This paper: reviews research on beginning teacher induction programs, summarizing previous reviews of the topic; identifies various state- and local-level induction programs, analyzing best practices that exist today.
Arends, R. I., & Rigazio-DiGilio, A. J. (2000). Beginning Teacher Induction: Research and Examples of Contemporary Practice.
This paper examines teacher education textbooks for discussion of research-based strategies that every teacher candidate should learn in order to promote student learning and retention.
Learning About Learning: What Every New Teacher Needs to Know Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Learning_About_Learning_Report.
This report is a call to action for chiefs and an invitation to our colleagues, especially members of NASBE and NGA who contributed to this report. The recommendations contained in this report focus on the levers for change that are the responsibility of state education agencies (SEAs) and, where applicable, their partner professional standards boards: licensure; program approval; and data collection, analysis, and reporting.
Our responsibility, Our promise: Transforming Educator Preparation and Entry Into the Profession. (2012). Washington, DC: The Council of Chief State School Officers. Retrieved from https://www.ccsso.org/sites/default/files/2017-10/Our%20Responsibility%20Our%20Promise_2012.pdf
This paper addresses only the use of data on the learning gains of graduates’ students to evaluate teacher preparation programs. This paper offer six core principles for strong design based on the models developed in three pioneering states: Louisiana, North Carolina and Tennessee.
Teacher Preparation Program Student Performance Data Models: Six Core Design Principles. (2013). National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from https://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Teacher_Preparation_Program_Student_Performance_Data_Models_NCTQ_Report
This report presents PEDS findings from the 2011 and 2012 surveys, which reported on the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years. Some of the findings in this report counter common myths about higher education-based preparation programs. Others show that there is still much work to be done.
The Changing Teacher Preparation Profession: A Report from AACTE's Professional Education Data System (PEDS). (2013). Washington: American Association of College for Teacher Education.
Knowledge of Diverse Learners (KDL) is increasingly recognized as an essential component of knowledge base for effective teaching as in today's schools, teachers must be prepared to teach a diverse population of student (Banks et al. 2005). In other words, teachers need to be aware that their students in a classroom are and always have been different from one another in a variety of ways. KDL refers to an understanding of diversity of students in terms of their abilities and interests and how they respond to diverse situations; an application of different teaching strategies; and how various types of classroom activities might be managed.
Abd Rahman, F., Scaife, J., Yahya, N. A., & Ab Jalil, H. (2010). Knowledge of diverse learners: Implications for the practice of teaching. International Journal of Instruction, 3(2).
Intended as a text, this book emphasizes practical techniques of clinical supervision in working with teachers to help them improve their classroom teaching. It is divided into four units. The first provides necessary background for understanding techniques of clinical supervision. The next two units describe specific techniques for conducting clinical conferences and collecting observation data.
Acheson, K. A., & Gall, M. D. (1980). Techniques in the Clinical Supervision of Teachers. Preservice and Inservice Applications. Longman, Inc., 19 W. Forty-Fourth St., New York, NY 10036.
The main focus of this study is to find different kinds of variables that might contribute to variations in the strength and direction of the relationship by examining quantitative studies that relate mathematics teachers’ subject matter knowledge to student achievement in mathematics.
Ahn, S., & Choi, J. (2004). Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge as a Teacher Qualification: A Synthesis of the Quantitative Literature on Students' Mathematics Achievement. Online Submission.
This paper offer three strategies that will create the right conditions for states and institutions to reform poor-performing teacher preparation programs, improve preparation as a whole, and help keep more well-prepared teachers in the classroom after they graduate.
Aldeman, C., Carey, K., Dillon, E., Miller, B., & Silva, E. (2011). A measured approach to improving teacher preparation. Education Sector Policy Brief, 5-22.
This issue is the second in a three-part series on quality teaching. The other two issues in the series focus on teacher recruitment and teachers' career structures and work environment. This issue examines research and expert consensus on teacher preparation,
Allen, M. (2000). Teacher Preparation and Induction. Progress of Education Reform, 1999-2001, 2(3), n3.
This report highlights the work of New Teacher Center (NTC), a national nonprofit organization headquartered in Santa Cruz, California, that has partnered with states, districts, and policymakers to develop programs and policies that accelerate new teacher effectiveness.
Alliance for Excellent Education (2014). On the path to equity: Improving the effectiveness of beginning teachers. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://all4ed.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/PathToEquity.pdf
This policy brief focuses on the clinical aspects of teacher preparation in each of these key features. These aspects include the typical processes of clinical work, the location, and the duration of the training.
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE). (2010). The clinical preparation of teachers: A policy brief. Washington, DC: Author.
State-level policy support for teacher induction programs can help teachers realize their full potential, keep them in the profession, promote greater student learning, and save money. Higher education institutions and school districts must work together to provide high-quality and well-designed induction programs.
American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). (2006). Teacher induction programs: Trends and opportunities. Policy Matters, 3(10), 1–4.
Teacher preparation is at the core of most public universities’ missions, providing a vital function in pursuit of states’ ambitions for an educated and engaged populace. The member institutions of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities strive to continuously improve the development of teachers who will prepare future generations in their communities for success in college and careers.
American Association of State Colleges and Universities. (2016). Preparing teachers in today’s challenging context: Key issues, policy directions and implications for leaders of AASCU universities.
Value-added assessment proves that very good teaching can boost student learning and that family background does not determine a student's destiny. Students taught by highly effective teachers several years in a row earn higher test scores than students assigned to particularly ineffective teachers.
American Education Research Association (AERA). (2004). Teachers matter: Evidence from value-added assessments. Research Points, 2(2). Retrieved from http://www.aera.net/ Portals/38/docs/Publications/Teachers%20Matter.pdf
Despite increasing emphasis on preparing more and better teachers and despite the near universal presence of student teaching across teacher education programs (TEPs), numerous questions about what and how student teaching experiences contribute to preservice teachers’ development remain unanswered.
Anderson, L. M., & Stillman, J. A. (2013). Student teaching’s contribution to preservice teacher development: A review of research focused on the preparation of teachers for urban and high-needs contexts. Review of Educational Research, 83(1), 3-69.
A 10-year comparison of graduates from 4- and 5-year teacher education programs at the same institution revealed significant differences between graduates of the two programs. Limitations of the study and alternative explanations for these differences are discussed.
Andrew, M. D. (1990). Differences between graduates of 4-year and 5-year teacher preparation programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 41, 45–51
This article describes the efforts of eleven universities and colleges to assess their teacher education programs based on broad, commonly held outcomes.
Andrew, M. D., & Schwab, R. L. (1995). Has reform in teacher education influenced teacher performance? An outcome assessment of graduates of an eleven-university consortium. Action in teacher education, 17(3), 43-53.
This chapter reviews the state of the field as it pertains to the preparation of preservice teachers
for K-12 online and blended learning.
Archambault, L., & Kennedy, K. (2018). Teacher preparation for K–12 online and blended learning. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 221–245). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf
This research objective was to study soft skills of new teachers in the secondary schools of Khon Kaen Secondary Educational Service Area 25, Thailand. The data were collected from 60 purposive samples of new teachers by interviewing and questionnaires. The results of this study were informed that new teachers have all of soft skills at high level totally. Communicative skills were highest among seven of soft skills and next Life-long learning and information management skills, Critical and problem solving skills, Team work skills, Ethics, moral and professional skills, Leadership skills and Innovation invention and development skills were lowest in all skills. Based on the research findings obtained, the sub-skills of seven soft skills will be considered and utilized in the package of teacher development program of next research.
Attakorn, K., Tayut, T., Pisitthawat, K., & Kanokorn, S. (2014). Soft skills of new teachers in the secondary schools of Khon Kaen Secondary Educational Service Area 25, Thailand. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112, 1010-1013.
In this article, we challenge the status quo of current student-teaching practice, which has
remained relatively unchanged for close to 100 years. This 4-year study identifies the
differences between a coteaching and a non-coteaching model of student teaching.
Bacharach, N., Heck, T. W., & Dahlberg, K. (2010). Changing the face of student teaching through coteaching. Action in teacher education, 32(1), 3-14.
This 4-year study identifies the differences between a coteaching and a non-coteaching model of student teaching. Quantitative and qualitative results clearly demonstrate the positive impact of coteaching on learners. This emerging practice of coteaching in student teaching holds great promise in transforming the world of teacher preparation.
Bacharach, N., Heck, T. W., & Dahlberg, K. (2010). Changing the face of student teaching through coteaching. Action in teacher education, 32(1), 3-14.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of the simSchool (v.1) simulation as a tool for preparing student teachers for actual classroom teaching. Twenty-two student teachers used the simulation for a practice session and two test sessions; data included objective performance statistics generated by the simulation program, self-rated performance data, and qualitative opinions and perceptions from participants.
Badiee, F., & Kaufman, D. (2014). Effectiveness of an online simulation for teacher education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 22(2), 167-186.
Recent calls to improve the quality of education in schools have drawn attention to the importance of teachers’ preparation for work in classroom settings. Although the practicum has long been the traditional means for pre-service teachers to learn and practice classroom teaching, it does not always offer student teachers the time, safe practice experiences, repetition, or extensive feedback needed for them to gain adequate knowledge, skills, and confidence.
Badiee, F., & Kaufman, D. (2015). Design evaluation of a simulation for teacher education. Sage Open, 5(2), 2158244015592454.
Using professional self-regulation in medicine as a model, the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future has proposed sweeping changes in how teachers are trained and licensed, claiming that the reforms are well-grounded in research. This paper argues that the research literature offers far less support for the Commission's recommendations than is claimed.
Ballou, D., & Podgursky, M. (2000). Reforming Teacher Preparation and Licensing: What is the Evidence?. Teachers College Record, 102(1), 5-27.
This article reviewed a number of comprehensive instructional-mentoring programs and identified three critical factors that seem to be making a positive difference.
Barlin, D. (2010). Better mentoring, better teachers: Three factors that help ensure successful programs. Education Week, 29, 27.
