The U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology funded this study of international policy and programmes supporting information and communications technologies (ICTs) in education across 21 countries at primary and secondary levels. The final report includes an overview of international programmes and priorities as well as individual reports for each of the 21 countries. Findings suggest focusing on data collections at international level in order to compare the type and impact of ICT policies and programmes in education as well as improving the understanding of ICT in education best practices.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, International Experiences with Educational Technology: Final Report, Washington, D.C., 2011.
This paper is based on the simple idea that students’ educational achievement is affected by the effort put in by those participating in the education process: schools, parents, and, of course, the students themselves.
DeFraja, G., Oliveira, T., & Zanchi, L. (2010). Must try harder: Evaluating the role of effort in educational attainment. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 92(3), 577–597. Retrieved from https://art.torvergata.it/retrieve/handle/2108/55644/108602/De%20Fraja%20Zanch%20Oliveira%20REStats%202010.pdf
This study explored student achievement in a K-12, full-time, online learning environment and the effect parents had on student success.
Curtis, H. & Werth, L. (2015). Fostering student success and engagement in a K–12 online school. Journal of Online Learning Research, 1(2), 163–190. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1148836.pdf
This paper examines the factors affecting the successful implementation of a laptop program, classroom uses of laptops and the support required for schools from current research almost exclusively from the United States.
State of NSW, Department of Education and Training, Curriculum K-12 Directorate. (2009, March). One-to-one computing: literature review. Retrieved from http://www.dec.nsw.gov.au/detresources/about-us/how-we-operate/national-partnerships/digital-education-revolution/rrql/support/lit_review.pdf
The U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology published this brief that summarizes research on the role of online communities of practice and social networks in supporting the professional performance of educators.
U.S. Department of Education. (2014, November). The Future Ready District: Professional Learning Through Online Communities of Practice and Social Networks to Drive Continuous Improvement. Retrieved from http://tech.ed.gov/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Section7-FutureReadyDistrictBrief-Final.pdf.
The U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Educational Technology, in partnership with the American Institutes for Research (AIR), developed a research-based synthesis defining a set of policies and practices implemented by successful Future Ready district leaders. The resulting rubric provides a basis for personalized professional learning to expand the capacity of district superintendents to effectively transition to digital learning.
U.S. Department of Education. (2015, December). Characteristics of Future Ready Leadership A Research Synthesis. Retrieved from http://tech.ed.gov/files/2015/12/Characteristics-of-Future-Ready-Leadership.pdf.
This essay suggests potential research avenues in the area of technology-mediated learning. It seeks to motivate greater depth of research into the question of how technology enhances learning.
Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. (2001). Research commentary: Technology-mediated learning—a call for greater depth and breadth of research. Information Systems Research, 12(1), 1–10. https://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/abs/10.1287/isre.22.214.171.12420
This article explores the theoretical underpinnings surrounding quality teaching in online settings as well as practical considerations for what teachers should know and be able to do in online environments.
Archambault, L., DeBruler, K., & Freidhoff, J. (2014). K-12 online and blended teacher licensure: Striking a balance between policy and preparedness. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 22(1), 83-106. Retrieved from
https://www.academia.edu/6459023/K-12_Online_ and_blended _Teacher_licensure_Striking_a_balance_between_Policy_ and_Preparedness
This study evaluated the effectiveness of the simSchool (v.1) simulation as a tool for preparing student teachers for actual classroom teaching. Twenty-two student teachers used the simulation for a practice session and two test sessions; data included objective performance statistics generated by the simulation program, self-rated performance data, and qualitative opinions and perceptions from participants.
Badiee, F., & Kaufman, D. (2014). Effectiveness of an online simulation for teacher education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 22(2), 167-186.
The report provides foundational knowledge needed to examine and understand the potential contributions of online learning to educational productivity, including a conceptual framework for understanding the necessary components of rigorous productivity analyses, drawing in particular on cost-effectiveness analysis as an accessible method in education.
Bakia, M., Shear, L., Toyama, Y., & Lasseter, A. (2012). Understanding the implications of online learning for educational productivity. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. https://tech.ed.gov/files/2013/10/implications-online-learning.pdf
In the present educational context, active methodologies and new technologies are aspects that should be included when teaching and learning a subject area. For the education to be successful, classroom management must be considered, since problems may arise and handicap this process.
Barahona Mora, A. (2020). Gamification for classroom management: An implementation using classdojo. Sustainability, 12(22), 9371.
In these pages, we estimate the costs of blendedlearning models and fulltime virtual schools as currently operated in the U.S.
Battaglino, T. B., Haldeman, M., & Laurans, E. (2012). Creating sound policy for digital learning: The costs of online learning. Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute. http://www.edexcellencemedia.net/publications/2012/20120110-the-costs-of-online-learning/20120110-the-costs-of-online-learning.pdf
A report about blended learning programs analyzes the instruction, operational, and financial models of Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) schools. KIPP focuses on blending technology with in-class education to provide small group instruction and to meet the needs of each individual student.
