The fact that well-qualified teachers are inequitably distributed to students in the United
States has received growing public attention. By every measure of qualifications—
certification, subject matter background, pedagogical training, selectivity of college attended,
test scores, or experience—less-qualified teachers tend to be found in schools serving
greater numbers of low-income and minority students.
Adamson, F., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2011). Speaking of Salaries: What It Will Take to Get Qualified, Effective Teachers in All Communities. Center for American Progress.
Environmental features of elementary school classrooms are examined in relation to distraction and privacy. Teachers' adjustments of their activities to make their settings less distracting are also explored.
Ahrentzen, S., & Evans, G. W. (1984). Distraction, privacy, and classroom design. Environment and Behavior, 16(4), 437-454.
The debate over the effects of the use of extrinsic reinforcement in classrooms, businesses, and societal settings has been occurring for over 30 years. This article examines the debate with an emphasis on data-based findings. The extrinsic/intrinsic dichotomy is explored along with seminal studies in both the cognitive and behavioral literature.
Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practice. School Psychology Review, 33(3), 344-362.
A multiple baseline design across participants was used to determine how teacher greetings affected on‐task behavior of 3 middle school students with problem behaviors.
Allday, R. A., & Pakurar, K. (2007). Effects of teacher greetings on student on-task behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(2), 317–320. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2007.86-06
To examine the evidence base of this strategy, the authors applied the Council for Exceptional Children’s (CEC) Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education to the body of research exploring the impact of active supervision with Pre-K–12 students in traditional school settings. This systematic literature review identified seven peer-reviewed, single-case design, treatment-outcome studies meeting inclusion criteria.
Allen, G. E., Common, E. A., Germer, K. A., Lane, K. L., Buckman, M. M., Oakes, W. P., & Menzies, H. M. (2020). A systematic review of the evidence base for active supervision in Pre-K–12 settings. Behavioral Disorders, 45(3), 167–182. https://doi.org/10.1177/0198742919837646
The purpose of this review of effective practices is to compare what information teachers are being given either in their preservice coursework or in-service training via textbooks and practitioner-oriented articles with actual empirical research that used classroom rules as an independent variable.
Alter, P., & Haydon, T. (2017). Characteristics of effective classroom rules: A review of the literature. Teacher Education and Special Education, 40(2), 114–127. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Todd_Haydon/publication/315628091_Characteristics_of_Effective_Classroom_Rules_A_Review_of_the_Literature/links/59c4f704a6fdccc719149d6e/Characteristics-of-Effective-Classroom-Rules-A-Review-of-the-Literature.pdf
17 underachieving 6th graders were observed under 4 conditions: sitting at tables, sitting in rows, sitting at tables again, sitting in rows again. The dependent variable was study behavior.
Axelrod, S., Hall, R. V., & Tams, A. (1979). Comparison of two common classroom seating arrangements. Academic Therapy, 15(1), 29–36. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232578625_Comparison_of_Two_Common_Classroom_Seating_Arrangements
This Guide seeks to provide assistance to educational practitioners in evaluating whether an educational intervention is backed by rigorous evidence of effectiveness, and in implementing evidence-based interventions in their schools or classrooms.
Baron, J. (2004). Identifying and Implementing Education Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide. Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 26, 40-54.
The present study investigated the effects of a classroom behavior management technique based on reinforcers natural to the classroom, other than teacher attention.
Barrish, H. H., Saunders, M., & Wolf, M. M. (1969). Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom 1. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 2(2), 119-124.
The authors investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose.
Bicard, D. F., Ervin, A., Bicard, S. C., & Baylot-Casey, L. (2012). Differential effects of seating arrangements on disruptive behavior of fifth grade students during independent seatwork. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45(2), 407–411. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2012.45-407
This policy brief lays out five components of a vision for the future and identifies opportunities to support teacher education reform. Examples of promising developments are also addressed that involve full-scale program redesign featuring collaboration across general and special education.
Blanton, L. P., Pugach, M. C., & Florian, L. (2011). Preparing general education teachers to improve outcomes for students with disabilities. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education; National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.ncld.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/aacte_ncld_recommendation.pdf
This study examined the control exerted by different types of rules on the behavior of preschool children.