When mentors are well-selected, well-trained, and given the time to work intensively with new teachers, they not only help average teachers become good, but good teachers become great. And because new teachers are most often assigned to the poorest schools and the most challenging classrooms, instructional-mentoring programs provide a powerful lever for closing the teacher-quality gap and ensuring that all students, regardless of their backgrounds, have a real opportunity to succeed.
Barlin, D. (2010). Better mentoring, better teachers: Three factors that help ensure successful programs. Education Week, 29, 27.
The author uses teachers’ ratings on the North Carolina Educator Evaluation System to determine whether teacher preparation programs (TPPs) are associated with the evaluation ratings of their initially prepared teachers.
Bastian, K. C., Patterson, K. M., & Pan, Y. (2017). Evaluating teacher preparation programs with teacher evaluation ratings: Implications for program accountability and improvement. Journal of Teacher Education, 69(5), 429–447.
This study uses statewide completer survey data from North Carolina to assess whether perceptions of preparation quality and opportunities to learn during teacher preparation predict completers’ value-added estimates, evaluation ratings, and retention.
Bastian, K. C., Sun, M., & Lynn, H. (2018). What do surveys of program completers tell us about teacher preparation quality? Journal of Teacher Education, November 2019.
This study surveys master's-level elementary, secondary, and special education students about their coursework and applied training in 25 behavioral instruction practices and principles.
Begeny, J. C., & Martens, B. K. (2006). Assessing pre-service teachers' training in empirically-validated behavioral instruction practices. School Psychology Quarterly, 21(3), 262.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of what is known about teacher induction in special education and to outline recommendations for the design of induction programs and further research.
Billingsley, B. S., Griffin, C. C., Smith, S. J., Kamman, M., & Israel, M. (2009). A Review of Teacher Induction in Special Education: Research, Practice, and Technology Solutions. NCIIP Document Number RS-1. National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development.
This policy brief lays out five components of a vision for the future and identifies opportunities to support teacher education reform. Examples of promising developments are also addressed that involve full-scale program redesign featuring collaboration across general and special education.
Blanton, L. P., Pugach, M. C., & Florian, L. (2011). Preparing general education teachers to improve outcomes for students with disabilities. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education; National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.ncld.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/aacte_ncld_recommendation.pdf
In one of the highest selling books on higher/further education to date, Bligh begins by arguing that lectures are most suitable for teaching information, not promoting thought or inspiring changes in attitudes. He goes on to detail the factors that affect the learning of information. The text is formed around a thorough consideration of the techniques of lecturing, including organization, how to make a point, use handouts, and obtain feedback, but it moves beyond lecturing to discuss alternatives when they are appropriate.
Bligh, D. A. (1998). What's the Use of Lectures?. Intellect books.
This Statistics in Brief adds to existing research on early-career teachers by presenting findings on their preparation and supports from data from the 2011–12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). This brief, like past research, investigates several specific areas of preparation and types of support.
Bowsher, A., Sparks, D., & Hoyer, K. M. (2018). Preparation and Support for Teachers in Public Schools: Reflections on the First Year of Teaching. Stats in Brief. NCES 2018-143. National Center for Education Statistics.
For well over a decade school districts across the United States have struggled to recruit and retain effective mathematics teachers. This article examines the qualifications, student achievement gains, and retention of Math Immersion teachers in New York City compared to New York City mathematics teachers who began their careers through other pathways.
Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Hammerness, K., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Ronfeldt, M., & Wyckoff, J. (2012). Recruiting effective math teachers: evidence from New York City. American Educational Research Journal, 49(6), 1008-1047.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how student teaching experiences impact the sense of teaching efficacy and feelings of preparedness of pre-service teachers in an early and elementary teacher education program. The study used an action research, mixed-methods design.
Brown, A. L., Lee, J., & Collins, D. (2015). Does student teaching matter? Investigating teacher candidates' sense of teaching efficacy. Teaching Education, 26(1), 1-30.
Methods for Effective Teaching helps teachers with every aspect of their day-to-day responsibilities. Readers learn about everything from planning and choosing the right instructional strategies, to delivering lessons, managing the classroom, disciplining students, assessing progress, and collaborating with colleagues and parents to actively engage students in learning. Numerous features, tables, and lists of recommendations help readers apply concepts and think critically about the decisions they'll have to make in their teaching careers.
Burden, P. R., & Byrd, D. M. (2010). Methods for effective teaching: Meeting the needs of all students (p. 408). Allyn & Bacon.
This quantitative research valued added study assesses the effectiveness of teacher preparation programs in Louisiana to understand why some teacher preparation programs are more effective than other programs.
Burns, J. M., Noell, G. H., & Gansle, K. A. (2009). Value Added Teacher Preparation Assessment Model: A Bold Step Forward in Preparing, Inducting, and Supporting New Teachers Qualitative Research Study.
Effective teacher professional development is defined as structured professional learning
activities which result in changes in teacher practice and improvements in student learning
outcomes. Superintendents face common challenges unique to the rural environment which
hinder the delivery of effective teacher professional development in rural school districts.
Cadero-Smith, L. (2019). Teacher Professional Development Challenges Faced by Rural Superintendents in Western Washington State: A Phenomenological Study (Doctoral dissertation, American College of Education).
This article discusses Ontario’s Teachers Learning and Leadership Program (TLLP), which aims to support experienced teachers’ professional learning, develop teachers’ leadership skills, and facilitate knowledge exchange to share practices. The author’s research identifies considerable benefits of professional learning led “by, with and for” experienced teachers involving collaborative learning and sharing of practices.
Campbell, C. (2015). Teachers as leaders of professional learning: Lessons from Ontario’s Teacher Learning and Leadership Program (TLLP). Education Canada, 55(1), 1-3.
In this article, the author argues convincingly for a view of American's cultural diversity as a self-evident reality - one that must be effectively addressed by inservice and preservice teacher education programmes.
Carrington, V. (1999). Student Cultural Diversity: Understanding and Meeting the Challenge. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 43(4), 386.
This paper examines what is required to develop effective teacher preparation programs.
Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, Wilson, S. M., Floden, R. E., & Ferrini-Mundy, J. (2001). Teacher Preparation Research: Current Knowledge, Gaps, and Recommendations: a Research Report Prepared for the US Department of Education and the Office for Educational Research and Improvement, February 2001. Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy.
Because of the potential role efficacy beliefs play in teachers' attitudes toward control in
classroom management, the purpose of this study was to determine if there are differences
in self-efficacy beliefs and classroom control orientation between student teachers
participating in either a one or two semester student teaching experience.
Chambers, S. M., & Hardy, J. C. (2005). Length of Time in Student Teaching: Effects on Classroom Control Orientation and Self-Efficacy Beliefs. Educational Research Quarterly, 28(3), 3-9.
This book provides evidence-based principles of effective teaching. College students preparing to teach, new teachers struggling to find their way, and experienced teachers eager to hone their skills will benefit from this set of commonsense principles that, when practiced together, will markedly improve student performance.
Chance, P. (2008). The teacher's craft: The 10 essential skills of effective teaching. Waveland PressInc.
This small-scale pilot study investigated the role of school principals in the induction of new teachers in Ontario, Canada.
Cherian, F., & Daniel, Y. (2008). Principal Leadership in New Teacher Induction: Becoming Agents of Change. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 3(2), 1-11.
Neither holding a college major in education nor acquiring a master's degree is correlated with elementary and middle school teaching effectiveness, regardless of the university at which the degree was earned. Teachers generally do become more effective with a few years of teaching experience, but we also find evidence that teachers may become less effective with experience, particularly later in their careers.
Chingos, M. M., & Peterson, P. E. (2011). It's easier to pick a good teacher than to train one: Familiar and new results on the correlates of teacher effectiveness. Economics of Education Review, 30(3), 449-465.
Student teachers consider cooperating teachers to be one of the most important contributors
to their teacher preparation program. Therefore, the ways in which cooperating teachers
participate in teacher education are significant.
Clarke, A., Triggs, V., & Nielsen, W. (2014). Cooperating teacher participation in teacher education: A review of the literature. Review of educational research, 84(2), 163-202.
The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.
The purpose of this overview is to provide information about the methods of teacher preparation, the current state of research on teacher preparation, challenges, trends, questions, and recommendations for those working to prepare teachers for success in the classroom.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Teacher Preparation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-pre-service.
The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on teacher induction programs, the impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations for teacher induction programs.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Induction. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/in-service-professional-induction.
Estimates yielded by the cost study were based on “standard values” of resources so that cost estimates could be generalized, rather than merely reflect the unique circumstances of each site. We expected program cost to vary somewhat depending on the target population—paraprofessional, uncertified teacher, and RPCVs—because programs serving different populations differ somewhat in structure, design, length, and services offered. We also expected cost to vary depending on whether a site was affiliated with a public or a private higher education institution.
Clewell, B. C., & Villegas, A. M. (2001). Ahead of the Class: A Handbook for Preparing New Teachers from New Sources. Design Lessons from the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund's Pathways to Teaching Careers Initiative.
This chapter from "Studying Teacher Education" focus on the research procedures and the impact claims of researchers who study the complex phenomenon commonly labeled as a methods course or a teacher-
education-related field experience in a school or community.
Clift, R. T., & Brady, P. (2005). Research on methods courses and field experiences. Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education, 309424.
We use a rich administrative dataset from North Carolina to explore questions related to the relationship between teacher characteristics and credentials on the one hand and student achievement on the other. We conclude that a teacher's experience, test scores and regular licensure all have positive effects on student achievement, with larger effects for math than for reading.
Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2007). Teacher credentials and student achievement: Longitudinal analysis with student fixed effects. Economics of education review, 26(6), 673-682.
This article argues that research on teacher preparation over the last 100 years can be understood in terms of the major questions that researchers examined. The analysis is guided by the framework of “research as historically situated social practice,” which emphasizes that researchers’ interests, commitments, and social experiences guide the research questions they pursue and the theories and perspectives they adopt.
