koedel, C. (2019). Public Accountability and Nudges: The Effect of an Information Intervention on the Responsiveness of Teacher Education Programs to External Ratings. American Educational Research Journal, 0002831218820863.
This study examines teacher preparation programs and how they have ineffectively been preparing teachers in critical areas necessary for effective teaching. The paper establishes ratings of key standards for 608 teacher preparation programs.
Greenberg, J., McKee, A., & Walsh, K. (2013). Teacher Prep Review: A Review of the Nation's Teacher Preparation Programs. National Council on Teacher Quality.
This report examines teacher preparation in classroom management. It surveyed over 100 elementary and secondary, graduate and undergraduate programs.
Greenberg, J., Putman, H., and Walsh, K. (2013). Training Our future Teachers: Classroom Management. Date accessed: 5/7/14
Learning communities serve a variety of education constituencies, beginning with grade-level or subject-matter teams, vertical-grade or subject-band teams, school leadership teams, cadres of principals, or teams of employees in district offices.
Hirsh, S. (2018). Whatever name you give it, the PLC plays an important role. The Learning Professional, 39(1), 8-9.
This Issue Paper presents a brief review of the legal and policy foundations and best professional practices for inclusive services. It also provides a discussion of key components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher preparation at the preservice and inservice levels.
Holdheide, L. R., & Reschly, D. J. (2008). Teacher Preparation to Deliver Inclusive Services to Students with Disabilities: TQ Connection Issue Paper. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
The most successful teacher induction programs reported here include opportunities for experts and neophytes to learn together in a supportive environment promoting time for collaboration, reflection and acculturation into the profession of teaching.
Howe, E. R. (2015). Exemplary Teacher Induction: An International Review. In In Search of Subjectivities (pp. 33-44). Routledge.
This article explores the role and contribution of narrative interviews in educational research, by studying its application as data collecting technique in two different case studies: narrative interviews with directors of an academic college of education and with preschool teachers in Israel. The paper presents two case studies in which the narrative interview was used as a key methodological tool reflecting and describing the historical, cultural and educational contexts in which the subjects act, thus enabling a better understanding of the meaning of their behavior.
Huberman, M. (1993). The model of the independent artisan in teachers’ professional relations. Teachers' work: Individuals, colleagues, and contexts, 11-50.
This paper describes some implication of research on learning to teach to the design of induction and mentoring programs.
Huling-Austin, L. (1992). Research on learning to teach: Implications for teacher induction and mentoring programs. Journal of teacher education, 43(3), 173-180.
This paper is based on an analysis of seven alternative certification programs to determine the characteristics of effective programs. Overall, findings suggest that an effective alternative certification program places candidates in schools with strong leadership, a collegial atmosphere, and adequate materials.
Humphrey, D. C., Wechsler, M. E., & Hough, H. J. (2008). Characteristics of effective alternative teacher certification programs. Teachers College Record, 110(1), 1-63.
This study examines whether such supports have a positive effect on the retention of beginning teachers. The study also focuses on different types and components of induction, including mentoring programs, collective' group activities, and the provision of extra resources and reduced workloads.
Ingersoll, R. M., & Smith, T. M. (2004). Do teacher induction and mentoring matter?. NASSP bulletin, 88(638), 28-40
In recent years, most states have constructed elaborate accountability systems using school-level test scores. We evaluate the implications for school accountability systems. For instance, rewards or sanctions for schools with scores at either extreme primarily affect small schools and provide weak incentives to large ones.
Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2002). The promise and pitfalls of using imprecise school accountability measures. Journal of Economic perspectives, 16(4), 91-114.
The authors use six years of data on student test performance to evaluate the effectiveness of certified, uncertified, and alternatively certified teachers in the New York City public schools. This study also evaluates turnover among teachers with different certification status and the impact on student achievement of hiring teachers with predictably high turnover
Kane, T. J., Rockoff, J. E., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City. Economics of Education review, 27(6), 615-631.
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.
This paper presents case study research that explores the dynamics and experience offered for a professor and learners participating in a hybrid-modeled classroom in teacher education.
King, K. P. (2002). Identifying success in online teacher education and professional development. Internet and Higher Education, 5(3), 231–246.
This paper offers a sobering view of teacher preparation programs. It uses a statewide longitudinal dataset from Missouri to examine the extent to which teachers who are prepared by different programs differ in effectiveness.
Koedel, C., Parsons, E., Podgursky, M., & Ehlert, M. (2012). Teacher Preparation Programs and Teacher Quality: Are There Real Differences Across Programs?. Education Finance and Policy.
The Teacher Education Committee at Northwestern Oklahoma State University approved the development of a competency-based teacher education program. A subcommittee identified and wrote professional education competencies which students should master prior to program completion.
Lehr, M. (1981). Changes in Teacher Education: The Holy Grail of Quality.
This report is based on efforts by the National Center for Education Statistics to collect data on teacher preparation and qualifications using a nationally representative survey of full-time public school teachers whose main teaching assignment is in English/language arts, social studies/social sciences, foreign language, mathematics, or science (or who teach a self-contained classroom).