Braam, C., & Malott, R.W. (1990). “I’ll do it when the snow melts”: The effects of deadlines and delayed outcomes on rule-governed behavior in preschool children. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 8(1), 67–76. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03392848
This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" (third edition), reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K-12 classrooms during 1973-83, highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts.
Brophy, J., & Good, T. L. (1984). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. Occasional Paper No. 73.
The attrition of both new and experienced teachers is a great challenge for schools and
school administrators throughout the United States, particularly in large urban districts.
Because of the importance of this issue, there is a large empirical literature that investigates
why teachers quit and how they might be better induced to stay.
Buckley, J., Schneider, M., & Shang, Y. (2004). The Effects of School Facility Quality on Teacher Retention in Urban School Districts. National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
The authors evaluating effects of a school's implementation of check-in/check-out with two typically developing students in the school.
Campbell, A., & Anderson, C. M. (2008). Enhancing effects of check-in/check-out with function-based support. Behavioral Disorders, 33(4), 233-245.
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) assesses teaching practice based on videos and essays submitted by teachers. They compared the performance of classrooms of elementary students in Los Angeles randomly assigned to NBPTS applicants and to comparison teachers.
Cantrell, S., Fullerton, J., Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). National board certification and teacher effectiveness: Evidence from a random assignment experiment (No. w14608). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Class size is one variable in American education that research confirms has a positive influence student learning and was then taken to scale across the nation. Unfortunately, the results when applied at scale have not achieved the results expected in the initial studies.
Chingos, M. M., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2011). Class size: what research says and what it means for state policy. Brookings Institute. May, 11.
Collier-Meek, M. A., Johnson, A. H., & Farrell, A. F. (2018). Development and initial evaluation of the measure of active supervision and interaction. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 43(4), 212-226. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534508417737516
Investigated the effect of a school-wide intervention plan, consisting of pre-correction and active supervision strategies, on the social behavior of elementary students in major transition settings.
Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good, R. H., & Lee, Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4), 344–363. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0088967
The purpose of this study was to conduct an experimental investigation of the Positive Greetings at the Door (PGD) strategy to improve middle school students’ classroom behavior.
Cook, C. R., Fiat, A., Larson, M., Daikos, C., Slemrod, T., Holland, E. A., Thayer, A. J., & Renshaw, T. (2018). Positive greetings at the door: Evaluation of a low-cost, high-yield proactive classroom management strategy. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20(3), 149–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300717753831
This paper examines data on 39 charter schools and correlates these data with school effectiveness. We find that class size, per-pupil expenditure, teacher certification, and teacher training—are not correlated with school effectiveness. In stark contrast, we show that frequent teacher feedback, the use of data to guide instruction, high-dosage tutoring, increased instructional time, and high expectations—explains approximately 45 percent of the variation in school effectiveness.
Dobbie, W., & Fryer Jr, R. G. (2013). Getting beneath the veil of effective schools: Evidence from New York City. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5(4), 28-60.
The article reports the results of a study that explores the effects of typical
classroom noise on the performance of primary school children on a series of literacy and
Dockrell, J. E., & Shield, B. M. (2006). Acoustical barriers in classrooms: The impact of noise on performance in the classroom. British Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 509–525.
Patterned after family meetings in her own home, teacher Donna Styles established a format for class meetings that enabled her students to share their thoughts and solve classroom issues on their own.
Education World. Class Meetings: A Democratic Approach to Classroom Management. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/profdev/profdev012.shtml
Advice and opinions about classroom arrangements and seating assignments abound -- and Education World explores the possibilities. Included: Tips from Fred Jones on how to get the most out of classroom arrangements.
Education World. Do Seating Arrangements and Assignments = Classroom Management?. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr330.shtml
Teachers at two elementary schools in Baltimore County, Maryland, find that students jump to attention when the teachers use sound systems in their classrooms. The microphones boost their voices over background noises and help prevent "teacher-voice" strain. Included: Tips on using sound systems in classrooms.
Education World. Microphone-Toting Teachers Grab Students' Attention. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/issues/issues242.shtml
1 quick tip to help make managing your classroom a breeze! Included are tips for getting to know your students, communicating with parents, getting your day off to a good start, and much more!
Education World. The Secret's in the Little Things: Simple Tips for Successful Teachers. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/lesson134.shtml
Meet Harry K. Wong, the author of The First Days of School: How to Be an Effective Teacher, and learn the secret to your success in the classroom!