Bernatek, B., Cohen, J., Hanlon, J., & Wilka, M. (2012). Blended learning in practice: Case studies from leading schools, featuring KIPP Empower Academy. Austin, TX: Michael and Susan Dell Foundation. https://www.heartland.org/_template-assets/documents/publications/kipp.pdf
The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of familial participation in student's achievement in K-12 virtual schools.
Black, E. W. (2009). An evaluation of familial involvements’ influence on student achievement in K–12 virtual schooling [Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville]. University of Florida Digital Collections.https://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024208/00001
Researchers have hypothesized that parental engagement is even more critical when online students learn from home, but few researchers have examined parents’ engagement behavior—especially parents of adolescent learners. In this case study, we addressed this gap using parent and student interviews at a full-time online charter school.
Borup, J., Stevens, M. A., & Hasler Waters, L. (2015). Parent and student perceptions of parent engagement at a cyber charter high school. Online Learning, 19(5), 69–91. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1085792.pdf
This report summarizes the methodology, measures, and findings of research on the influence on student achievement outcomes of K–12 online and blended face-to-face and online learning programs that offer differentiated learning options.
Brodersen, R. M., & Melluzzo, D. (2017). Summary of research on online and blended learning programs that offer differentiated learning options (REL 2017–228). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Central. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED572935.pdf
This paper explores the theoretical and empirical literature on the impacts of technology on educational outcomes. The literature focuses on two primary contexts in which technology may be used for educational purposes: i) classroom use in schools, and ii) home use by students.
Bulman, G., & Fairlie, R. W. (2015). Technology and education: Computers, software, and the internet. Working Paper 22237. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w22237.pdf
While research has been conducted on parental involvement in K-12 online learning, none of this research relates specifically to the parents of students with disabilities. Thus, researchers developed a survey around the following constructs: parental roles, instruction and assessment, communication and support from the school, and parental challenges.
Burdette, P. J., & Greer, D. L. (2014). Online learning and students with disabilities: Parent perspectives. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 13(2), 67–88. https://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/pdf/13.2.4.pdf
Education Week is learning as it surveys educators across the country about the impact school closures have had on their morale, student engagement, technology skills, and many other factors.
Bushweller, K. (2020, June 2). How COVID-19 is shaping tech use. What that means when schools reopen. Education Week. https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2020/06/03/how-covid-19-is-shaping-tech-use-what.html
The author reviews the economics literature at the intersection between innovation and K-12 education from two different, but related perspectives.
Chatterji, A. (2018). Innovation and American K–12 education. Working Paper 23531. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w23531.pdf
This article briefly describes blending learning definition and models.
Christensen Institute (2020). Blended learning definitions. http://www.christenseninstitute.org/blended-learning-definitions-and-models/
The Clayton Christensen Institute, formerly Innosight Institute, has published three papers describing the rise of K−12 blended learning. This fourth paper is the first to analyze blended learning through the lens of disruptive innovation theory to help people anticipate and plan for the likely effects of blended learning on the classrooms of today and schools of tomorrow.
Christensen, C. M., Horn, M. B., & Staker, H. (2013). Is K–12 blended learning disruptive? An introduction to the theory of hybrids. Christensen Institute. http://www.christenseninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Is-K-12-Blended-Learning-Disruptive.pdf
This study aimed to look into this by asking, “Which features of high quality online professional development were noted by participating educators in a statewide online teacher professional development program?” A survey was used to collect educators’ voices in this FIP professional development (PD) program.
Collins, L. J., & Liang, X. (2015). Examining high quality online teacher professional development: Teachers’ voices. International Journal of Teacher Leadership, 6(1), 18–34. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1137401.pdf
The study compared basic and elaborated corrections within the context of otherwise identical computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs that taught reasoning skills. Twelve learning disabled and 16 remedial high school students were randomly assigned to either the basic-corrections or elaborated-corrections treatment. Criterion-referenced test scores were significantly higher for the elaborated-corrections treatment on both the post and maintenance tests and on the transfer test. Time to complete the program did not differ significantly for the two groups.
Collins, M., Carnine, D., & Gersten, R. (1987). Elaborated corrective feedback and the acquisition of reasoning skills: A study of computer-assisted instruction. Exceptional Children, 54(3), 254-262.
This paper discusses an adapted-Continuous Practice Improvement model, which qualitative findings indicate was effective in facilitating the transfer of creative and innovative teaching approaches from the expert or Resident Teacher’s school to the novice or Visiting Teachers’ classrooms over the duration of the project.
Cowan, P. (2013). The 4I Model for scaffolding the professional development of experienced teachers in the use of virtual learning environments for classroom teaching. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 13(1), 82–98. https://citejournal.org/volume-13/issue-1-13/current-practice/the-4i-model-for-scaffolding-the-professional-development-of-experienced-teachers-in-the-use-of-virtual-learning-environments-for-classroom-teaching/
Reading comprehension is a critical skill for school success. Struggling readers can benefit from computer-assisted instruction that utilizes components of effective instruction (e.g., frequent practice, immediate feedback). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Headsprout Comprehension, a computer-assisted reading program, on the reading comprehension of six elementary students with high-incidence disabilities (i.e., learning disabilities, emotional disturbance, and other health impairment–attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (OHI-ADHD).