Lewis, L., Parsad, B., Carey, N., Bartfai, N., Farris, E., & Smerdon, B. (1999). Teacher quality: A report on the preparation and qualifications of public school teachers. NCES 1999-080. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/1999080.pdf
This study investigated the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards'(NBPTS)
assessment process in order to identify, quantify, and substantiate learning outcomes from
Lustick, D., & Sykes, G. (2006). National Board Certification as professional development: What are teachers learning? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 14(5), 1– 43. https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/download/76/202
This paper presents an early field-based course and applied teaching project to examine teaching practices and pupil outcomes.
Maheady, L., Jabot, M., Rey, J., & Michielli-Pendl, J. (2007). An early field-based experience and its impact on pre-service candidates' teaching practice and their pupils' outcomes. Teacher Education and Special Education, 30(1), 24-33.
This report describes how the seven Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) evaluate their teacher preparation programs and the changes they are making to improve their approaches to evaluation.
Meyer, S. J., Brodersen, R. M., & Linick, M. A. (2014). Approaches to Evaluating Teacher Preparation Programs in Seven States. REL 2015-044. Regional Educational Laboratory Central. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED550491
National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education presents the data of public school teachers who held a postbaccalaureate degree, public school teachers who held the certificate, and the year of experience.
National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education. (2018b). The condition of education 2018: Characteristics of public school teachers. NCES 2018-144. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=58
This study follows 305 preservice teachers (PSTs) who student taught in Chicago Public Schools (CPS) in 2014-15 and were subsequently hired in CPS in 2015-16.
Ngang, T. K., Yunus, H. M., & Hashim, N. H. (2015). Soft skills integration in teaching professional training: Novice teachers’ perspectives. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 186, 835-840.
The authors use data from a four-year experiment in which teachers and students were randomly assigned to classes to estimate teacher effects on student achievement. Teacher effects are estimated as between-teacher (but within-school) variance components of achievement status and residualized achievement gains.
Nye, N., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3), 237–257. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3102/01623737026003237
This policy report provides a look at the decline in the enrollment of American teacher preparation programs, along with potential consequences for schools and the student they serve.
Partelow, L. (2019). What to Make of Declining Enrollment in Teacher Preparation Programs. Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education-k-12/reports/2019/12/03/477311/make-declining-enrollment-teacher-preparation-programs/
Increasingly, states and teacher education programs are establishing minimum requirements for cooperating teachers’ (CTs’) years of experience or tenure. Undergirding these policies is an assumption that to effectively mentor preservice teachers (PSTs), CTs must themselves be instructional effective. The authors test this assumption using statewide administrative data on nearly 2,900 PSTs mentored by over 3,200 CTs.
Ronfeldt, M., Brockman, S. L., & Campbell, S. L. (2018). Does cooperating teachers’ instructional effectiveness improve preservice teachers’ future performance. Educational Researcher, 47(7), 405–418.
This paper is part of a bigger research project and focuses on issues related to soft skills and teaching professional training. The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent of soft skills that has been integrated in teaching professional training from the novice teachers’ perspectives.
Tang, K. N., Yunus, H. M., & Hashim, N. H. (2015). Soft skills integration in teaching professional training: Novice teachers’ perspectives. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 835–840.
The authors recommend a shift in focus for TFA from a program of mixed impact to one that makes measureable changes in the quality of education in America. Recommendations for policymakers and districts are provided.
Vasquez Heilig, J., & Jez, S. J. (2014). Teach For America: A return to the evidence.
A year-long researcher-teacher professional development group with a next-year followup was conducted with seven general education teachers from two elementary schools in a large urban school district in the southeastern United States. The components of successful professional development programs are discussed and implications for teacher education are offered.
Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., Schumm, J. S., & Klingner, J. (1998). A collaborative effort to enhance reading and writing instruction in inclusion classrooms. Learning disability quarterly, 21(1), 57-74.
This report examines research on teacher certification, reviewing every published study or paper, and many unpublished dissertations, cited by prominent advocates of teacher certification.
Walsh, K. (2001). Teacher Certification Reconsidered: Stumbling for Quality.
Within Our Grasp: Achieving Higher Admissions Standards in Teacher Prep is the tenth annual publication in the State Teacher Policy Yearbook report series released by the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ). This report focuses on teacher preparation program compliance with admissions policies required at the state level
Walsh, K., Joseph, N., and Lewis, A. (2016). Within Our Grasp: Achieving Higher Admissions Standards in Teacher Prep. National Council on Teacher Quality.
Small class size is often used as an indicator of quality in higher education, and some research suggests that instructors in smaller classes more often use activities that are learner-centered and that involve physical and mental activity on the part of learners, such as group work, simulations, and case studies. However, we have little information on how instructors change their pedagogical practice when they teach in large- versus small-class settings.
Wright, M. C., Bergom, I., & Bartholomew, T. (2019). Decreased class size, increased active learning? Intended and enacted teaching strategies in smaller classes. Active Learning in Higher Education, 20(1), 51-62.
This policy brief surveys historical and contemporary trends in teacher preparation, and explores what is known about the quality of five of the most prominent independent teacher education programs in the U.S., including their impact on teacher quality and student learning. The author's analysis demonstrates that claims regarding the success of such programs are not substantiated by peer-reviewed research and program evaluations.
Zeichner, K. (2016). Independent Teacher Education Programs: Apocryphal Claims, Illusory Evi-dence. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/teacher-education