Education World. Harry K. Wong And the Real Meaning Of Classroom Management. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/chat/chat008.shtml
Education World has posted numerous articles containing general classroom management tips as well as specific classroom management techniques. This articles provides list of sources about classroom management.
Education World. Strategy of the week: Classroom management. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/strategy/strategy047.shtml
A former teacher, Dr. Jane Bluestein turned her pages of tips for teachers about classroom management and organization into a book and then a business. She works with educators seeking new ways to improve their teaching and interactions. Included: Tips for improving student behavior and school climate.
Education World. A "Nuts and Bolts" Approach To Classroom Successes. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/chat/chat102.shtml
From time to time, Education World updates and reposts a previously published article that we think might be of interest to administrators. We hope you find this recently updated article to be of value.
Education World. Classroom Management: Principals Help Teachers Develop Essential Skills. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_admin/admin/admin299.shtml
Hallway conferences. Pasta discipline. Buddy rooms. Bell work. Those and six other ideas for taming temper tantrums—and other classroom disruptions—are the focus of this Education World story! Included: An opportunity for all teachers to share the classroom management techniques that work for them!
Education World. Classroom Management: Ten Teacher-Tested Tips. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr261.shtml
Teachers of special subjects such as music, art and physical education need to give careful consideration to discipline in their classroom. If you're afraid that structure will stifle creativity, you need to reconsider that notion. Structure and limits are important educational tools that give rise to a climate in which creativity can emerge.
Education World. Dr. Ken Shore's Classroom Problem Solver Creativity Flourishes In the Structured Classroom. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/shore/shore034.shtml
The editors at Education World offer 20 successful classroom management strategies to get your year off to a great start and keep your classroom running smoothly throughout the entire year.
Education World. Teachers, Start Your Engines: Management Tips from the Pit Crew. Retrieved from: https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/profdev003.shtml
Education World introduces you to a few of the best "teacher tips" sites on the Web. In these sites you'll find hundreds of practical tips -- tried and tested tips from teachers willing to share.
Education World. TONS of Tips! -- Five Great 'Teacher Tips' Sites on the Web. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr156.shtml
How can you avoid making that technique your own and create a "climate for learning"? This week, Education World looks to the experts -- teachers who've "been there, done that" and found a better way -- for answers.
Education World. Creating a climate for learning. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr155.shtml
This week, educator Arnold Pulda reflects on how about with cancer precipitated his transition from a "drill sergeant" who barked orders at his students to a quieter, gentler Dr. Pulda. Included: An opportunity to share your most effective classroom management strategies!
Education World. I Found My "Teacher Voice" and Transformed My Classroom. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/voice/voice013.shtml
This study used a single-subject alternating treatment design, with a baseline phase, to explore the relationship between the presence (or absence) of prompting and off-task behavior of two male middle school students in general education.
Faul, A., Stepensky, K., & Simonsen, B. (2012). Effects of prompting appropriate behavior on the off-task behavior of two middle school students. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 14(1), 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300711410702
Children were more distracted by the visual environment, spent more time off task, and demonstrated smaller learning gains when the walls were highly decorated than when the decorations were removed.
Fisher, A. V., Godwin, K. E., & Seltman, H. (2014). Visual environment, attention allocation, and learning in young children: When too much of a good thing may be bad. Psychological Science, 25(7), 1326–1370. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614533801
The purpose of this study was to examine how the implementation of a recess intervention within the context of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SwPBS), a systemwide, team-driven, data-based decision-making continuum of support, affected disruptive student behavior and teacher supervision on the playground in an urban elementary school
Franzen, K., & Kamps, D. (2008). The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(3), 150-161.
The primary focus of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a classwide peer
tutoring program in reading for three learner types: low achievers with and without
disabilities and average achievers.
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., & Simmons, D. C. (1997). Peer-assisted learning strategies: Making classrooms more responsive to diversity. American Educational Research Journal, 34(1), 174-206.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of workgroup size and structure during collaborative work on complex tasks.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Kazdan, S., Karns, K., Calhoon, M. B., Hamlett, C. L., & Hewlett, S. (2000). Effects of workgroup structure and size on student productivity during collaborative work on complex tasks. The Elementary School Journal, 100(3), 183-212.