Cullen, J. M., Alber-Morgan, S. R., Schnell, S. T., & Wheaton, J. E. (2014). Improving reading skills of students with disabilities using Headsprout comprehension. Remedial and Special Education, 35(6), 356-365.
This mixed-methods study investigates student achievement in the full-time, online learning environment and the effect parents have on student success.
Curtis, H. (2013). A mixed methods study investigating parental involvement and student success in high school online education [Doctoral dissertation, Northwest Nazarene University]. https://nnu.whdl.org/sites/default/files/Curtis%20Final%20Dissertation.pdf
Based on a review of more than seventy recent studies, this brief describes these approaches, particularly as they apply to high school students who have been at risk of failing courses and exit examinations or dropping out due to a range of personal factors and academic factors. The brief then outlines policy strategies that could expand the uses of technology for at-risk high school youth.
Darling-Hammond, L., Zielezinski, M. B., & Goldman, S. (2014). Using technology to support at-risk students’ learning. Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education; Alliance for Excellent Education. https://edpolicy.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/scope-pub-using-technology-report.pdf
Going Virtual! 2010 is a follow-up report to the Going Virtual! Research series started in 2007. The purpose of the series is to describe current trends on the status of professional development for K-12 online teachers, as well as identify the unique needs and challenges faced by these instructors.
Dawley, L., Rice, K., & Hinck, G. (2010). Going Virtual! 2010: The status of professional development and unique needs of K–12 online teachers. Boise, ID: Boise State University. https://aurora-institute.org/wp-content/uploads/goingvirtual3.pdf
The Handbook of Research on K-12 Online and Blended Learning is an edited collection of chapters that sets out to present the current state of research in K-12 online and blended learning.
Dawson, K., & Dana, N. F. (2018a). Mentoring for online teachers. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 261–272). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf
This chapter provides a survey of what is known about professional development for both brick and mortar and online teachers and uses this knowledge as a springboard to suggest policy and research implication of professional development and K-12 online teacher.
Dawson, K., & Dana, N. F. (2018b). Professional development for K–12 online teachers. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 247–260). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf
This article presents a critical review of the transitions that technology integration has made over the years; the amount of resources and funding that has been allocated to immerse school with technology; and the conflicting results presented on effectiveness of using is technology in education.
Delgado, A. J., Wardlow, L., McKnight, K., & O’Malley, K. (2015). Educational technology: A review of the integration, resources, and effectiveness of technology in K–12 classrooms. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 14, 397–416. http://www.jite.org/documents/Vol14/JITEv14ResearchP397-416Delgado1829.pdf
This article offers ideas to improve the quality of inquiry into teacher learning, one of the most critical targets of education reform.
Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualization and measures. Educational Researcher, 38(3), 181–199.
The future of virtual environments is evident in many fields but is just emerging in the field of teacher education. In this article, the authors provide a summary of the evolution of simulation in the field of teacher education and three factors that need to be considered as these environments further develop. The authors provide a specific example of the work at two universities that use a specific virtual environment, TLE TeachLivE™, in teacher education.
Dieker, L. A., Rodriguez, J. A., Lignugaris/Kraft, B., Hynes, M. C., & Hughes, C. E. (2014). The potential of simulated environments in teacher education: Current and future possibilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 37(1), 21-33.
The focus of this project is to create research in teacher education that positively impacts teacher recruitment, preparation and retention in urban environments. The novel approach we are using to attack this problem is that of capturing, analyzing, synthesizing and simulating human interactions in Mixed Reality (part real, part synthetic) environments, thereby creating training/screening settings that are realistic and yet do not put actual children at risk.
Dieker, L., Hynes, M., Stapleton, C., & Hughes, C. (2007). Virtual classrooms: STAR simulator. New Learning Technology SALT, 4, 1-22.
Online, blended, and digital learning in K–12 schools in the United States includes an assortment of schools, programs, tools, and resources. These range from the fully online schools in which students receive their entire education, to the digital platforms and content that mainstream teachers are using to bolster instruction in their physical classrooms.
Digital Learning Collaborative. (2019). Snapshot 2019: A review of K-12 online, blended, and digital learning. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/59381b9a17bffc68bf625df4/t/5df14d464ba53f72845791b2/1576095049441/DLC-KP-Snapshot2019.pdf
The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in school closings for the remainder of the year in 48 of 50 states and a sharp turn toward remote instruction in order to finish the year as best as possible. Understanding best practice in remote instruction and learning will be key as schools look to the future.
Donley, J., Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, (2020). Remote Learning Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-computers.
The authors examine whether social capital created at home and at school has differing effects on child academic achievement. They hypothesize that children derive social capital from both their families and their schools and that capital from each context promotes achievement.
Dufur, M. J., & Parcel, T. L., & Troutman, K. P. (2013). Does capital at home matter more than capital at school? Social capital effects on academic achievement. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 31, 1–21.