Cochran-Smith, M., & Maria Villegas, A. (2015). Studying teacher preparation: The questions that drive research. European Educational Research Journal, 14(5), 379-394.
This brief explores research that points to the opportunities and the challenges that evaluating teacher preparation programs differently presents.
Coggshall, J. G., Bivona, L., & Reschly, D. J. (2012). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Programs for Support and Accountability. Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED543773
This article evaluates whether providing coaching between practice sessions in teacher education courses leads to more rapid development of skills and changes in teachers’ beliefs about student behavior, using mixed-reality simulations as a practice space and standardized assessment platform. We randomly assigned 105 prospective teachers to different coaching conditions between simulation sessions integrated into a teacher preparation program.
Cohen, J., Wong, V., Krishnamachari, A., & Berlin, R. (2020). Teacher coaching in a simulated environment. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 42(2), 208-231.
By analyzing data from the Schools and Staffing Survey, the authors empirically test four of the core assumptions embedded in current arguments for expanding alternative teacher certification (AC):
Cohen-Vogel, L., & Smith, T. M. (2007). Qualifications and assignments of alternatively certified teachers: Testing core assumptions. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 732-753.
Research suggests that substantial pre-service student teaching is essential for the preparation and retention of special educators. It was found that substantial pre-service student teaching experience has a strong effect on the probability that a beginning special educator will remain in the field 1 year later.
Connelly, V., & Graham, S. (2009). Student teaching and teacher attrition in special education. Teacher Education and Special Education, 32(3), 257-269.
The study compares the effectiveness of different routes to teaching. It finds there is no significant difference in the effectiveness of teachers who were traditionally trained when compared to teachers who obtained training through alternative credential programs.
Constantine, J., D. Player, T. Silva, K. Hallgren, M. Grider, and J. Deke, 2009. An Evaluation of Teachers Trained Through Different Routes to Certification, Final Report (NCEE 2009- 4043). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
The author reviewed about 1,000 articles to synthesize 119 studies from 1948 to 2004 with 1,450 findings and 355,325 students. The meta-analysis design followed Mackay, Barkham, Rees, and Stiles’s guidelines, including comprehensive search mechanisms, accuracy and bias control, and primary study validity assessment.
Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 77(1), 113-143.
The findings presented in this book are based on an analysis of 57 research studies concerned with the relationship between one or more of the educational time factors cited above and the student outcomes of achievement and attitudes. Twenty-nine are primary sources (studies or evaluations) and 28 are secondary source (reviews, syntheses, and meta-analyses).
Cotton, K., & Wikelund, K. (1990). Educational time factors. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
The following paper will call for the reform of teacher preparation programs in three distinct areas. Examination of current data, application of educational theorists’ perspectives and comparative analysis of international practices, will prove the need for reform in teacher preparation program recruitment practices, curriculum, and support systems.
Dann, A. I. (2014). A Call for Reformation of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States. Online Submission.
This report gauges progress toward achieving high quality teaching in every classroom,
using data about teaching conditions that are, new since publication of an earlier report by
the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). Doing what matters most: Investing in quality teaching. National Commission on Teaching & America's Future, Kutztown Distribution Center, 15076 Kutztown Road, PO Box 326, Kutztown, PA 19530-0326.
Teachers go into debt to enter a career that pays noticeably less than their alternatives—especially if they work in high-poverty schools— and reach the profession through a smorgasbord of training options, from excellent to awful, often followed by little mentoring or help. As a result, while some teachers are well prepared, many students in needy schools experience a revolving door of inexperienced and underprepared teachers.
Darling-Hammond, L. (2011). Teacher preparation is essential to TFA’s future. Education Week, 30(24), 25-26.
This article outlines the challenges to creating productive clinical experiences for prospective teachers, and identifies strategies that have been found successful in confronting these challenges
Darling-Hammond, L. (2014). Strengthening clinical preparation: The holy grail of teacher education. Peabody Journal of Education, 89(4), 547-561.
The last two decades have witnessed a remarkable amount of policy directed at teacher education-and an intense debate about whether and how various approaches to preparing and supporting teachers make a difference. A set of policy initiatives was launched to design professional standards, strengthen teacher education and certification requirements, increase investments in induction mentoring and professional development, and transform roles for teachers.
Darling-Hammond, L., & Wei, R. C. (2012). Teacher preparation and teacher learning: A changing policy landscape. In Handbook of education policy research (pp. 629-652). Routledge.
Recent debates about the utility of teacher education have raised questions about whether certified teachers are, in general, more effective than those who have not met the testing and training requirements for certification, and whether some candidates with strong liberal arts backgrounds might be at least as effective as teacher education graduates.
Darling-Hammond, L., Holtzman, D. J., Gatlin, S. J., & Heilig, J. V. (2005). Does teacher preparation matter? Evidence about teacher certification, Teach for America, and teacher effectiveness. Education Policy Analysis Archives/Archivos Analíticos de Políticas Educativas, 13, 1-48.
Teacher professional learning is of increasing interest as one way to support the increasingly complex skills students need to learn in preparation for further education and work in the 21st century. Sophisticated forms of teaching are needed to develop student competencies such as deep mastery of challenging content, critical thinking, complex problem-solving, effective communication and collaboration, and self-direction. In turn, effective professional development (PD) is needed to help teachers learn and refine the pedagogies required to teach these skills.
Darling-Hammond, L., Hyler, M. E., & Gardner, M. (2017). Effective teacher professional development. Learning Policy Institute.
Research shows that the most powerful, in-school influence on learning is the quality of instruction that teachers bring to their students. In the next decade, more than 1.5 million new teachers will be hired for our schools; unfortunately, teacher preparation programs may not be up to the task of delivering the teacher workforce we need, and critics have identified lax selection of teacher candidates, coursework disconnected from classroom practice, and weak clinical opportunities as indications that we are inadequately preparing teachers.
DeMonte, J. (2015). A Million New Teachers Are Coming: Will They Be Ready to Teach?. American Institutes for Research.
This article offers ideas to improve the quality of inquiry into teacher learning, one of the most critical targets of education reform.
Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualization and measures. Educational Researcher, 38(3), 181–199.
The author suggests that we apply recent research knowledge to improve our conceptualization, measures, and methodology for studying the effects of teachers’ professional development on teachers and students. She makes the case that there is a research consensus to support the use of a set of core features and a common conceptual framework in professional development impact studies.
Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational researcher, 38(3), 181-199.
This paper discusses best practices in teachers’ professional development (PD) in the United States. We begin by presenting a conceptual framework for effective professional development, which suggests five key features that make professional development effective—content focus, active learning, coherence, sustained duration, and collective participation.
Desimone, L. M., & Garet, M. S. (2015). Best practices in teacher's professional development in the United States.
This article examines the effects of professional development on teachers’ instruction. Using a purposefully selected sample of about 207 teachers in 30 schools, in 10 districts in five states, we examine features of teachers’ professional development and its effects on changing teaching practice in mathematics and science from 1996–1999. We found that professional development focused on specific instructional practices increases teachers’ use of those practices in the classroom. Furthermore, we found that specific features, such as active learning opportunities, increase the effect of the professional development on teacher’s instruction.
Desimone, L. M., Porter, A. C., Garet, M. S., Yoon, K. S., & Birman, B. F. (2002). Effects of professional development on teachers’ instruction: Results from a three-year longitudinal study. Educational evaluation and policy analysis, 24(2), 81-112.
The future of virtual environments is evident in many fields but is just emerging in the field of teacher education. In this article, the authors provide a summary of the evolution of simulation in the field of teacher education and three factors that need to be considered as these environments further develop. The authors provide a specific example of the work at two universities that use a specific virtual environment, TLE TeachLivE™, in teacher education.
Dieker, L. A., Rodriguez, J. A., Lignugaris/Kraft, B., Hynes, M. C., & Hughes, C. E. (2014). The potential of simulated environments in teacher education: Current and future possibilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 37(1), 21-33.
New data and analysis from the National Council on Teacher Quality finds significant progress on the science of reading instruction in teacher preparation.
Drake, G., & Walsh, K. (2020). 2020 teacher prep review: Program performance in early reading instruction. Washington, D.C.: National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from www.nctq.org/publications/2020-Teacher-Prep-Review:-Program-Performance-in-Early-Reading-Instruction
Of the five components of scientifically based reading instruction, traditional programs are
most likely to omit the first and most challenging instructional skill teachers need to teach
before children can learn to read: phonemic awareness.
Drake, G., & Wash, K. (2020). 2020 Teacher Prep Review: Program Performance in Early Reading Instruction. National Council on Teacher Quality.
Results from a metasynthesis of the relationships between 14 different types of preservice
teacher preparation practices and teaching quality, preschool to university student
performance, and university student and beginning teacher belief appraisals are reported.
Each type of preservice practice (eg, course-based student learning) included different kinds
of instructional methods (eg, problem-based learning, inquiry-based learning, and project-
Dunst, C. J., Hamby, D. W., Howse, R. B., Wilkie, H., & Annas, K. (2019). Metasynthesis of preservice professional preparation and teacher education research studies. Education sciences, 9(1), 50.
This research examines meta-analyses on the topic to identify those practices that predictably lead to effective classroom instruction. The paper examines practices such as teacher degrees, preparation models, methods of course delivery, technology-based instruction, cooperative learning practices, instruction methods, field experience, field experience supervision, and induction practices.
Dunst, C. J., Hamby, D. W., Howse, R. B., Wilkie, H., & Annas, K. (2020). Research Synthesis of Meta-Analyses of Preservice Teacher Preparation Practices in Higher Education. Higher Education, 10(1).
This report discuss how to use research findings as a base to support stronger teacher preparation programs.
Dynarski, M. (2014). Moving Teacher Preparation into the Future. Brookings Institute. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/moving-teacher-preparation-into-the-future/
This paper draws upon a structured analysis of over 300 research-based papers on mentoring across three discipline areas in an attempt to make more valid inferences about the nature and outcomes of mentoring.
Ehrich, L. C., Hansford, B., & Tennent, L. (2004). Formal mentoring programs in education and other professions: A review of the literature. Educational administration quarterly, 40(4), 518-540.
