The authors estimate the importance of teachers in Chicago public high schools using matched student-teacher administrative data.
Aaronson, D., Barrow, L., & Sander, W. (2007). Teachers and student achievement in the Chicago public high schools. Journal of labor Economics, 25(1), 95-135.
This article describes a school district administrator's research on optimal coaching experiences for classroom teachers. This research was done with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how coaching affects student learning.
Akhavan, N. (2015). Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected
teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 36,34-37.
This case study explored the use of the Bug-in-Ear (BIE) tool for undergraduate student-teacher supervision in the hands of a novice BIE2 coach, including the ease with which BIE equipment can be set up and operated by a novice coach and naïve users in the classroom.
Almendarez, M. B., Zigmond, N., Hamilton, R., Lemons, C., Lyon, S., McKeown, M., Rock, M. (2012). Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
As Secretary of Education from 1993 to 2001, Richard Riley had serious concerns about out-of-field teaching. The practice— which places in core academic classes instructors who have neither certification nor a major in the subject field taught— just didn’t make sense to him.
Almy, S., & Theokas, C. (2010). Not Prepared for Class: High-Poverty Schools Continue to Have Fewer In-Field Teachers. Education Trust.
This review considers the essential feature of performance feedback.
Alvero, A. M., Bucklin, B. R., & Austin, J. (2001). An Objective Review of the Effectiveness and Essential Characteristics of Performance Feedback in. Journal of Organization Behavior Management, 21(1), 3-29.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a classroom-teacher-delivered reading intervention for struggling readers called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), designed particularly for kindergarten and first-grade teachers and their struggling students in rural, low-wealth communities.
Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Ginsberg, M. C. (2011). The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention: The targeted reading intervention. The Elementary School Journal, 112(1), 107-131.
Value-Added Models (VAMs) has been embraced by many states and school districts as part of educational accountability systems. Value-Added Assessment (VAA) Models attempt to estimate effects of individual teachers or schools on student achievement while accounting for differences in student background. This paper provides a summary of the American Statistical Associations analysis of the efficacy of value-added modeling in education.
American Statistical Association. (2014). ASA statement on using value-added models for educational assessment. Alexandria, VA.
This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. Instructional coaching holds much potential for improving the way teachers teach and the way students learn, but that potential will only be realized if leaders plan their coaching program with care.
Annenburg Institute for School Reform. (2004). Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction.
This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback to increase the implementation of skills taught during in-service training.
Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.
Recent calls to improve the quality of education in schools have drawn attention to the importance of teachers’ preparation for work in classroom settings. Although the practicum has long been the traditional means for pre-service teachers to learn and practice classroom teaching, it does not always offer student teachers the time, safe practice experiences, repetition, or extensive feedback needed for them to gain adequate knowledge, skills, and confidence.
Badiee, F., & Kaufman, D. (2015). Design evaluation of a simulation for teacher education. Sage Open, 5(2), 2158244015592454.
Feedback is an essential construct for many theories of learning and instruction, and an understanding of the conditions for effective feedback should facilitate both theoretical development and instructional practice.
Bangert-Drowns, R. L., Kulik, C. L. C., Kulik, J. A., & Morgan, M. (1991). The instructional effect of feedback in test-like events. Review of educational research, 61(2), 213-238.
This study looks at the use of performance feedback and checklists to improve middle-school teams problem solving.
Bartels, S. M., & Mortenson, B. P. (2006). Enhancing adherence to a problem-solving model for middle-school pre-referral teams: A performance feedback and checklist approach. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 22(1), 109-123.
This study evaulates the effects of performance feedback as part of proffessional development across three studies.
Barton, E. E., Pribble, L., & Chen, C.-I. (2013). The Use of E-Mail to Deliver Performance-Based Feedback to Early Childhood Practitioners. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(3), 270-297.
The book presents many examples of Questioning the Author (QtA) in action as children engage with narrative and expository texts to construct meaning.
Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
This paper introduces analysis techniques and results showing how student growth percentiles, a normative growth analysis technique, can be used to examine the illuminate the relationship between standards based accountability systems and the performance standards on which they are based.
Betebenner, D. (2009). Growth, standards and accountability. Dover, NH: National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Retrieved from https://www.nciea.org/sites/default/files/publications/growthandStandard_DB09.pdf
This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions in different situations.
Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.