The analysis in this report is based on 2019 application data from the FCC’s Schools and Libraries Program (“E-rate”). This data represents the best national source of current information on school district connectivity; specifically, what broadband services schools are buying and how much they are paying for these services
EducationSuperHighway. (2019). 2019 state of the states: The classroom connectivity gap is closed. https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/esh-sots-pdfs/2019%20State%20of%20the%20States.pdf
This review paper synthesizes and discusses experimental evidence on the effectiveness of technology-based approaches in education and outlines areas for future inquiry. While this review focuses on literature from developed countries, it also draws upon extensive research from developing countries.
Escueta, M., Quan, V., Nickow, A. J., & Oreopoulos, P. (2017). Education technology: An evidence-based review.Working Paper 23744. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w23744.pdf
This report grew out of the understanding that it is not enough to know that noncognitive factors matter for learning. Researchers from a range of disciplines have provided evidence that such factors are important to students' grades and long-term educational outcomes.
Farrington, C. A., Roderick, M., Allensworth, E., Nagaoka, J., Keyes, T. S., Johnson, D. W., & Beechum, N. O. (2012). Teaching adolescents to become learners. The role of noncognitive factors in shaping school performance: A critical literature review. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED542543.pdf
Research that claims to focus on students with disabilities in online learning environments should be designed and carried out with particular attention to educational and social outcomes. The Center on Online Learning and Students with Disabilities (COLSD) conducts research in alignment with these goals.
Franklin, T. O., East, T., & Mellard, D.F. (2015). Parent preparation and involvement in their child’s online learning experience: Superintendent Forum Proceedings Series. (Report No. 2). Lawrence, KS: Center on Online Instruction and Students with Disabilities, University of Kansas. http://www.centerononlinelearning.res.ku.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Superintendent_Topic_2_Summary_November2015.pdf
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using computer software to store, graph, and analyze student performance data on teacher efficiency and satisfaction with curriculum-based progress-monitoring procedures.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Hasselbring, T. S. (1987). Using computers with curriculum-based monitoring: Effects on teacher efficiency and satisfaction. Journal of Special Education Technology, 8(4), 14-27.
This study assessed the efficiency of and teacher satisfaction with curriculum-based measurement (CBM) when student performance data are collected by teachers or by computers.
Fuchs, L. S., Hamlett, C. L., Fuchs, D., Stecker, P. M., & Ferguson, C. (1988). Conducting curriculum-based measurement with computerized data collection: Effects on efficiency and teacher satisfaction. Journal of Special Education Technology, 9(2), 73-86.
The goal of the current research was to better understand when and why feedback has positive effects on learning and to identify features of feedback that may improve its efficacy. Results suggest that minimal computer-generated feedback can be a powerful form of guidance during problem solving.
Fyfe, E. R., & Rittle-Johnson, B. (2016). The benefits of computer-generated feedback for mathematics problem solving. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 147, 140-151.
In early March, Education Week caught up with them by phone when they were in Paris to speak at an ed-tech conference. We asked them how their 2015 predictions had fared. Then, we talked again in late April, when the coronavirus had suddenly transformed K-12 education into a massive remote learning system.
Gewertz, C. (2020, June 2). How technology, coronavirus will change teaching by 2025. Education Week. https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2020/06/03/how-technology-coronavirus-will-change-teaching-by.html
Recognizing the power of high quality practice in teacher preparation, a web-based simulation called Cook School District was designed to allow teacher candidates to practice the skills necessary to connect their teaching to the learning of all children employing the framework of teacher work samples (TWS). Pilot study data comparing simulation users' abilities to analyze hypothetical teaching scenarios, interviews, and reflective writing in real work samples suggest that the simulation plays a role in helping candidates become more aware of, and able to perform, several critical skills necessary to effectively connect teacher actions to the learning of each student.
Girod, M., & Girod, G. R. (2008). Simulation and the need for practice in teacher preparation. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16(3), 307-337.
This report was generated in response to the enormous role technology is, and will increasingly be, playing in providing remote learning opportunities for students, whether in supporting part-time “school based” education or temporarily replacing it altogether.
Gray, L., and Lewis, L. (2020). Teachers’ Use of Technology for School and Homework Assignments: 2018–19 (NCES 2020-048). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved [date] from https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2020048
This National Center for Education Statistics report provides national data on the availability and use of educational technology among teachers in public elementary and secondary schools during the winter and spring of 2009. The data are the results of a national teacher-level survey that is one of a set that includes district, school, and teacher surveys on educational technology.
Gray, L., Thomas, N., and Lewis, L. (2010). Teachers’ Use of Educational Technology in U.S. Public Schools: 2009 (NCES 2010-040). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
This paper is an examination of the current state of blended and online learning throughout
the K-12 world in the United States.
Greene, K., & Hale, W. (2017). The state of 21st century learning in the K–12 world of the United States: Online and blended learning opportunities for American elementary and secondary students. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 26(2), 131–159.
This chapter synthesizes and categorizes current blended learning research, with recommendations for future directions. Issues addressed in HE blended learning and K-12 blended learning are identified, compared, and evaluated by reviewing major research on the topic.