Classroom management is a topic of enduring concern for teachers, administrators, and the public. It consistently ranks as the first or second most serious educational problem in the eyes of the general public, and beginning teachers consistently rank it as their most pressing concern during their early teaching years. Management problems continue to be a major cause of teacher burnout and job dissatisfaction. Strangely, despite this enduring concern on the part of educators and the public, few researchers have chosen to focus on classroom management or to identify themselves with this critical field.
Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. New York, NY: Routledge.
Classroom management is a topic of enduring concern for teachers, administrators, and the
public. It consistently ranks as the first or second most serious educational problem in the
eyes of the general public, and beginning teachers consistently rank it as their most pressing
concern during their early teaching years.
Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Routledge.
This paper looks at methods to enable teachers to generalize skills taught in pre-service to use in the classroom.
Fallon, D. (2004). Tapping the potential: Retaining and developing high-quality new teachers.
This report describe teacher educators about their perspectives on the pressing questions surrounding teacher education and school reform today. Results show that education professors hold divided views on many issues.
Farkas, S., & Duffett, A. (2010). Cracks in the Ivory Tower? The Views of Education Professors Circa 2010. Thomas B. Fordham Institute.
In reporting on one aspect of a national center's research on teacher education, this chapter examines two U.S. programs in which experienced teachers are expected to play major roles in the induction and socialization of beginning teachers. By exploring connections between what experienced teachers in the two projects do and the organizational and intellectual contexts within which they work, this analysis demonstrates that the contextual conditions of mentoring can lead to striking differences in the definition and enactment of mentoring roles.
Feiman-Nemser, S., & Parker, M. B. (1993). Mentoring in context: A comparison of two US programs for beginning teachers. International journal of educational research, 19(8), 699-718.
This paper reports the results of a literature review on the subject of beginning teacher induction, presenting a conceptually oriented discussion of the induction literature.
Feiman-Nemser, S., Schwille, S., Carver, C., & Yusko, B. (1999). A Conceptual Review of Literature on New Teacher Induction.
This is a survey of 2500 randomly selected K-12 public school teachers. It analyzes their demographics, route to credential, and current position. It also captures their views on the adequacy of teacher preparation, various school reform proposals, and job satisfaction
Feistritzer, C. E., Griffin, S., & Linnajarvi, A. (2011). Profile of Teachers in the US, 2011 (p. 80). National Center for Education Information.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on‐task behaviour. However, observations conducted during a follow‐up phase revealed reductions in the use of praise by the teachers and in some levels of on‐task behaviour.
Ferguson, E., & Houghton, S. (1992). The effects of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline Programme, on children's on‐task behaviour. Educational studies, 18(1), 83-93.
This study investigates the relationship between measures of mathematics teacher skill and student achievement in California high schools. Test scores are analyzed in relation to teacher experience and education and student demographics. The results are consistent with the hypotheses that there is a shortage of qualified mathematics teachers in California and that this shortage is associated with low student scores in mathematics.
Fetler, M. (1999). High school staff characteristics and mathematics test results. education policy analysis archives, 7, 9.
This study employed a randomized experiment to examine differences in teacher and student learning from professional development (PD) in two modalities: online and face-to-face.
Fishman, B., Konstantopoulous, S., Kubitskey, B., Vath, R., Park, G., Johnson, H., & Edelson, D. C. (2013). Comparing the impact of online and face to face professional development in the context of curriculum implementation. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(5), 426–438.
We offer a comparative investigation of the compensation and benefits afforded to cooperating teachers (CTs) by teacher education programs (TEPs) in 1957-1958 and 2012-2013. This investigation replicates and extends a description of the compensation practices of 20 US TEPs published by VanWinkle in 1959.
Fives, H., Mills, T. M., & Dacey, C. M. (2016). Cooperating teacher compensation and benefits: Comparing 1957-1958 and 2012-2013. Journal of Teacher Education, 67(2), 105-119.
Policy makers are concerned about reports of teacher shortages and the high rate of attrition among new teachers. Prior studies indicate that mentor-based induction can reduce the numbers of new teachers leaving schools or the profession
Fletcher, S., Strong, M., & Villar, A. (2008). An investigation of the effects of variations in mentor-based induction on the performance of students in California. Teachers college record, 110(10), 2271-2289.
Teaching methods and field experience courses that focus on teaching make up only a small fraction of the postsecondary coursework required for teachers, especially for prospective secondary teachers.
Floden, R., & Meniketti, M. (2009). Research on the effects of coursework in the arts and sciences and in the foundations of education. In Studying teacher education (pp. 273-320). Routledge.
In this meta-analysis of studies that utilize formative assessment the authors report an effective size of .7.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199-208.
What we can do to support teachers: We must improve both the types and the usefulness of the professional supports offered and ensure that teachers have the resources needed to access those opportunities. Strengthening the system of supports includes increasing teachers' influence over their day-to-day work and developing cultures of learning.
García, E., & Weiss, E. (2019). The Role of Early Career Supports, Continuous Professional Development, and Learning Communities in the Teacher Shortage. The Fifth Report in 'The Perfect Storm in the Teacher Labor Market' Series. Economic Policy Institute.
In this article, a case is made for improving the school success of ethnically diverse students
through culturally responsive teaching and for preparing teachers in preservice education
programs with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to do this.
Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of teacher education, 53(2), 106-116.
Nierstheimer, Hopkins, Dillon, and Schmitt (2000) reported increased efficacy for elementary
preservice teachers participating in a corrective reading methods course and pre-requisite
tutoring practicum. Likewise, Haverback and Parault's (2011) investigation of two field
experiences, tutoring and observing, on elementary preservice teachers' self-efficacy
showed that both groups reported growth in reading teacher efficacy.
Giles, R. M., Kent, A. M., & Hibberts, M. (2013). Investigating Preservice Teachers’ Sense of Reading Efficacy. The Reading Professor, 35(1), 8.
This study examined the academic and demographic profile of the pool of prospective teachers and then explored how this profile is affected by teacher testing.
Gitomer, D. H., Latham, A. S., & Ziomek, R. (1999). The academic quality of prospective teachers: The impact of admissions and licensure testing. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Retrieved from http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/RR-03-35.pdf
To evaluate the impact of comprehensive teacher induction relative to the usual induction support, the authors conducted a randomized experiment in a set of districts that were not already implementing comprehensive induction.
Glazerman, S., Isenberg, E., Dolfin, S., Bleeker, M., Johnson, A., Grider, M., & Jacobus, M. (2010). Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Final Results from a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2010-4027. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
The goal of this paper was to document and analyze the research on the connection between teachers' preparation to teach special education students, their instructional practices once in the classroom, and their students' eventual learning achievement
Goe, L. (2006). The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved September, 3, 2009.
This paper provides the first empirical examination of National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) ratings, beginning with a descriptive overview of the ratings and documentation of how they evolved from 2013-2016, both in aggregate and for programs with different characteristics.
Goldhaber, D., & Koedel, C. (2019). Public Accountability and Nudges: The Effect of an Information Intervention on the Responsiveness of Teacher Education Programs to External Ratings. American Educational Research Journal, 0002831218820863.
This paper examines the consequences of having an apprentice teacher for 4-8 graders in the state of Washington.
Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J. M., & Theobald, R. (2020). Exploring the impact of student teaching apprenticeships on student achievement and mentor teachers. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 1-22.
We use a unique longitudinal sample of student teachers (“interns”) from six Washington state teacher training institutions to investigate patterns of entry into the teaching workforce. We estimate split population models that simultaneously estimate the impact of individual characteristics and student teaching experiences on the timing and probability of initial hiring as a public school teacher.
Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J., & Theobald, R. (2014). Knocking on the door to the teaching profession? Modeling the entry of prospective teachers into the workforce. Economics of Education Review, 43, 106-124.
A growing literature documents the importance of student teaching placements for teacher development. Emerging evidence from this literature highlights the importance of the mentor teacher who supervises this placement, as teachers tend to be more effective when they student teach with a mentor who is a more effective teacher.
Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J., Naito, N., & Theobald, R. (2020). Making the most of student teaching: The importance of mentors and scope for change. Education Finance and Policy, 15(3), 581-591.
This report provides information about new teachers' preparation experiences and explores
whether particular types of experiences are related to teachers' effectiveness in improving
their students' test scores. Prior research indicates that teaching effectiveness is the largest
in-school factor affecting student achievement.
Goodson, B., Caswell, L., Price, C., Litwok, D., Dynarski, M., Crowe, E., ... & Rice, A. (2019). Teacher Preparation Experiences and Early Teaching Effectiveness. Executive Summary. NCEE 2019-4010. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Robust evidence of the effectiveness of professional development for teachers is limited. This study tested a pedagogy-based, collaborative PD approach for impact on the quality of teaching. This study illuminates how to support teacher learning for measurable positive impacts on teaching quality and teacher morale.
Gore, J., Lloyd, A., Smith, M., Bowe, J., Ellis, H., & Lubans, D. (2017). Effects of professional development on the quality of teaching: Results from a randomised controlled trial of Quality Teaching Rounds. Teaching and teacher education, 68, 99-113.
According to GAO’s survey results, most traditional teacher preparation programs at institutions of higher education nationwide required at least some training for prospective general classroom teachers on instructing students with disabilities and English language learners.
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Teacher preparation: Multiple federal education offices support teacher preparation for instructing students with disabilities and English language learners, but systematic departmentwide coordination could enhance this assistance (GAO-09-573)
In this study I have profiled the background experiences, academic preparation and perceptions of a small number of cooperating teachers in a secondary Professional Development School site about their experiences in successful practice. The results indicate that cooperating teachers have a depth of understanding of their role in the process and that they undertake the responsibility with clear expectations for the experience.
Graham, B. (2006). Conditions for successful field experiences: Perceptions of cooperating teachers. Teaching and teacher education, 22(8), 1118-1129.