In one of the highest selling books on higher/further education to date, Bligh begins by arguing that lectures are most suitable for teaching information, not promoting thought or inspiring changes in attitudes. He goes on to detail the factors that affect the learning of information. The text is formed around a thorough consideration of the techniques of lecturing, including organization, how to make a point, use handouts, and obtain feedback, but it moves beyond lecturing to discuss alternatives when they are appropriate.
Bligh, D. A. (1998). What's the Use of Lectures?. Intellect books.
Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning.
Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 30(8), 3–15.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer feedback on the quality of student writing and the amount and kind of revision behavior. Peer feedback seemed to help students write initially superior rough drafts but was not consistently linked to improvement of content between rough and final drafts. Successful surface structure editing occurred with or without peer feedback.
Brakel, V. L. (1990). The revising processes of sixth-grade writers with and without peer feedback. The journal of educational research, 84(1), 22-29.
These five articles begin to build a bridge between literature. specifically, they report on how the use of the indicators derived from value-added models (VAM) actually payout in practice and give carefully consideration to how the design and implementation of teacher evaluation system could be modified to enhance the positive impact of accountability and mitigate the negative consequences,
Braun, H. (2015). The value in value added depends on the ecology. Educational Researcher, 44(2), 127–131. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3102%2F0013189X15576341
This 2019 study attempts to increase our knowledge base by examining the power of different forms of feedback as a means to increase the impact of teacher delivered feedback. The paper aims to investigate student perceptions of feedback through designing a student feedback perception questionnaire (SFPQ) based on a conceptual model of feedback.
Brooks, C., Huang, Y., Hattie, J., Carroll, A., & Burton, R. (2019). What is my next step? School students’ perceptions of feedback. In Frontiers in Education (Vol. 4, p. 96). Frontiers.
Incidental teaching is often a component of early childhood intervention programs. This study evaluated the use of grahical feedback to increase the use of incidental teaching.
Casey, A. M., & McWilliam, R. A. (2008). Graphical Feedback to Increase Teachers’ Use of Incidental Teaching. Journal of Early Intervention, 30(3), 251-268.
This study evaluated the characteristics of effective feedback in early childhood settings.
Casey, A. M., & McWilliam, R. A. (2011). The Characteristics and Effectiveness of Feedback Interventions Applied in Early Childhood Settings. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 31(2), 68-77.
This review considered the effects of performance feedback on increasing the rates of praise and opportunities to respond by classroom teachers.
Cavanaugh, B. (2013). Performance Feedback and Teachers’ Use of Praise and Opportunities to Respond: A Review of the Literature. Education & Treatment of Children (West Virginia University Press), 36(1), 111-137. Retrieved from https://muse.jhu.edu/article/492683
This paper evaluates the long-term impacts of STAR by linking the experimental data to administrative records.
Chetty, R., Friedman, J., Hilger, N., Saez, E., Schanzenbach, D. W., & Yagan, D. (2011). How does your kindergarten classroom affect your earnings? Evidence from Project STAR. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126(4), 1593–1660.
The purpose of this overview is to provide information about the role of formal teacher evaluation, the research that examines the practice, and its impact on student outcomes.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Formal Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-formal.
The purpose of this paper on value-added research in education is to define this type of research, provide an overview of how it has been conducted, and discuss its benefits and limitations.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Value-Added Research in Education: Reliability, Validity, Efficacy, and Usefulness. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/staff-value-added.
This study investigated the effects of performance feedback to increase treatment integrity.
Codding, R. S., Feinberg, A. B., & Dunn, E. K. (2005). Effects of Immediate Performance Feedback on Implementation of Behavior Support Plans. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(2), 205-219.
This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback in increasing treatment integrity. It also evaluated the possible reactivitiy effects of being observed.
Codding, R. S., Livanis, A., Pace, G. M., & Vaca, L. (2008). Using Performance Feedback to Improve Treatment Integrity of Classwide Behavior Plans: An Investigation of Observer Reactivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(3), 417-422.
The study compared basic and elaborated corrections within the context of otherwise identical computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs that taught reasoning skills. Twelve learning disabled and 16 remedial high school students were randomly assigned to either the basic-corrections or elaborated-corrections treatment. Criterion-referenced test scores were significantly higher for the elaborated-corrections treatment on both the post and maintenance tests and on the transfer test. Time to complete the program did not differ significantly for the two groups.
Collins, M., Carnine, D., & Gersten, R. (1987). Elaborated corrective feedback and the acquisition of reasoning skills: A study of computer-assisted instruction. Exceptional Children, 54(3), 254-262.