Research begun in the 1960s provided the impetus for teacher educators to urge classroom teachers to establish classroom rules, deliver high rates of verbal/nonverbal praise, and, whenever possible, to ignore minor student provocations. The research also discuss several newer strategies that warrant attention.
Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(4), 195-205.
This paper examines general education literature reviews for the past decade and the special education literature related to: (a) the school and classroom conditions under which new special education teachers must perform and (b) induction for special education teachers.
Griffin, C., Winn, J., Otis-Wilburn, A., & Kilgore, K. (2003). New teacher induction in special education: Review of the literature. The Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education.
This overview summarizes research on the effects of the physical classroom environment on student behavior.
Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Structured Environment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-structured-environments
This overview describes the definitions and importance of active supervision. This overview also provides research and implementations of this strategy.
Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-active-supervision
The aim of this study was to use eye-tracking techniques to explore the impact of visual displays on attention and learning for children.
Hanley, M., Khairat, M., Taylor, K., Wilson, R., Cole-Fletcher, R., & Riby, D. M. (2017). Classroom displays—attraction or distraction? Evidence of impact on attention and learning from children with and without autism. Developmental Psychology, 53(7), 1265–1275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000271
This book provides a complete guide to implementing a wide range of problem-solving assessment methods: functional behavioral assessment, interviews, classroom observations, curriculum-based measurement, rating scales, and cognitive instruments.
Harrison, P. L. (2012). Assessment for intervention: A problem-solving approach. Guilford Press.
Large‐scale research programmes in primary schools have frequently identified a mismatch between classroom seating arrangements and the nature of pupils’ tasks. While children are typically seated in groups, their assigned tasks are generally individual.
Hastings, N., & Schwieso, J. (1995). Tasks and tables: The effects of seating arrangements on task engagement in primary classrooms. Educational Research, 37(3), 279–291.
This study is a replication of a study that investigated the combination of active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing. The purpose of the study was to decrease student problem behavior, reduce transition time, and support maintenance of the intervention in the setting.
Haydon, T. & Kroeger, S. D. (2016). Active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing: A high school case study on classroom behavior. Preventing School Failure, 60(1), 70–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988X.2014.977213
Focusing on elementary classrooms, chapters include: Students' Feelings about School; Involvement and Withdrawal in the Classroom; Teachers Views; The Need for New Perspectives.
Jackson, P. W. (1990). Life in classrooms. Teachers College Press.
The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of active supervision on the hallway behavior (i.e., tardies) of students in a rural high school using a multiple baseline across instructional periods
Johnson-Gros, K. N., Lyons, E. A., & Griffin, J. R. (2008). Active supervision: An intervention to reduce high school tardiness. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(1), 39–53. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.0.0012
Managing Classroom Behavior summarizes principles of good instruction, the acting-out cycle, and how to work with students, other teachers, and parents.
Kauffman, J. M., Mostert, M. P., & Hallahan, D. P. (1993). Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach. New York: Allyn and Bacon.
The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of classroom behavior management used by teachers, tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985–1986 school year. This article reports on impact to age 19–21.
Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., ... & Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and alcohol dependence, 95, S5-S28.
A meta‐analysis of the relationship between science instruction and student engagement was performed. The 16 studies represented a total of 4518 students and 376 teachers from the United States and Australia.
Kumar, D. D. (1991). A Meta‐analysis of the Relationship between Science Instruction and Student Engagement. Educational Review, 43(1), 49-61.
Peer assessment has become a popular education intervention. A review of the literature finds few studies on the impact of Peer Review on student outcomes. This meta-analysis examines the effect sizes found in 58 studies.
Li, H., Xiong, Y., Hunter, C. V., Guo, X., & Tywoniw, R. (2020). Does peer assessment promote student learning? A meta-analysis. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(2), 193-211.
This experiment examined effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children's reading speed, reading comprehension, basic mathematics, and mathematical reasoning.
Ljung, R., Sorqvist, P., & Hygge, S. (2009). Effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children’s reading and mathematical performance. Noise and Health, 11(45), 194–198. https://doi.org/10.4103/1463-1741.56212
The purpose of this study was to provide an example of a group contingency classwide intervention called Anchor the Boat that operationally defined behavioral expectations, taught those expectations using teacher-directed instruction and role playing, and reinforced students when they met the behavioral criteria.