This brief quantifies the fundamentally chaotic nature of elementary teacher preparation for initial certification, which is by far the most popular choice of individuals who consider teaching. While there is overlap in the topics each undergraduate/graduate program pair covers, what's more striking are the different course requirements--even though both programs are offered by the same education school at the same institution. Ideally, teacher candidates in each program pair should receive preparation that is not only consistent, but also high quality in its design.
Greenberg, J., & Dugan, N. (2015). Incoherent by Design: What You Should Know about Differences between Undergraduate and Graduate Training of Elementary Teachers. National Council on Teacher Quality.
This report provides information on the preparation provided to teacher candidates from
teacher training programs so that they can fully use assessment data to improve classroom
Greenberg, J., & Walsh, K. (2012). What Teacher Preparation Programs Teach about K-12 Assessment: A Review. National Council on Teacher Quality.
We strived to apply the standards uniformly to all the nation’s teacher preparation programs as part of our effort to bring as much transparency as possible to the way America’s teachers are prepared. In collecting information for this initial report, however, we encountered enormous resistance from leaders of many of the programs we sought to assess.
Greenberg, J., McKee, A., & Walsh, K. (2013). Teacher prep review: A review of the nation's teacher preparation programs. Available at SSRN 2353894.
In this new report from the National Council on Teacher Quality, we investigate the extent to which America’s traditional teacher preparation programs offer research-based strategies to their teacher candidates to help them better manage their classrooms from the start.
Greenberg, J., Putman, H., & Walsh, K. (2014). Training our future teachers: Classroom management. National council on teacher quality.
This report examines teacher preparation in classroom management. It surveyed over 100 elementary and secondary, graduate and undergraduate programs.
Greenberg, J., Putman, H., and Walsh, K. (2013). Training Our future Teachers: Classroom Management. Date accessed: 5/7/14
This paper describe a few promising assessment technologies tat allow us to capture more direct, repeated, and contextually based measures of student learning, and propose an improvement-oriented approach to teaching and learning.
Greenwood, C. R., & Maheady, L. (1997). Measurable change in student performance: Forgotten standard in teacher preparation?. Teacher Education and Special Education, 20(3), 265-275.
This paper examines general education literature reviews for the past decade and the special education literature related to: (a) the school and classroom conditions under which new special education teachers must perform and (b) induction for special education teachers.
Griffin, C., Winn, J., Otis-Wilburn, A., & Kilgore, K. (2003). New teacher induction in special education: Review of the literature. The Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education.
The authors study the effects of various types of education and training on the ability of teachers to promote student achievement.
Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2011). Teacher training, teacher quality and student achievement. Journal of Public Economics, 95(7–8), 798-812.
Over the last two years, we’ve looked at the existing research and policy guidance on teacher development, with a critical eye to help us better understand what we already know. We’ve noticed that the common threads running through many previous studies, reports and commentaries on teacher development—once you dig into footnotes and peel back the compelling prose—are logical, practical ideas grounded in a selective review of the evidence base.
Hasoitis, D. (2015, July 28). What does the research say on professional development, anyway? TNTP Blog.
This influential book is the result of 15 years research that includes over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. This is a great resource for any stakeholder interested in conducting a serious search of evidence behind common models and practices used in schools.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning. A synthesis of over, 800.
This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.
Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.
This research review focuses on studies that have examined the coaching interactions of cooperating teachers and preservice teachers around practice in teacher education programs. The review is situated inside of the practice-based turn in teacher education where the focus is on teaching as learning through practice and the crucial role that cooperating teachers play in mediating this learning.
Hoffman, J. V., Wetzel, M. M., Maloch, B., Greeter, E., Taylor, L., DeJulio, S., & Vlach, S. K. (2015). What can we learn from studying the coaching interactions between cooperating teachers and preservice teachers? A literature review. Teaching and Teacher Education, 52, 99-112.
This Issue Paper presents a brief review of the legal and policy foundations and best professional practices for inclusive services. It also provides a discussion of key components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher preparation at the preservice and inservice levels.
Holdheide, L. R., & Reschly, D. J. (2008). Teacher Preparation to Deliver Inclusive Services to Students with Disabilities: TQ Connection Issue Paper. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
Competition for teachers is fierce and expensive. In fact, many schools and organizations pay thousands of dollars each year to third party talent sourcing sites such as Linkedin, Indeed, and Glassdoor to help them find quality candidates. And sometimes this search can feel more ‘luck of the draw’ than strategic.
Howard, J., & Tam, W. (2019, September 18). Teacher recruitment ROI: What’s yours?
The most successful teacher induction programs reported here include opportunities for experts and neophytes to learn together in a supportive environment promoting time for collaboration, reflection and acculturation into the profession of teaching.
Howe, E. R. (2015). Exemplary Teacher Induction: An International Review. In In Search of Subjectivities (pp. 33-44). Routledge.
This paper describes some implication of research on learning to teach to the design of induction and mentoring programs.
Huling-Austin, L. (1992). Research on learning to teach: Implications for teacher induction and mentoring programs. Journal of teacher education, 43(3), 173-180.
This paper is based on an analysis of seven alternative certification programs to determine the characteristics of effective programs. Overall, findings suggest that an effective alternative certification program places candidates in schools with strong leadership, a collegial atmosphere, and adequate materials.
Humphrey, D. C., Wechsler, M. E., & Hough, H. J. (2008). Characteristics of effective alternative teacher certification programs. Teachers College Record, 110(1), 1-63.
Contemporary educational theory holds that one of the pivotal causes of inadequate student
achievement, especially in disadvantaged schools, is the inability of schools to adequately
staff classrooms with qualified teachers. Deficits in the quantity of teachers produced and in
the quality of preparation prospective teachers receive have long been singled out as
primary explanations for underqualified teaching.
Ingersoll, R. (2002). Out-of-field teaching, educational inequality, and the organization of schools: An exploratory analysis.
This study examines whether such supports have a positive effect on the retention of beginning teachers. The study also focuses on different types and components of induction, including mentoring programs, collective' group activities, and the provision of extra resources and reduced workloads.
Ingersoll, R. M., & Smith, T. M. (2004). Do teacher induction and mentoring matter?. NASSP bulletin, 88(638), 28-40
This review critically examines 15 empirical studies, conducted since the mid 1980s, on the effects of support, guidance, and orientation programs— collectively known as induction — for beginning teachers.
Ingersoll, R., & Kralik, J. M. (2004). The impact of mentoring on teacher retention: What the research says. GSE Publications, 127.
This study addresses the question: Do the kinds and amounts of pre-service education and preparation that beginning teachers receive before they start teaching have any impact on whether they leave teaching? Authors examine a wide range of measures of teachers’ subject-matter education and pedagogical preparation.
Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L., & May, H. (2014). What are the effects of teacher education and preparation on beginning teacher attrition?.
This research evaluated the impact of structured and intensive teacher induction programs over a three-year time period, beginning when teachers first enter the teaching profession. The current report presents findings from the second year of the evaluation and a future report will present findings from the third and final year.
Isenberg, E., Glazerman, S., Bleeker, M., Johnson, A., Lugo-Gil, J., Grider, M., ... & Britton, E. (2009). Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the Second Year of a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2009-4072. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Focusing on elementary classrooms, chapters include: Students' Feelings about School; Involvement and Withdrawal in the Classroom; Teachers Views; The Need for New Perspectives.
Jackson, P. W. (1990). Life in classrooms. Teachers College Press.
This article reports on a longitudinal study designed to explore these questions. In 1999, researchers from The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers selected and interviewed a diverse group of 50 new teachers in the Massachusetts public schools.
Johnson, S. M., & Birkeland, S. E. (2003). Pursuing a “sense of success”: New teachers explain their career decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 581-617.
The authors use six years of data on student test performance to evaluate the effectiveness of certified, uncertified, and alternatively certified teachers in the New York City public schools. This study also evaluates turnover among teachers with different certification status and the impact on student achievement of hiring teachers with predictably high turnover
Kane, T. J., Rockoff, J. E., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City. Economics of Education review, 27(6), 615-631.
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.
This study shares the results of a national survey targeting teacher education programs’ efforts to help prepare preservice teachers for K-12 online learning. Data show that only 1.3% of responding teacher education programs are addressing this need via field experiences in virtual schools. Implications for policy and practice in the field of teacher education are examined
Kennedy, K., & Archambault, L. (2012b). Offering preservice teachers field experiences in K–12 online learning: A national survey of teacher education programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(3), 185–200.
This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.
Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing
This paper presents case study research that explores the dynamics and experience offered for a professor and learners participating in a hybrid-modeled classroom in teacher education.
King, K. P. (2002). Identifying success in online teacher education and professional development. Internet and Higher Education, 5(3), 231–246.
This book offers strategies that make a difference in student learning including: content planning, instructional practices, and community building.
Knight, J. (2013). High-impact Instruction: A Framework for Great Teaching. Corwin Press.
This study investigated student teachers’ efficacy beliefs, collective teacher efficacy beliefs, and perceived cooperating teachers’ efficacy beliefs. These student teacher beliefs were examined with the focus on context, primarily the school setting, to determine whether setting played a role in the development of the student teachers’ efficacy beliefs.
Knoblauch, D., & Hoy, A. W. (2008). “Maybe I can teach those kids.” The influence of contextual factors on student teachers’ efficacy beliefs. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(1), 166-179.
This paper offers a sobering view of teacher preparation programs. It uses a statewide longitudinal dataset from Missouri to examine the extent to which teachers who are prepared by different programs differ in effectiveness.
Koedel, C., Parsons, E., Podgursky, M., & Ehlert, M. (2012). Teacher Preparation Programs and Teacher Quality: Are There Real Differences Across Programs?. Education Finance and Policy.
Teacher coaching has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional models of professional development. We review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement.
Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of educational research, 88(4), 547-588.
The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.
Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(4), 279-299.
We use comprehensive data on student teaching placements from 14 teacher education programs (TEPs) in Washington State to explore the sorting of teacher candidates to the teachers who supervise their student teaching and the schools in which student teaching occurs. We find that, all else equal, teachers with more experience, higher degree levels, and higher value added in math are more likely to serve as cooperating teachers, as are schools with lower levels of historical teacher turnover but with more open positions the following year.