This study evaluated the use of observational data as a basis for performance feedback on classroom instructional practices.
Colvin, G., Flannery, K. B., Sugai, G., & Monegan, J. (2009). Using Observational Data to Provide Performance Feedback to Teachers: A High School Case Study. Preventing School Failure, 53(2), 95-104. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ822035
This study examines the theoretical and practical implications of ranking teachers with a one-dimensional value-added metric when teacher effectiveness varies across subjects or student types.
Condie, S., Lefgren, L., & Sims, D. (2014). Teacher heterogeneity, value-added and education policy. Economics of Education Review, 40, 76-92.
This text was written to help the reader acquire a base of knowledge about classical psychometrics and to integrate new ideas into that framework of knowledge.
Crocker, L. M., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
This study compared the effects of two oral reading feedback strategies in improving the reading comprehension of eight school-age children with low reading ability. Participants were assigned to one of two intervention groups matched on age, grade, gender, and general reading performance.
Crowe, L. K. (2005). Comparison of two oral reading feedback strategies in improving reading comprehension of school-age children with low reading ability. Remedial and Special Education, 26(1), 32-42.
This paper reviews the importance of feedback in education reviewed the scientific model of behavior change (antecedent, behavior, consequences).
Daniels, A. (2013). Feedback in Education: On Whom and for What. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 77-95). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.
A growing number of researchers are studying whether value-added measures can do a good job of measuring the contribution of teachers to test score growth. Here I summarize a handful of analyses that shed light on two questions.
David, J. L. (2010). What research says about using value-added measures to evaluate teachers. Educational Leadership, 67(8), 81–82. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/may10/vol67/num08/Using_Value-Added_Measures_to_Evaluate_Teachers.aspx
This paper reviews various models of instructional coaching and their relation to collaborative consultation.
Denton, C. A., & HASBROUCK, J. A. N. (2009). A Description of Instructional Coaching and its Relationship to Consultation. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 19(2), 150-175. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10474410802463296?journalCode=hepc20
This study comared the effects of goal setting about student performance and feedback about student performance with daily written feedback about student performance, feedback about accuracy of implementation, and cancelling meetings if integrity criterion was met.
DiGennaro, F. D., Martens, B. K., & Kleinmann, A. E. (2007). A comparison of performance feedback procedures on teachers' treatment implementation integrity and students' inappropriate behavior in special education classrooms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(3), 447-461.
This paper examines data on 39 charter schools and correlates these data with school effectiveness. We find that class size, per-pupil expenditure, teacher certification, and teacher training—are not correlated with school effectiveness. In stark contrast, we show that frequent teacher feedback, the use of data to guide instruction, high-dosage tutoring, increased instructional time, and high expectations—explains approximately 45 percent of the variation in school effectiveness.
Dobbie, W., & Fryer Jr, R. G. (2013). Getting beneath the veil of effective schools: Evidence from New York City. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5(4), 28-60.
We compared active student response (ASR) error correction and no-response (NR) error correction while teaching science terms to 5 elementary students. When a student erred on ASR terms, the teacher modeled the definition and the student repeated it. When a student erred on NR terms, the teacher modeled the definition while the student looked at the vocabulary card. ASR error correction was superior on each of the study's seven dependent variables.
Drevno, G. E., Kimball, J. W., Possi, M. K., Heward, W. L., Gardener, R., & Barbetta, P. M. (1994). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary by elementary students: A systematic replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(1), 179–180.
This study evaluated the impact of public feedback in RtI team meetings on the quality of implementation. Feedback improved poor implementation and maintained high level implementation.
Duhon, G. J., Mesmer, E. M., Gregerson, L., & Witt, J. C. (2009). Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance. Journal of School Psychology, 47(1), 19-37.
This paper summarizes survey results about the acceptability of different methods for monitoring treatment integrity and performance feedback.
Easton, J. E., & Erchul, W. P. (2011). An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(1), 56-77. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10474412.2011.544949?journalCode=hepc20.
Active learning instructional strategies can be created and used to engage students in (a) thinking critically or creatively, (b) speaking with a partner, in a small group, or with the entire class, (c) expressing ideas through writing, (d) exploring personal attitudes and values, (e) giving and receiving feedback, and (f) reflecting upon the learning process
Eison, J. (2010). Using active learning instructional strategies to create excitement and enhance learning. Jurnal Pendidikantentang Strategi Pembelajaran Aktif (Active Learning) Books, 2(1), 1-10.