Lohrmann, S. & Talerico, J. (2004). Anchor the boat: A classwide intervention to reduce problem behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 6(2), 113–120. https://doi.org/10.1177/10983007040060020601
This study examined the types and frequency of schools’ social expectations and behavioral indicators as they were written into their behavior matrices
Lynass, L., Tsai, S. F., Richman, T. D., & Cheney, D. (2012). Social expectations and behavioral indicators in school-wide positive behavioral supports: A national study of behavioral matrices. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(3), 153–161. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300711412076
This is a study of the effects on classroom behavior of Rules, Ignoring Inappropriate Behaviors, and showing Approval for Appropriate Behavior.
Madsen Jr, C. H., Becker, W. C., & Thomas, D. R. (1968). Rules, praise, and ignoring: Elements of elementary classroom control. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(2), 139.
This study extended prior research into teacher-student relationships by exploring the relative balance of negative and positive teacher-student relationships in high school students' academic lives (in each of English,
mathematics, science, history, and geography subjects).
Martin, A. J., & Collie, R. J. (2019). Teacher–student relationships and students’ engagement in high school: Does the number of negative and positive relationships with teachers matter? Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(5), 861–876.
This study investigated the relationship between classroom seating arrangements and the
question-asking of fourth-graders.
Marx, A., Fuhrer, U., & Hartig, T. (1999). Effects of classroom seating arrangements on children’s question-asking. Learning Environments Research, 2(3), 249–263.
A three-phase process helps build strong teacher-student bonds, which can reduce disruptive behavior.
Marzano, R. J., & Marzano, J. S. (2003). The key to classroom management. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/article/key-effective-classroom-management
Extending adult findings, this study assessed whether moderate multi-talker noise promotes children’s creativity and whether this is modulated by children’s age, working memory, and selective attention.
Massonnié, J., Rogers, C. J., Mareschal, D., & Kirkham, N. Z. (2019). Is classroom noise always bad for children? The contribution of age and selective attention to creative performance in noise. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00381
This study investigates the potential role of one aspect of the classroom's physical environment, personalization displays, on children's self-esteem.
Maxwell, L. E., & Chmielewski, E. J. (2008). Environmental personalization and elementary school children’s self-esteem. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(2), 143–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2007.10.009
This paper examines how ambient noise, an important environmental variable, can affect creativity.
Mehta, R., Zhu, R. J., and Cheema, A. (2012). Is noise always bad? Exploring the effects of ambient noise on creative cognition. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(4), 784–799. https://doi.org/10.1086/665048
This article describes a step-by-step process for using active supervision, with teaching tips to assist with successful implementation. Throughout the article we offer lessons from the field featuring the perspectives of practitioners who have used active supervision in classrooms that include students with challenging behavior.
Menzies, H. M., Lane, K. L., Oakes, W. P., Ruth, K., Cantwell, E. D., & Smith-Menzies, L. (2018). Active supervision: An effective, efficient, low-intensity strategy to support student success. Beyond Behavior, 27(3), 153–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/1074295618799343
Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of a brief prompting intervention (verbal and visual reminder of classroom rules) to improve classroom behavior for an elementary student during small-group reading instruction in a special education classroom (Study 1) and for three high school students with mild disabilities in an inclusive general education classroom (Study 2).
Moore, T. C., Alpers, A. J., Rhyne, R., Coleman, M. B., Gordon, J. R., Daniels, S., … Park, Y. (2019). Brief prompting to improve classroom behavior: A first-pass intervention option. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 21(1), 30–41. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300718774881
This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS).
Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., & Stormont, M. (2013). Classroom-level positive behavior supports in schools implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying areas for enhancement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(1),39–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300712459079
A meta-analytic approach was used to investigate the associations between affective qualities of teacher–student relationships (TSRs) and students’ school engagement and achievement.
Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81(4), 493–592. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654311421793
The present study assessed the relative strength of daily rule review and rehearsal on student behavior when such procedures were added to a token economy. The token program was designed to increase appropriate classroom behaviors of disruptive boys attending a multi categorical resource room.
Rosenberg, M. S. (1986). Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students. Behavioral Disorders, 11(4), 239-248.