Halverson, L. R., Spring, K. J., Huyett, S., Henrie, C., & Graham, C. R. (2017). Blended learning research in higher education and K–12 settings. In J. M. Spector, B. B. Lockee, & M. D. Childress (Eds.), Learning, design, and technology: An international compendium of theory, research, practice, and policy (pp. 1–30). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
This paper critically analyzes extant approaches to technology integration in teaching,
arguing that many current methods are technocentric, often omitting sufficient consideration
of the dynamic and complex relationships among content, technology, pedagogy, and
Harris, J., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2009). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and learning activity types: Curriculum-based technology integration reframed. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 393–416.
Research indicates children generally fare better in traditional schools when parents are
involved. However, scant research exists in alternative settings such as blended and online
Hasler Waters, L., Borup, J., & Menchaca, M. P. (2018). Parental involvement in K–12 online and blended learning. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 403–422). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf
The Visible Learning research synthesizes findings from 1,400 meta-analyses of 80,000 studies involving 300 million students, into what works best in education.
Hattie, J. (2017). Visible learning: 250+ influences on student achievement. https://visible-learning.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/VLPLUS-252-Influences-Hattie-ranking-DEC-2017.pdf
Using qualitative interviews of eight virtual high school teachers, this study explored teachers' perceptions of their online teaching role. Teachers expressed a sense of disconnection from their students, the profession, and their peers as a result of limited interactions due to significant institutional barriers.
Hawkins, A., Barbour, M. K., & Graham, C. R. (2012). Everybody is their own island: Teacher disconnection in a virtual school. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(2), 123–144.
Technology is everywhere in education: Public schools in the United States now provide at least one computer for every five students. And in 2015-16, for the first time, more state standardized tests for the elementary and middle grades will be administered via technology than by paper and pencil.
Herold, B. (2016, February 5). Technology in education: An overview. Education Week.https://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/technology-in-education/index.html
The messy transition to remote learning in America’s K-12 education system as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic has been marked by glaring disparities among schools, according to nationally representative surveys of U.S. teachers and school district leaders administered by the EdWeek Research Center.
Herold, B. (2020, April 10). The disparities in remote learning under coronavirus (in charts). Education Week.https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2020/04/10/the-disparities-in-remote-learning-under-coronavirus.html
This study will discuss a guiding definition for blended learning, benefits, team support, policy, management issues, rationale for expansion, professional development, purchasing, funding, evaluation, and lenses of the future and implications.
Hilliard, A. T. (2015). Global blended learning practices for teaching and learning, leadership and professional development. Journal of International Education Research, 11(3), 179–188. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1070786.pdf
Online learning is sweeping across America. In the year 2000, roughly 45,000 K–12 students took an online course. In 2009, more than 3 million K–12 students did. What was originally a distance-learning phenomenon no longer is. Most of the growth is occurring in blended-learning environments, in which students learn online in an adult-supervised environment at least part of the time. As this happens, online learning has the potential to transform America’s education system by serving as the backbone of a system that offers more personalized learning approaches for all students.
Horn, M., & Staker, H. (2011). The rise of K–12 blended learning. Mountain View, CA: Innosight Institute.
this hands-on guide expands upon the blended learning ideas presented in
that book to provide practical implementation guidance for educators seeking to incorporate
online learning with traditional classroom time
Horn, M., & Staker, H. (2015). Blended: Using disruptive innovation to improve schools. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keep students engaged and actively learning with focused, relevant discussion. Second only to lecture as the most widely used instructional strategy, there's no better method than classroom discussion to actively engage students with course material. Most faculty are not aware that there is an extensive body of research on the topic from which instructors can learn to facilitate exceptional classroom discussion.
Howard, J. R. (2015). Discussion in the college classroom: Getting your students engaged and participating in person and online. John Wiley & Sons.
The purpose of the National Standards for Quality (NSQ) revision initiative is to provide the K-12 online and blended learning community with an updated set of openly licensed standards to help evaluate and improve online courses, online teaching and online programs.
irtual Learning Leadership Alliance and Quality Matters. (2019). National standards for quality online teaching (3rd ed.). https://www.nsqol.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/National-Standards-for-Quality-Online-Teaching.pdf
An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction.
Jerome, A., & Barbetta, P. M. (2005). The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20(3), 13-23.
This study examines the effects on early reading skills of three different methods of
presenting material with computer-assisted instruction.
Johnson, E. P., Perry, J., & Shamir, H. (2010). Variability in reading ability gains as a function of computer-assisted instruction method of presentation. Computers and Education, 55(1), 209–217.
This study examined whether a personalized, adaptive blended learning approach can support reading development in ELs and non-ELs.
Kazakoff, E. R., Macaruso, P., & Hook, P. (2017). Efficacy of a blended learning approach to elementary school reading instruction for students who are English learners. Education Technology Research and Development, 66, 429–449.
This article describes the instructional design of field experiences in K-12 online learning environments. Couched in the theory of situated cognition and based on established K-12 online teaching standards, these field experiences are slowly gaining popularity in teacher education programs.