Erchul makes the argument that efforts to increase treatiment integrity should be conceptualized as social influence strategies because the person implementing is different than the person who developed the plan.
Erchul, W. P. (2013). Treatment Integrity Enhancement via Performance Feedback Conceptualized as an Exercise in Social Influence. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 23(4).
The effects of prompting and modeling feedback strategies were compared on the sight word reading performance of 2nd and 4th/5th grade students labeled learning disabled using a multielement design. All eight participants read more modeled than prompted words during training and at one month follow-up.
Espin, C. A., & Deno, S. L. (1989). The effects of modeling and prompting feedback strategies on sight word reading of students labeled learning disabled. Education and Treatment of Children, 219-231.
Value-added estimates of teacher or school quality are increasingly used for both high- and low-stakes accountability purposes, making understanding of their limitations critical.
Everson, K. C. (2017). Value-added modeling and educational accountability: Are we answering the real questions?. Review of Educational Research, 87(1), 35-70.
This paper exams teachers' views on unions, tenure, pay-for-performance, alternative certification, and other issues and finds that while most teachers are strong supporters of standards, a sense of vulnerability, along with fears of politics and favoritism, make them loyal to the tenure system, loyal to their unions, and highly skeptical about pay tied to student test scores.
Farkas, S., Johnson, J., & Duffett, A. (2003). Stand by me: What teachers say about unions,
merit pay, and other professional matters. New York: Public Agenda.
Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2011). Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement. The Teacher Educator, 46(3), 231-243.
The purpose of this study was to compare two types of teacher feedback, using an ongoing measurement system that involved students’ performance on a reading recall task.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1989). Monitoring reading growth using student recalls: Effects of two teacher feedback systems. The Journal of Educational Research, 83(2), 103-110.
The goal of the current research was to better understand when and why feedback has positive effects on learning and to identify features of feedback that may improve its efficacy. Results suggest that minimal computer-generated feedback can be a powerful form of guidance during problem solving.
Fyfe, E. R., & Rittle-Johnson, B. (2016). The benefits of computer-generated feedback for mathematics problem solving. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 147, 140-151.
This article aimed to present frameworks and practices coaches can use with classroom teachers to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based interventions in schools.
Garbacz, S. A., Lannie, A. L., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J. L., & Truckenmiller, A. J. (2015). Strategies for effective classroom coaching. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 59(4), 263-273.
Educator performance evaluation systems are a potential tool for improving student achievement by increasing the effectiveness of the educator workforce. For example, recent research suggests that giving more frequent, specific feedback on classroom practice may lead to improvements in teacher performance and student achievement.
Garet, M. S., Wayne, A. J., Brown, S., Rickles, J., Song, M., & Manzeske, D. (2017). The Impact of Providing Performance Feedback to Teachers and Principals. NCEE 2018-4001. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
This paper discusses how coaching can narrow the research to practice gap in education.
Gersten, R., & Morvant, M. (1995). Close to the classroom is close to the bone: Coaching as a means to translate research into. Exceptional Children, 62(1), 52-66.
This study examined general education teachers’ implementation of a peer tutoring intervention for five elementary students referred for consultation and intervention due to academic concerns. Treatment integrity was assessed via permanent products produced by the intervention.
Gilbertson, D., Witt, J. C., Singletary, L. L., & VanDerHeyden, A. (2007). Supporting teacher use of interventions: Effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16(4), 311-326.
This paper report on work estimating the stability of value-added estimates of teacher effects, an important area of investigation given that new workforce policies implicitly assume that effectiveness is a stable attribute within teachers.
Goldhaber, D. D., & Hansen, M. (2008). Is it Just a Bad Class?: Assessing the Stability of Measured Teacher Performance. Seattle, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education.
As performance feedback continues to become more commonplace in school settings, it will become increasingly necessary to build capacity around the processes of giving and receiving feedback. Results from this study have implications for how principals can be supported to use their evaluation data.
Goldring, E. B., Mavrogordato, M., & Haynes, K. T. (2015). Multisource principal evaluation data: Principals’ orientations and reactions to teacher feedback regarding their leadership effectiveness. Educational Administration Quarterly, 51(4), 572-599.
Interview and survey data from six school districts that have recently implemented new evaluation systems with classroom observations provide evidence that principals tend to rely less on test scores in their human capital decisions.
Goldring, E., Grissom, J. A., Rubin, M., Neumerski, C. M., Cannata, M., Drake, T., & Schuermann, P. (2015). Make room value added: Principals’ human capital decisions and the emergence of teacher observation data. Educational Researcher, 44(2), 96-104.