Observed 8 Ss in each of 2 5th-grade, 2 5th–6th grade, and 2 6th-grade classrooms, using a time-sampling method, to determine the effect of desk arrangements.
Rosenfield, P., Lambert, N. M., & Black, A. (1985). Desk arrangement effects on pupil classroom behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(1), 101–108.
The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System determines the effectiveness of school systems, schools, and teachers based on student academic growth over time. Research conducted utilizing data from the TVAAS database has shown that race, socioeconomic level, class size, and classroom heterogeneity are poor predictors of student academic growth. Rather, the effectiveness of the teacher is the major determinant of student academic progress.
Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement.
This study evaluates the effect of implementation planning, a treatment integrity promotion strategy that includes detailed logistical planning and barrier identification adapted from an adult behavior change theory from heath psychology (i.e., the Health Action Process Approach).
Sanetti, L. M. H., Collier-Meek, M. A., Long, A. C. J., Kim, J., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2014). Using implementation planning to increase teachers’ adherence to quality behavior support plans. Psychology in the Schools, 51(8), 879–895. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21787
Examined the effects of free vs integrated seating arrangements with 5 junior high Native American students in a class composed of 24 students.
Schmidt, R. E., Stewart, J. P., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1987). Effects of two classroom seating arrangements on classroom participation and academic responding with Native American junior high school students. Techniques, 3(3), 172–180. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1988-27980-001
This study examined the effects of active supervision on the moderate to vigorous physical
activity (MVPA) levels of middle school students during fitness instruction.
Schuldheisz, J. M., & van der Mars, H. (2001). Active supervision and students’ physical activity in middle school physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 21(1), 75–90.
This study evaluated the effects of an elementary physical education curriculum in which development of positive social skills, including leadership and conflict‐resolution behaviors, was the primary focus
Sharpe, T., Brown, M., & Crider, K. (1995). The effects of a sportsmanship curriculum intervention on generalized positive social behaviors of urban elementary school students. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(4), 401-416.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1279847/pdf/jaba00006-0016.pdf
This book describes the Time-out Grid, a heuristic tool for analyzing and solving problems associated with implementing time-out in the classroom.
Shriver, M. D., & Allen, K. D. (1996). The time-out grid: A guide to effective discipline. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(1), 67.
This Campbell systematic review examines the impact of class size on academic achievement. The review summarises findings from 148 reports from 41 countries. Ten studies were included in the meta‐analysis.
Slavin, R. E., Lake, C., Inns, A., Baye, A., Dachet, D., & Haslam, J. (2019). A Quantitative Synthesis of Research on Writing Approaches in Grades 2 to 12. Best Evidence Encyclopedia.
In this book the author describes six teaching myths that prevent reform in education.
Snider, V. (2006). Myths and Misconceptions about Teaching: What Really Happens in the Classroom. Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, 4501 Forbes Blvd., Suite 200, Lanham, MD 20706.
Data through 1995 are for institutions of higher education, while later data are for degree-granting institutions. Degree-granting institutions grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. The degree-granting classification is very similar to the earlier higher education classification, but it includes more 2-year colleges and excludes a few higher education institutions that did not grant degrees. Some data have been revised from previously published figures
Snyder, T., de Brey, C., & Dillow, S. A. (2018). Total Fall Enrollment in Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions, by Level and Control of Institution and Race/Ethnicity of Student: Selected Years, 1976 Through 2028. Table, 306, 2017-094.
This analysis examined the cost effectiveness of research from Stuart Yeh on common sturctural interventions in education. Additionally, The Wing Institute analyzes class-size reduction using Yeh's methods.
States, J. (2009). How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis? Retrieved from how-does-class-size.
The present research seeks to extend the previous studies to an even younger age group and focus on proximal colorfulness. With a sample of 15 pre-schoolers (3–4 years old) we examined whether a colorful play surface compared to a non-colorful (white) play surface would affect engagement in developmentally appropriate structured play.
Stern-Ellran, K., Zilcha-Mano, S., Sebba, R., & Binnun, N. L. (2016). Disruptive effects of colorful vs. non-colorful play area on structured play: A pilot study with preschoolers. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01661
The present study replicates and extends previous research on stimulus control by arranging teacher attention for preschooler's mands into a multiple schedule and conducting a component analysis of the effects of schedule‐correlated stimuli and contingency‐specifying stimuli (rules) on the development of discriminated manding.