Krieg, J. M., Goldhaber, D., & Theobald, R. (2020). Teacher candidate apprenticeships: Assessing the who and where of student teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 71(2), 218-232.
Starting in independent professional schools 150 years ago, teacher education in the United States ended up in universities. This was not the result of a plan to enhance the quality of professional education for teachers. Instead, it was a side effect of the growing dominance of the university over all matters educational, which meant that teacher education, like other professional domains, had no other place to go.
Larabee, D. F. (2008). An uneasy relationship: The history of teacher education in the university. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman Nemser, & D. J. McIntyre (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring issues in changing contexts (3rd ed., pp. 290–306). Association of Teacher Educators.
The Teacher Education Committee at Northwestern Oklahoma State University approved the development of a competency-based teacher education program. A subcommittee identified and wrote professional education competencies which students should master prior to program completion.
Lehr, M. (1981). Changes in Teacher Education: The Holy Grail of Quality.
This article discuss the challenge - and the opportunity - that faces states, teacher-education professional associations, universities, and non-university teacher educators.
Levine, A. (2011). The New normal of Teacher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.chronicle.com/article/The-New-Normal-of-Teacher/127430
This report is based on efforts by the National Center for Education Statistics to collect data on teacher preparation and qualifications using a nationally representative survey of full-time public school teachers whose main teaching assignment is in English/language arts, social studies/social sciences, foreign language, mathematics, or science (or who teach a self-contained classroom).
Lewis, L., Parsad, B., Carey, N., Bartfai, N., Farris, E., & Smerdon, B. (1999). Teacher quality: A report on the preparation and qualifications of public school teachers. NCES 1999-080. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/1999080.pdf
Lin, M., Lake, V. E., & Rice, D. (2008). Teaching anti-bias curriculum in teacher education programs: What and how. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35(2), 187-200.
Teacher professional development (PD) is seen as a promising intervention to improve teacher knowledge, instructional practice, and ultimately student learning. While research finds instances of significant program effects on teacher knowledge, little is known about how long these effects last.
Liu, S., & Phelps, G. (2020). Does teacher learning last? Understanding how much teachers retain their knowledge after professional development. Journal of Teacher Education, 71(5), 537-550.
This Fastback provides a guide for developing a partnership between the student teacher and the cooperating teacher in order to make student teaching a rewarding experience for all involved.
Lowenhaupt, M. A., & Stephanik, C. E. (1999). Making Student Teaching Work: Creating a Partnership. Fastback 447. Phi Delta Kappa International, 408 North Union, PO Box 789, Bloomington, IN 47402-0789.
This study investigated the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards'(NBPTS)
assessment process in order to identify, quantify, and substantiate learning outcomes from
Lustick, D., & Sykes, G. (2006). National Board Certification as professional development: What are teachers learning? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 14(5), 1– 43. https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/download/76/202
This study focused on preservice general education teachers who were prepared to use an evidence-based teaching practice and the effects the practice had on their pupils’ academic performance.
Maheady, L., Harper, G. F., Mallette, B., & Karnes, M. (2004). Preparing preservice teachers to implement class wide peer tutoring. Teacher Education and Special Education, 27(4), 408-418.
This paper presents an early field-based course and applied teaching project to examine teaching practices and pupil outcomes.
Maheady, L., Jabot, M., Rey, J., & Michielli-Pendl, J. (2007). An early field-based experience and its impact on pre-service candidates' teaching practice and their pupils' outcomes. Teacher Education and Special Education, 30(1), 24-33.
Teacher educators are under increasing pressure to show that preparation programs meaningfully impact instruction among pre-service teachers, who are then influential in student learning. This external pressure is challenging for teacher educators. We present an early field-based course and applied teaching project to examine teaching practices and pupil outcomes.
Maheady, L., Jabot, M., Rey, J., & Michielli-Pendl, J. (2007). An early field-based experience and its impact on pre-service candidates' teaching practice and their pupils' outcomes. Teacher Education and Special Education, 30(1), 24-33.
How does classroom management affect student achievement? What techniques do
teachers find most effective? How important are schoolwide policies and practices in setting
the tone for individual classroom management? In this follow-up to What Works in Schools,
Robert J. Marzano analyzes research from more than 100 studies on classroom
management to discover the answers to these questions and more. He then applies these
findings to a series of" Action Steps"--specific strategies.
Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).
This is a study of classroom management on student engagement and achievement.
Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Ascd
The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified five studies of NBPTS certification that both fall within the scope of the Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation topic area and meet WWC group design standards.
Mathematica Policy Research (2018). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report: National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Certification. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/InterventionReports/wwc_nbpts_021318.pdf.
This review addresses two different proposals for reforming teacher training, neither of which is grounded in research. The authors report three weak correlations between the performance of program participants and TNTP’s certification evaluation rubric. The report concludes with three self-evident aphorisms: practice improves teaching, teachers who master teaching skills do better, and inadequate performers should be weeded out.
Mathis, W. (2014). Review of Two Alternative Teacher Preparation Proposals. National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from http://greatlakescenter.org/docs/Think_Twice/TT_Mathis_TeacherPrep.pdf
This annual publication is one of the best ongoing sources for tracking and analyzing important developments and trends in education over time using the latest available data. In 2019 the spotlights were on: “Early Childhood Care Arrangements”; “Choices and Costs Characteristics of Public School Teachers Who Completed Alternative Route to Certification Programs”; and “Trends in Student Loan Debt for Graduate School Completers.”
McFarland, J., Hussar, B., Zhang, J., Wang, X., Wang, K., Hein, S., Diliberti, M., Forrest Cataldi, E., Bullock Mann, F., and Barmer, A. (2019). e Condition of Education 2019 (NCES 2019-144). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved [date] from https://nces.ed.gov/ pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2019144.
McKeachie's Teaching Tips is a handbook designed to provide helpful strategies for dealing with both the everyday problems of teaching at the university level, and those that pop up in trying to maximize learning for every student. The suggested strategies are supported by research and are grounded in enough theory to enable teachers to adapt them to their own situations.
McKeachie, W. J., & Svinicki, M. (2006). Problem-based learning: Teaching with cases, simulations, and games. McKeachie’s Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers.
This paper reports evidence-based research and offers suggestions based on studies that include theoretical work, qualitative analysis, statistical analysis, and randomized experience that could provide strong causal evidence of the effects of teacher preparation on student learning.
Meadows, L., Theodore, K. (2012). Teacher Preparation Programs: Research and Promising Practices. Retrieved from http://www.sedl.org/txcc/resources/briefs/number_11/
This paper is the story of Fast Start. This paper will explain exactly how they transformed their approach to pre-service training and built Fast Start, and what they’ve learned along the way. They hope that their experience—including our failures—can serve as a road map for other preparation programs that want to find new ways to help new teachers find success.
Menzes, A., & Maier, A. (2014). Fast Start: Training Better Teachers Faster, with Focus, Practice and Feedback. TNTP. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED559704
This report describes how the seven Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) evaluate their teacher preparation programs and the changes they are making to improve their approaches to evaluation.
Meyer, S. J., Brodersen, R. M., & Linick, M. A. (2014). Approaches to Evaluating Teacher Preparation Programs in Seven States. REL 2015-044. Regional Educational Laboratory Central. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED550491
Less than 1 in 5 general education teachers feel “very well prepared” to teach students with mild to moderate learning disabilities, including ADHD and dyslexia, according to a new survey from two national advocacy groups.
Mitchell, C. (2019, May 29). Most classroom teachers feel unprepared to support students with disabilities. Education Week.
Supervising student teachers effectively assures that vital professional experience will be of maximum benefit to the pre-service teacher. Mentor teachers and university faculty who work with student teachers need specific training to make the experience rewarding, while the student teacher requires specific information for professional success.
Morehead, M. A., Lyman, L., & Foyle, H. C. (2009). Working with student teachers: Getting and giving the best. Rowman & Littlefield.
National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education presents the data of public school teachers who held a postbaccalaureate degree, public school teachers who held the certificate, and the year of experience.
National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education. (2018b). The condition of education 2018: Characteristics of public school teachers. NCES 2018-144. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=58
This report presents the results of the 2000-01 Status of the American Public School Teacher survey. This survey has been conducted every 5 years since 1956
National Education Association. (2003). Status of the American public school teacher, 2000-2001. NEA Professional Library.
The book recommends that federal and state policy makers take on the responsibility of promoting equal access to technology while the federal government and foundations play an important role by supporting the development, evaluation, and revision of OTPD.
National Research Council. (2007). Enhancing professional development for teachers: Potential uses of information technology. Report of a Workshop. Committee on Enhancing Professional Development for Teachers, National Academies Teacher Advisory Council. Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. https://www.nap.edu/read/11995/chapter/1
Soft skills complement hard skills and have a significant impact on the ability of teachers to do their job and on their employability. Soft skill components acquired by future holistic human capital are communicative skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, team work skill, life-long learning and management of information, entrepreneurship skill, ethics, moral and professional skill, and leadership skill.
Ngang, T. K., Hashim, N. H., & Yunus, H. M. (2015). Novice Teacher Perceptions of the Soft Skills Needed in Today's Workplace. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 177, 284-288.
This study follows 305 preservice teachers (PSTs) who student taught in Chicago Public Schools (CPS) in 2014-15 and were subsequently hired in CPS in 2015-16.
Ngang, T. K., Yunus, H. M., & Hashim, N. H. (2015). Soft skills integration in teaching professional training: Novice teachers’ perspectives. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 186, 835-840.
The authors use data from a four-year experiment in which teachers and students were randomly assigned to classes to estimate teacher effects on student achievement. Teacher effects are estimated as between-teacher (but within-school) variance components of achievement status and residualized achievement gains.