Kennedy, K., & Archambault, L. (2012a). Design and development of field experiences in K–12 online learning environments. Journal of Applied Instructional Design, 2(1), 35–49. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Leanna_Archambault/publication/2724
The authors introduce Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) as a way of representing what teachers need to know about technology and argue for the role of authentic design-based activities in the development of this knowledge.
Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32(2) 131–152. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.983.6956&rep=rep1&type=pdf
To address the importance and challenges of implementing new pedagogies, this paper brings together leading experts to reflect on key areas of pedagogy. In particular, each chapter addresses a pedagogical dimension that together offers a conceptual framework for action
Lafuente, M. (2018). Attuning pedagogies to the context of ‘new learners’ and technology. In A. Peterson, H. Dumont, M. Lafuente, & N. Law (Eds.), Understanding innovative pedagogies: Key themes to analyse new approaches to teaching and learning (pp. 94–115). OECD Education Working Paper No. 172. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
In this paper, a self-regulated flipped classroom approach is proposed to help students schedule their out-of-class time to effectively read and comprehend the learning content before class, such that they are capable of interacting with their peers and teachers in class for in-depth discussions.
Lai, C. L., & Hwang, G. J. (2016). A self-regulated flipped classroom approach to improving students’ learning performance in a mathematics course. Computers and Education, 100, 126–140.
Coaching with embedded video-analysis is a method for providing teacher consultation services utilizing technology to record teaching sessions, watch and analyze recordings, identify a target area for improvement, and use the information gained to improve practice. As general education teachers’ role in positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) grows and more students with severe and challenging behavior are educated in general education classrooms, coaching with video-analysis may be useful to improve implementation fidelity and sustainability of evidence-based classroom management practices.
Lane, C., Neely, L., Castro-Villarreal, F., & Villarreal, V. (2020). Using Coaching with Video Analysis to Improve Teachers’ Classroom Management Practices: Methods to Increase Implementation Fidelity. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(3), 543-569.
This paper provides an overview of parental involvement in traditional education, discusses its role in K-12 virtual schooling, and describes a study that validates a parental involvement assessment with a virtual school population.
Liu, F., Black, E., Algina, J., Cavanaugh, C., & Dawson, K. (2010). The validation of one parental involvement measurement in virtual schooling. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 9(2), 105–132.
This chapter looks at the research methods used during the first ten years of research on
online teaching and learning
Lowes, S., & Lin, P. (2018). A brief look at the methodologies used in the research on online teaching and learning. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 91–110). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf
Computer-based instruction (CBI) was used to teach 3 sets of 20 spelling words to two 6th graders in a multiple baseline design. The CBI presented a voice recording of each spelling word and prompted the students to type the word. If they spelled the word incorrectly, a training procedure was initiated that included prompt fading and systematic review practice.
Mayfield, K. H., Glenn, I. M., & Vollmer, T. R. (2008). Teaching spelling through prompting and review procedures using computer-based instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education, 17(3), 303-312.
This note provides a brief review of work to address the challenges of measuring output and productivity in the education sector, with attention also to issues related to the increasing use of technology in the provision of education services.
McGivney, E., & Foda, K. (n.d.). Productivity measurement in the education sector. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/productivity-measurement-in-education.pdf
This report provides a new perspective on the nation’s largest virtual school provider through a systematic review and analysis of student characteristics, school finance, and school performance of K12-operated schools.
Miron, G., & Urschel, J. L. (2012). Understanding and improving full-time virtual schools: A study of student characteristics, school finance, and school performance in schools operated by K12, Inc. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED533960.pdf
This 2015 report is third in a series of annual reports on virtual education in the U.S.. It is organized in three major sections.
Molnar, A., Huerta, L., Shafer, S. R., Barbour, M.K., Miron, G., Shafer, S. R., & Gulosino, C. (2015). Virtual schools in the U.S. 2015: Politics, performance, policy, and research evidence. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/virtual-schools-annual-2015
This paper develops the concept of action learning in terms of holographic principles. It offers an approach to inquiry, learning, and organizational design in terms of minimum critical conditions which seek to enhance capacities for individual and collective self-organization.
Morgan, G., & Ramirez, R. (1984). Action learning: A holographic metaphor for guiding social change. Human relations, 37(1), 1-27.
Most studies on feedback compare elaborated feedback types presenting knowledge on the correct response (KCR) immediately together with further information to simple feedback types providing knowledge of result (KR) or KCR. This study uses bug-related tutoring feedback (BRT-feedback) offering strategic information for error correction, but no immediate KCR.
Narciss, S., & Huth, K. (2006). Fostering achievement and motivation with bug-related tutoring feedback in a computer-based training for written subtraction. Learning and Instruction, 16(4), 310-322.
The report highlights the importance of bolstering students’ ability to navigate through digital texts. It also examines the relationship among computer access in schools, computer use in classrooms, and performance in the PISA assessment.
OECD (2015). Students, computers and learning: Making the connection. Paris, France: OECD Publishing. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/9789264239555-en.pdf?expires=1591112620&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=E108C3D7C7CC829D93048D0ED6CB4635
Based on results from PISA 2012, this Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) report examines how students’ access to and use of information and communication technology (ICT) devices has evolved in recent years, and explores how education systems and schools are integrating ICT into students’ learning experiences.