Tiger, J. H., & Hanley, G. P. (2004). Developing stimulus control of preschooler mands: An analysis of schedule-correlated and contingency-specifying stimuli. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(4), 517–521. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2004.37-517
This review describes the game and its numerous variations and adaptations, as well as empirical findings specific to the variety of target behaviors and participants to which it has been applied.
Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969–2002. Behavior Modification, 30(2), 225–253. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445503261165
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a class-wide multiple schedule on differentiated rates of student recruitment of teacher attention in two public elementary classrooms.
Torelli, J. N., Lloyd, B. P., Diekman, C. A., & Wehby, J. H. (2017). Teaching stimulus control via class-wide multiple schedules of reinforcement in public elementary school classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19(1), 14–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300716632878
This is a detailed guide on managing classroom behavior to maximize student learning.
Trophy Central. Managing Classroom Behavior to Maximize Student Learning. Retrieved from https://www.trophycentral.com/classroom-management.html
To address situations where consensus is difficult to achieve, this article outlines a process that assesses and summarizes the views of all school-based staff and then facilitates discussions based on the aggregated data.
Valenti, M. W., & Kerr, M. M. (2015). Addressing individual perspectives in the development of schoolwide rules: A data-informed process. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(4), 245–253. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300714544405
The present experiment examined the effects on math performance of explicitly timing student for short intervals
Van Houten, R., & Thompson, C. (1976). The effects of explicit timing on math performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9(2), 227–230. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1976.9-227
This book offers a concise overview of the features of RTI, instruction for its implementation, and post-implementation guidelines for assessing whether a program has been effective.
VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Burns, M. K. (2010). Essentials of response to intervention (Vol. 79). John Wiley & Sons.
The purpose of the current study was to assess the efficacy of a multiple schedule plus rules indicative of the availability of attention for hand raises during circle time in typical preschool classrooms
Vargo, K. K., Heal, N. A., Epperley, K., & Kooistra, E. (2014). The effects of a multiple schedule plus rules on hand raising during circle time in preschool classrooms. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(3), 326–343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-014-9199-3
A major goal of this article (and of our much larger book) is to communicate and adapt this knowledge base for effective use by educators in coping with the rising tide of antisocial students populating today's schools.
Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2003). Heading off disruptive behavior: How early intervention can reduce defiant behavior—and win back teaching time. American Educator, 26(4), 6-45.
Children were observed daily in four two week phases: seated around tables, then in rows, again around tables, and finally again in rows. Percentage on‐task behaviour was recorded along with rate of pupil disruption and rates of teacher approval and disapproval.
Wheldall, K., & Lam, Y. Y. (1987). Rows versus tables II: The effects of two classroom seating arrangements on classroom disruption rate, on-task behavior, and teacher behavior in three special school classes. Educational Psychology, 7(4), 303–312. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341870070405
The effect of different classroom seating arrangements on children's on‐task behaviour was examined by observations of two top junior classes of ten‐ to eleven‐year‐old children.
Wheldall, K., Morris, M., Vaughan, P., & Ng, Y. Y. (1981). Rows versus tables: An example of the use of behavioral ecology in two classes of eleven-year-old children. Educational Psychology, 1(2), 171–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341810010206
This book is a practical resource that educators from regular and special classrooms can use with children of any age who exhibit behavioral problems.
Wilber, M. M. J. (1993). The Tough Kid Book: Practical Classroom Management Strategies by Ginger Rhode, William R. Jenson, and H. Kenton Reavis. Behavioral Disorders, 19(1), 79.
This report examines students’ sense of belonging and participation at school, two of the most important measures of student engagement.
Willms, J. D. (2003). Student engagement at school: A sense of belonging and participation. Results from PISA 2000. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Small class size is often used as an indicator of quality in higher education, and some research suggests that instructors in smaller classes more often use activities that are learner-centered and that involve physical and mental activity on the part of learners, such as group work, simulations, and case studies. However, we have little information on how instructors change their pedagogical practice when they teach in large- versus small-class settings.
Wright, M. C., Bergom, I., & Bartholomew, T. (2019). Decreased class size, increased active learning? Intended and enacted teaching strategies in smaller classes. Active Learning in Higher Education, 20(1), 51-62.