Nye, N., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3), 237–257. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3102/01623737026003237
The number of English language learners (ELL) students in the US is increasing dramatically. Teachers were interviewed regarding their perceptions of their preparedness to teach English language learners in the mainstream classrooms. Findings revealed that teacher training programs have not prepared these individuals for the student population they face today regardless of the year in which they received their teaching licenses.
O'Neal, D. D., Ringler, M., & Rodriguez, D. (2008). Teachers’ perceptions of their preparation for teaching linguistically and culturally diverse learners in rural eastern North Carolina. The rural educator, 30(1).
In this article, implementation is proposed as the link between evidence-based practices and positive outcomes. Strategies for promoting implementation through “enlightened professional development” are proposed.
Odom, S. L. (2009). The tie that binds: Evidence-based practice, implementation science, and outcomes for children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 29(1), 53-61.
This paper posits that teacher education should emphasize both content knowledge and communication skills. It follows up the contention by conceptualizing communication, exploring teacher communication competence, and finally suggesting the introduction of Teacher Communication Skills (TCS) course in the curricula of teacher education across levels.
Okoli, A. C. (2017). Relating Communication Competence to Teaching Effectiveness: Implication for Teacher Education. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(3), 150-154.
Under the 1998 reauthorization of Title II of the Higher Education Act, the secretary of education is required to issue annual reports to Congress on the state of teacher quality nationwide. "Meeting the Highly Qualified Teachers Challenge" is the inaugural report on this important issue.
Paige, R. (2002). Meeting the Highly Qualified Teachers Challenge: The Secretary's Annual Report on Teacher Quality. US Department of Education.
This policy report provides a look at the decline in the enrollment of American teacher preparation programs, along with potential consequences for schools and the student they serve.
Partelow, L. (2019). What to Make of Declining Enrollment in Teacher Preparation Programs. Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education-k-12/reports/2019/12/03/477311/make-declining-enrollment-teacher-preparation-programs/
While teachers continue to learn and grow as they gain experience, the foundation for their skills is provided by their initial teacher education program. And of all the parts of teacher education, none is more important than clinical practice. In general, the field of education has long recognized and championed the importance of practice.
Pomerance, L., & Walsh, K. (2020). 2020 Teacher Prep Review: Clinical Practice & Classroom Management. National Council on Teacher Quality.
For many students, school this year looks very different from the way it did in the past. The COVID pandemic has meant that large numbers of students are learning by Zoom instead of in classrooms, and schools are struggling to reach students who don’t have sufficient access to the internet or computers. In all this disruption, there is still one constant: the importance of effective, skilled teachers.
Pomerance, L., & Walsh, K. (2020). 2020 Teacher Prep Review: Clinical Practice & Classroom Management. National Council on Teacher Quality.
This brief summarizes the teaching practice, Pre-teaching.
Pre-teaching Why Is This Strategy Useful?. National Council for Teachers of Mathematics.
Children across the country face unprecedented levels of missed instruction as a result of the pandemic. As millions of students and teachers continue remote learning, experiment with hybrid models, and ultimately return to their classrooms, our nation has a greater need than ever for teachers who have the skills to address the challenges ahead.
Putman, H., & Walsh, K. (2021). State of the States 2021: Teacher Preparation Policy. National Council on Teacher Quality.
The objective in this review was to summarize and critique empirical research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher retention and teacher quality (particularly studies in which teacher effectiveness was evaluated by using student achievement measures).
Rogers, M., Lopez, A., Lash, A., Schaffner, M., Shields, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention.
This study is motivated by an ongoing debate about the kinds of schools that make for the best field placements during pre-service preparation. On the one hand, easier-to-staff schools may support teacher learning because they are typically better-functioning institutions that offer desirable teaching conditions.
Ronfeldt, M. (2012). Where should student teachers learn to teach? Effects of field placement school characteristics on teacher retention and effectiveness. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(1), 3-26.
Drawing from data on over 1000 prospective teachers in a large urban district including pre and post-student teaching survey data, this study investigates whether lengthening student teaching improves teachers’ perceptions of instructional preparedness, efficacy, and career plans. The findings suggest that the duration of student teaching has little effect on teacher outcomes; however, the quality of student teaching has significant and positive effects.
Ronfeldt, M., & Reininger, M. (2012). More or better student teaching?. Teaching and teacher education, 28(8), 1091-1106.
Increasingly, states and teacher education programs are establishing minimum requirements for cooperating teachers’ (CTs’) years of experience or tenure. Undergirding these policies is an assumption that to effectively mentor preservice teachers (PSTs), CTs must themselves be instructional effective. The authors test this assumption using statewide administrative data on nearly 2,900 PSTs mentored by over 3,200 CTs.
Ronfeldt, M., Brockman, S. L., & Campbell, S. L. (2018). Does cooperating teachers’ instructional effectiveness improve preservice teachers’ future performance. Educational Researcher, 47(7), 405–418.
The authors use research-based "impact modeling" to show how a strategic approach to recruiting and supporting rookie teachers could yield as much as 4.2 extra months of student learning. We provide 5 recommendations for school systems to leverage their investment in structures that provide rookie teachers with both shelter and development.
Rosenberg, D., & Miles, K.H. (2018). Growing Great Teachers: How School System Leaders Can Use Existing Resources to Better Develop, Support, and Retain New Teachers--and Improve Student Outcomes. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED593368.pdf
This study examines all 50 states' and the District of Columbia's requirements regarding the science of reading for elementary and special education teacher candidates.
Ross, E. (2018). NCTQ Databurst: Strengthening Reading Instruction Through Better Preparation of Elementary and Special Education Teachers. Retrieved from http://mediad.publicbroadcasting.net/p/wnpr/files/201808/NCTQ_Databurst-_Strengthening_Reading_Instruction_764564.pdf
This Statistics in Brief provides a snapshot of the state of teacher professional development activities among U.S. public school teachers using data collected through the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) Public School Teacher Questionnaire. This report relies on data provided by public school teachers about their professional development activities during the 2011-12 school year.
Rotermund, S., DeRoche, J., & Ottem, R. (2017). Teacher Professional Development by Selected Teacher and School Characteristics: 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2017-200. National Center for Education Statistics.
In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. This study demonstrates the potential of coaching as a viable model of the professional development of reading teachers.
Sailors, M., & Price, L. R. (2010). Professional development that supports the teaching of cognitive reading strategy instruction. The elementary school Journal, 110(3), 301-322.
The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System determines the effectiveness of school systems, schools, and teachers based on student academic growth over time. Research conducted utilizing data from the TVAAS database has shown that race, socioeconomic level, class size, and classroom heterogeneity are poor predictors of student academic growth. Rather, the effectiveness of the teacher is the major determinant of student academic progress.
Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement.
Teachers who received two years of comprehensive induction services boosted student scores in reading and math more than teachers in a comparison group who didn’t receive the support, a study released today by the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences finds.
Sawchuk, S. (2010) (2010, June 28). Teacher induction found to raise student scores. Education Week. Retrieved from www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2010/06/28/36induction.h29.html
A greater emphasis on measuring the outputs of teacher preparation programs such as practice-based evaluations has increased the need for teacher educators to examine “best practice” for developing the skill-based competencies of teacher candidates. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of practice and feedback on teacher candidates’ knowledge and skill acquisition of a specific evidence-based practice, the provision of opportunities to respond.
Sayeski, K. L., Hamilton-Jones, B., Cutler, G., Earle, G. A., & Husney, L. (2019). The role of practice and feedback for developing teacher candidate’s opportunities to respond expertise. Teacher Education and Special Education, 42(1), 18-35.
This study looks at four factors for effective generalization a newly acquired teaching skills across time and settings.
Scheeler, M. C. (2008). Generalizing Effective Teaching Skills: The Missing Link in Teacher Preparation. Journal of Behavioral Education, 17(2), 145-159.
Formative assessment has the potential to support teaching and learning in the classroom. This study reviewed the literature on formative assessment to identify prerequisites for effective use of formative assessment by teachers. The review sought to address the following research question: What teacher prerequisites need to be in place for using formative assessment in their classroom practice?
Schildkamp, K., van der Kleij, F. M., Heitink, M. C., Kippers, W. B., & Veldkamp, B. P. (2020). Formative assessment: A systematic review of critical teacher prerequisites for classroom practice. International Journal of Educational Research, 103, 101602.
Given the importance of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for improving outcomes for students with disabilities, it is key that preservice special education teachers have the opportunity to implement EBPs with high levels of fidelity during their teacher preparation program. For this reason, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature to answer the question: Does providing performance feedback improve preservice special education teachers’ fidelity of implementation of EBPs and outcomes for students with disabilities?
Schles, R. A., & Robertson, R. E. (2019). The role of performance feedback and implementation of evidence-based practices for preservice special education teachers and student outcomes: A review of the literature. Teacher Education and Special Education, 42(1), 36-48.
Twenty-eight investigations were identified in which general education teachers were surveyed regarding their perceptions of including students with disabilities in their classes. Research synthesis procedures were employed to summarize responses and examine the consistency of responses across time, geographical location, and item type.
Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1996). Teacher perceptions of mainstreaming/inclusion, 1958–1995: A research synthesis. Exceptional children, 63(1), 59-74.
Lack of communication between cooperating teachers and preservice teachers is one of the most commonly reported problems during field experiences. To provide more opportunity for feedback during preservice teachers' clinical experiences, a large elementary education program in a midwestern university implemented the use of peer feedback practices during an early clinical field experience with junior-level students placed in K-8 classrooms.
Shin, E. K., Wilkins, E. A., & Ainsworth, J. (2007). The nature and effectiveness of peer feedback during an early clinical experience in an elementary education program. Action in Teacher Education, 28(4), 40-52.
Reflection is a high impact practice that develops teacher candidates’ learning. Critical reflection requires teacher candidates to continually examine their own thoughts, perspectives, biases, and actions. Reflective practice facilitates the development of new knowledge, skills, and dispositions in teacher candidates by fostering critical contemplation of actions in a real-world environment.
Slade, M. L., Burnham, T. J., Catalana, S. M., & Waters, T. (2019). The Impact of Reflective Practice on Teacher Candidates' Learning. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(2), 15.