OECD (2015), Students, Computers and Learning: Making the Connection, OECD Publishing, Paris.
The COVID pandemic has meant that large numbers of students are learning by Zoom instead of in classrooms, and schools are struggling to reach students who don't have sufficient access to the internet or computers. In all this disruption, there is still one constant: the importance of effective, skilled teachers.
Pomerance, L., & Walsh, K. (2020). 2020 Teacher Prep Review: Clinical Practice & Classroom Management. National Council on Teacher Quality.
For many students, school this year looks very different from the way it did in the past. The COVID pandemic has meant that large numbers of students are learning by Zoom instead of in classrooms, and schools are struggling to reach students who don’t have sufficient access to the internet or computers. In all this disruption, there is still one constant: the importance of effective, skilled teachers.
Pomerance, L., & Walsh, K. (2020). 2020 Teacher Prep Review: Clinical Practice & Classroom Management. National Council on Teacher Quality.
This paper discusses definitions of blended learning and explores ways in which blended learning is being developed by a number of schools
Powell, A., Watson, J., Staley, P., Patrick, S., Horn, M., Fetzer, L.,…Verma, S. (2015). Blended learning: The evolution of online and face-to-face education from 2008–2015. http://www.inacol.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/iNACOL_Blended-Learning-The-Evolution-of-Online-And-Face-to-Face-Education-from-2008-2015.pdf
A survey of 2,462 Advanced Placement (AP) and National Writing Project (NWP) teachers finds that digital technologies have helped them in teaching their middle school and high school students in many ways. At the same time, the internet, mobile phones, and social media have brought new challenges to teachers.
Purcell, K., Heaps, A., Buchanan, J., & Friedrich, L. (2013). How teachers are using technology at home and in their classrooms. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2013/02/28/how-teachers-are-using-technology-at-home-and-in-their-classrooms/
Children across the country face unprecedented levels of missed instruction as a result of the pandemic. As millions of students and teachers continue remote learning, experiment with hybrid models, and ultimately return to their classrooms, our nation has a greater need than ever for teachers who have the skills to address the challenges ahead.
Putman, H., & Walsh, K. (2021). State of the States 2021: Teacher Preparation Policy. National Council on Teacher Quality.
Reading is a crucial skill for students to develop, not only as they enter school but also as they continue throughout K-12 education. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is one means of providing supplemental support for students to build the foundational key areas of reading—so they can use reading to learn in later schooling years.
Rigney, A. M., Hixson, M. D., & Drevon, D. D. (2020). Headsprout: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. Journal of Behavioral Education, 29(1), 153-167.
In this study, using mixed methods, we investigated the longer term effects of eCoaching through advanced online bug-in-ear (BIE) technology.
Rock, M. L., Schumacker, R. E., Gregg, M., Howard, P. W., Gable, R. A., & Zigmond, N. (2014). How are they now? Longer term effects of e coaching through online bug-in-ear technology. Teacher Education and Special Education, 37(2), 161-181.
This study evaluated the efficacy of Accelerated Reader, a computer-based learning program, at improving student reading.
Shannon, L. C., Styers, M. K., Wilkerson, S. B., & Peery, E. (2015). Computer-assisted learning in elementary reading: A randomized control trial. Computers in the Schools, 32(1), 20–34.
Members of ISTE’s professional learning networks have been hard at work identifying key practices for successful online learning. Here are some of the best ideas from educators from around the world, many of whom have already been teaching during coronavirus closures.
Snelling, J., & Fingal, D. (2020, March 16). 10 strategies for online learning during a coronavirus outbreak. Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education. https://www.iste.org/explore/learning-during-covid-19/10-strategies-online-learning-during-coronavirus-outbreak
One-to-one computing and bring-your-own-device (BYOD) initiatives are helping to ensure that each student has a device with which to work. Although these technologies can support personalized learning, they haven’t yet transformed our schools into 21st-century utopias where students engage in interactive, individualized learning applications and access information in order to collaboratively solve problems while teachers roam the learning space, coaching and mentoring as their engaged and self-directed students happily work.
Soto, M. S. (2016). Flipped learning as a path to personalization. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, & J. Twyman (Eds.), Handbook on personalized learning for states, districts, and schools (pp. 73–87). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University, Center on Innovations in Learning. http://www.centeril.org/2016handbook/resources/Sota_flipped_chapter_web.pdf
Blended learning is gaining considerable popularity in American classrooms, but the question remains: Is there strong evidence that the strategy helps K-12 students?
Sparks, S. (2015, April 13). Blended learning research yields limited results. Education Week.https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2015/04/15/blended-learning-research-yields-limited-results.html
Which blended-learning model should they choose? Are Station Rotations the ideal, or Flex studios? Is Carpe Diem’s Individual Rotation the gold standard, FirstLine’s Lab Rotation, Summit’s Flex model, or Woodland Park’s Flipped Classroom?