This paper pointed out three prominent points of impact in addressing the poor performance of America’s fourth-graders on national examinations of reading proficiency.
Smartt, S. M., & Reschly, D. J. (2007). Barriers to the Preparation of Highly Qualified Teachers in Reading. TQ Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
Given the numbers, it is clear that general education teachers should possess the tools necessary to help students with disabilities succeed. Teacher preparation programs can be a powerful and critical lever for ensuring this support; however, most teacher preparation programs do not center students with disabilities in their curriculum for general education teachers.
Smith, V. (2020). How teacher preparation programs can help all teachers better serve students with disabilities. Center for American Progress.
The authors surveyed student teachers in a yearlong internship and their peers in a traditional semester-long internship to compare perceptions across different practice teaching experiences. The authors discuss the outcomes regarding continuing challenges professional development programs face when building and sustaining effective clinical experiences.
Spooner, M., Flowers, C., Lambert, R., & Algozzine, B. (2008). Is more really better? Examining perceived benefits of an extended student teaching experience. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 81(6), 263-270.
This reviews looks at the issue, do longer school days and longer school years improve student achievement?
States, J. (2011). Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores? Retrieved from does-longer-school-year.
This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) commonly linked to effective teacher-student relationships.
States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Teacher-student Relationships Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/soft-skills-teacher-student-relationships
This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers
States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in teacher self–efficacy from the student teaching experience to the third year of teaching. The population was the entire cohort of student teachers from The Ohio State University.
Swan, B. G., Wolf, K. J., & Cano, J. (2011). Changes in teacher self-efficacy from the student teaching experience through the third year of teaching. Journal of Agricultural Education, 52(2), 128.
The federal role in developing the teacher workforce has increased markedly in the last
decade, but the history of such involvement dates back fifty years. Relying initially on
policies to recruit and train teachers, the federal role has expanded in recent years to
include new policy initiatives and instruments around the themes of accountability,
incentives, and qualifications, while also continuing the historic emphasis on teacher
recruitment, preparation, and development.
Sykes, G., & Dibner, K. (2009). Fifty Years of Federal Teacher Policy: An Appraisal. Center on Education Policy.
This paper is part of a bigger research project and focuses on issues related to soft skills and teaching professional training. The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent of soft skills that has been integrated in teaching professional training from the novice teachers’ perspectives.
Tang, K. N., Yunus, H. M., & Hashim, N. H. (2015). Soft skills integration in teaching professional training: Novice teachers’ perspectives. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 835–840.
Teachers make a difference. The success of any plan for improving educational outcomes depends on the teachers who carry it out and thus on the abilities of those attracted to the field and their preparation. Yet there are many questions about how teachers are being prepared and how they ought to be prepared.
Teachers, P. (2010). Building Evidence for Sound Policy. Washington. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
This book target regular and special education teachers who implement PBS in their classrooms. The book also serves as an essential resources for preservice teachers who are developing their classroom management skills. it focuses on practical strategies to prevent and reduce behavioral problems and enhance student learning.
Tincani, M. (2011). Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management. Sourcebooks, Inc..
Totterdell, M., Bubb, S., Woodroffe, L., & Hanrahan, K. (2004). The impact of newly qualified teachers (NQT) induction programmes on the enhancement of teacher expertise, professional development, job satisfaction or retention rates: A systematic review of research literature on induction. Research evidence in education library.
The theoretical and empirical underpinnings of teacher efficacy are examined to bring coherence to the construct and its measurement. First, we explore the correlates of teacher efficacy revealed using various instruments and search for patterns that suggest a better understanding of the construct.
Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of educational research, 68(2), 202-248.
This study investigated preservice teachers' perceived barriers for implementing multicultural curriculum with preservice teachers as they began their teacher education program.
Van Hook, C. W. (2002). Preservice teachers' perceived barriers to the implementation of a multicultural curriculum. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29(4), 254-265.
The authors recommend a shift in focus for TFA from a program of mixed impact to one that makes measureable changes in the quality of education in America. Recommendations for policymakers and districts are provided.
Vasquez Heilig, J., & Jez, S. J. (2014). Teach For America: A return to the evidence.
This study describes a benefit-cost analysis of a comprehensive mentoring program for beginning teachers conducted in a medium-sized California school district.
Villar, A., & Strong, M. (2007). Is mentoring worth the money? A benefit-cost analysis and fiveyear rate of return of a comprehensive mentoring program for beginning teachers. ERS Spectrum, 25(3), 1-17.
This literature review examines the impact of various instructional methods
Walberg H. J. (1999). Productive teaching. In H. C. Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.) New directions for teaching, practice, and research (pp. 75-104). Berkeley, CA: McCutchen Publishing.
This report examines research on teacher certification, reviewing every published study or paper, and many unpublished dissertations, cited by prominent advocates of teacher certification.
Walsh, K. (2001). Teacher Certification Reconsidered: Stumbling for Quality.
Within Our Grasp: Achieving Higher Admissions Standards in Teacher Prep is the tenth annual publication in the State Teacher Policy Yearbook report series released by the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ). This report focuses on teacher preparation program compliance with admissions policies required at the state level
Walsh, K., Joseph, N., and Lewis, A. (2016). Within Our Grasp: Achieving Higher Admissions Standards in Teacher Prep. National Council on Teacher Quality.
Drawing on literature since 1997, this review explores the effects of teacher induction on beginning teachers' conceptions and practice of teaching, and it identifies three approaches to understanding such effects, as found in the literature.
Wang, J., Odell, S. J., & Schwille, S. A. (2008). Effects of teacher induction on beginning teachers' teaching: A critical review of the literature. Journal of teacher education, 59(2), 132-152.
This report synthesizes what research says works in improving teacher skills and knowledge, what nations that outperform the United States in education are doing, and provides an analysis of newly available data from the federal Schools and Staffing Survey and other sources to indicate where the nation stands in building the capacity of educators to help students reach high standards. It includes newly analyzed data from the federal Schools and Staffing Survey and other data sources.
Wei, R. C., Darling-Hammond, L., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional Learning in the Learning Profession: A Status Report on Teacher Development in the US and Abroad. Technical Report. National Staff Development Council.
Wenglinsky, H. (2002). How schools matter: The link between teacher classroom practices and student academic performance. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10(12).
Studies of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction programs with special education students
were examined in a meta-analysis comparison. To be included, the outcomes had to be
compared with outcomes for some other treatment to which students were assigned prior to
any interventions. Not one of 25 studies showed results favoring the comparison groups.
Fifty-three percent of the outcomes significantly favored DI with an average magnitude of
effect of. 84 standard deviation units. The effects were not restricted to a particular handicapping condition, age group or skill area.
White, W. A. T. (1988). A meta-analysis of the effects of direct instruction in special education. Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 364–374.
This book is a practical resource that educators from regular and special classrooms can use with children of any age who exhibit behavioral problems.
Wilber, M. M. J. (1993). The Tough Kid Book: Practical Classroom Management Strategies by Ginger Rhode, William R. Jenson, and H. Kenton Reavis. Behavioral Disorders, 19(1), 79.
Effective feedback from cooperating teachers is a critical component of a successful student teaching experience. Unfortunately, few cooperating teachers are trained to provide specific feedback to their student teachers, and the lack of such communication is one of the most commonly reported problems among field experience students.
Wilkins‐Canter, E. A. (1997). The nature and effectiveness of feedback given by cooperating teachers to student teachers. The Teacher Educator, 32(4), 235-249.
For many decades, teacher educators were divided into two camps: those who favored whole language, characterized by the idea that reading is a natural process gained through exposure to authentic texts, and those who believed in systematic phonics instruction, which is the explicit teaching of sound-letter relationships.
Will, M. (2019). Will the science of reading catch on in teacher prep. Education Week.
Providing alternative routes to teacher certification is an approach to recruit teachers. A definition of alternative teacher certification is provided, followed by a summary of the research on this strategy, state policy examples and considerations for policymakers.
Woods, J. R. (2016). Mitigating teacher shortages: Alternative teacher certification. Education Commission of the States, 1-7.
Four groups of preservice teachers participating in student teaching seminars were randomly assigned to one of three conditions to test the effectiveness of brief training in time-management techniques.
Woolfolk, A. E., & Woolfolk, R. L. (1986). Time management: An experimental investigation. Journal of school Psychology, 24(3), 267-275.
The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine and document developmental concerns of participants in a paired peer placement peer coaching program. Research participants were 26 elementary education majors who were randomly paired for their first teaching experience. Data were collected from students' observations, feedback from each other, and participants' reflections on their teaching experiences.
Wynn, M., & Kromrey, J. (2000). Paired peer placement with peer coaching to enhance prospective teachers' professional growth in early field experience. Action in Teacher Education, 22(sup2), 73-83.
This study compares the effect size and return on investment for rapid assessment, between, increased spending, voucher programs, charter schools, and increased accountability.
Yeh, S. S. (2007). The cost-effectiveness of five policies for improving student achievement. American Journal of Evaluation, 28(4), 416-436.
This policy brief surveys historical and contemporary trends in teacher preparation, and explores what is known about the quality of five of the most prominent independent teacher education programs in the U.S., including their impact on teacher quality and student learning. The author's analysis demonstrates that claims regarding the success of such programs are not substantiated by peer-reviewed research and program evaluations.
Zeichner, K. (2016). Independent Teacher Education Programs: Apocryphal Claims, Illusory Evi-dence. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/teacher-education
This paper analyzes the research base on recruiting, preparing, and retaining good teachers being implemented in U.S. teacher education.
Zeichner, K. M. (2003). The adequacies and inadequacies of three current strategies to recruit, prepare, and retain the best teachers for all students. Teachers college record, 105(3), 490-519.
This report commissioned by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), offers recommendations for improving teacher preparation programs
Zimpher, N. et al., (2010). Transforming Teacher Education Through Clinical Practice: A National Strategy to Prepare Effective Teachers: Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Clinical Preparation and Partnerships for Improved Student Learning. Commissioned by National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education.