Staker, H. (2014, January 10). Which blended model should K–12 schools choose? Christensen Institute. http://www.christenseninstitute.org/which-blended-model-should-schools-choose/
This book provides a practical, streamlined approach for creating effective learning experiences by blending online activities and the best of face-to-face teaching.
Stein, J., & Graham, C. (2014). Essentials for blended learning: A standards-based guide. New York, NY: Routledge
The aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the effects of feedback on learning from text in conventional readers. If feedback is provided during reading, no differences are found between the effects of different types of feedback. Additionally, computer-delivered feedback is more beneficial for learning from text than non-computer-delivered feedback. Implications for optimizing conditions to support learning from text are discussed.
Swart, E. K., Nielen, T. M., & Sikkema-de Jong, M. T. (2019). Supporting learning from text: A meta-analysis on the timing and content of effective feedback. Educational Research Review, 28, 100296.
This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to summarize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta-analytic validation was also conducted for purposes of comparison.
Tamim, R., Bernard, R., Borokhovski, E., Abrami, P., & Schmid, R. (2011). What forty years of research says about the impact of technology on learning: A second-order meta-analysis and validation study. Review of Educational Research, 81(1), 4–28. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f8fa/160a2552568e102b0cac11ad0a48fc635b0e.pdf?_ga=2.248632325.343379521.1591299854-1379934943.1547574243
Standards-based instruction and differentiated learning can be compatible approaches in today's classrooms.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2000). Reconcilable differences: Standards-based teaching and differentiation. Educational Leadership, 58(1), 6–11. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ614602
This paper examines some of the challenges and strengths of virtual schools, it offers questions to consider when deciding whether or not a virtual school option would be ideal, and it draws conclusions, which provide an outlook for the future of virtual schools in k-12 education.
Toppin, I. N., & Toppin, S. M. (2016). Virtual schools: The changing landscape of K–12 education in the U.S. Education and Information Technologies, 21(6), 1571–1581.
The U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology created this guide to assist software developers, startups and entrepreneurs in gaining specialized knowledge and is designed to help apply technology in smart ways to solve persistent problems in education.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, Ed Tech Developer’s Guide, Washington, D.C., 2015.
The U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology published this brief that is intended to help policymakers and administrators understand how analytics and data mining have been—and can be—applied for educational improvement while rigorously protecting student privacy.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics: An Issue Brief, Washington, D.C., 2012.
This report is the 2016 National Education Technology Plan. It is the latest policy document on educational technology from the U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology. It sets a national vision and plan for learning enabled by technology through building on the work of leading education researchers; district, school, and higher education leaders; classroom teachers; developers; entrepreneurs; and nonprofit organizations.
Category: 172, 173, 174, 175, 180, 189, 192, 194, 196
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, Future Ready Learning: Reimagining the Role of Technology in Education, Washington, D.C., 2016.
The Future Ready Schools: Building Technology Infrastructure for Learning guide provides practical, actionable information intended to help district leaders (superintendents, principals, and teacher leaders) navigate the many decisions required to deliver cutting-edge connectivity to students. It presents a variety of options for district leaders to consider when making technology infrastructure decisions, recognizing that circumstances and context vary greatly from district to district.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, Future Ready Schools: Building Technology Infrastructure for Learning, Washington, D.C., 2014.
The U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning settings.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, Policy Brief on Early Learning and Use of Technology, Washington, D.C., 2016.
The U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology published this report that details the results of exploratory research on how to design and manage online communities of practice for educators.
U.S. Department of Education. (2014, April). Designing Online Communities of Practice for Educators to Create Value. Retrieved from http://tech.ed.gov/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Exploratory-Research-on-Designing-Online-Communities-FINAL.pdf.
In this meta-analysis, we investigated the effects of methods for providing item-based feedback in a computer-based environment on students’ learning outcomes. Effect sizes were negatively affected by delayed feedback timing and by primary and high school. Although the results suggested that immediate feedback was more effective for lower order learning than delayed feedback and vice versa, no significant interaction was found.
Van der Kleij, F. M., Feskens, R. C., & Eggen, T. J. (2015). Effects of feedback in a computer-based learning environment on students’ learning outcomes: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 85(4), 475-511.
In this book, we’ll briefly explore why we’re still only in the early stages of the educational technology revolution. Then we’ll look at how some innovative schools and other organizations are pioneering new methods of personalized learning built on new technology
Vanderkam, L. (2013). Blended learning: A wise giver’s guide to supporting tech-assisted teaching. Washington, DC: Philanthropy Roundtable. https://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/docs/default-source/guidebook-files/blended_learning_guidebook.pdf?sfvrsn=afaba740_0
In the context of trying to improve reading proficiency in elementary school students, this study investigated the use of digital technology as part of a blended learning program, Core5, in kindergarten and first grade classes.
Wilkes, S., Kazakoff, E. R., Prescott, J. E., Bundschuh, K., Hook, P. E., Wolf, R.,… Macaruso, P. (2020). Measuring the impact of a blended learning model on early literacy growth. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Advance online publication. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jcal.12429
This overview presents a general definition of self-regulated academic learning and identifies the distinctive features of this capability for acquiring knowledge and skill.
Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3–17.