A research synthesis confirms the difficulty of translating professional development into student achievement gains despite the intuitive and logical connection. Those responsible for planning and implementing professional development must learn how to critically assess and evaluate the effectiveness of what they do.
Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S.(2009). What works in professional development? Phi Delta Kappan.doi: 10.1177003172170909000709.
The precise method of attributing differences in classroom achievement to teachers is the
subject of considerable discussion and analysis.
Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2010). Generalizations about using value-added measures of teacher quality. American Economic Review, 100(2), 267-71.
This paper reviews the role of cognitive skills in promoting economic well-being, with a particular focus on the role of school quality and quantity.
Hanushek, E. A., & Woessmann, L. (2008). The role of cognitive skills in economic development. Journal of economic literature, 46(3), 607-68.
The authors examine the relationships between observational ratings of teacher performance, principals’ evaluations of teachers’ cognitive and non-cognitive skills and test-score based measures of teachers’ productivity.
Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2014). Skills, productivity and the evaluation of teacher performance. Economics of Education Review, 40, 183-204.
This unique and ground-breaking book is the result of 15 years research and synthesises over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. It builds a story about the power of teachers, feedback, and a model of learning and understanding.
Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. routledge.
This paper provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement.
Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of educational research, 77(1), 81-112.
We examined 24 studies to determine the effects on word recognition and reading comprehension of correcting errors during oral reading. Corrective feedback improved students' word reading accuracy on words in lists, and accuracy in reading words in passages. Some correction procedures had greater benefits than others.
Heubusch, J. D., & Lloyd, J. W. (1998). Corrective feedback in oral reading. Journal of Behavioral Education, 8(1), 63-79.
This paper examines how well principals can distinguish between more and less effective teachers. To put principal evaluations in context, we compare them with the traditional determinants of teacher compensation-education and experience-as well as value-added measures of teacher effectiveness.
Jacob, B. A., & Lefgren, L. (2008). Can principals identify effective teachers? Evidence on subjective performance evaluation in education. Journal of Labor Economics, 26(1), 101-136.
Research about the effectiveness of different types of feedback in programmed instruction was investigated. Knowledge of results had the least data to support its efficacy. Knowledge of correct responding (KCR) has been shown to be effective in several studies.
Jaehnig, W., & Miller, M. L. (2007). Feedback types in programmed instruction: A systematic review. The psychological record, 57(2), 219-232.
This study draws on 32 interviews from a random sample of teachers and 2 years of survey data from more than 12,000 teachers per year to measure their perceptions of the clarity, practicality, and cost of the new system.
Jiang, J. Y., Sporte, S. E., & Luppescu, S. (2015). Teacher perspectives on evaluation reform: Chicago’s REACH students. Educational Researcher, 44(2), 105-116.
This study represents an effort to measure coach teacher alliance as a predictor of teacher and student outcomes.
Johnson, S. R., Pas, E. T., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2016). Understanding and Measuring CoachTeacher Alliance: A Glimpse Inside the Black Box. Prevention Science, 1-11. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11121-016-0633-8.
This study examined the effects of performance feedback on treatment integrity.
Jones, K. M., Wickstrom, K. F., & Friman, P. C. (1997). The effects of observational feedback on treatment integrity in school-based behavioral consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4).
Studies that examined copy-cover-compare (CCC) and variations of this procedure were reviewed and analyzed. This review revealed a substantial number of studies that validated the use of CCC across spelling and math skills and across students with and without disabilities.
Joseph, L. M., Konrad, M., Cates, G., Vajcner, T., Eveleigh, E., & Fishley, K. M. (2012). A meta‐analytic review of the cover‐copy‐compare and variations of this self‐management procedure. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 122-136.
This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.
Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.
this study presents and apply a framework for measuring the cost of coaching programs to 3 schools. Then the study discusses strategies for reducing the average cost of instructional coaching.
Knight, D. S. (2012). Assessing the cost of instructional coaching. Journal of Education Finance, 52-80.
The education policy community is abuzz with interest in value-added modeling as a way to estimate the effectiveness of schools and especially teachers. Value-added models provide useful information, but that information is error-prone and has a number of other important limitations.
Koretz, D. (2008). A measured approach. American Educator, 32(2), 18-39.
This study evaluated the extent to which the large performance gains shown on KIRIS represented real improvements in student learning rather than inflation of scores.
Koretz, D. M., & Barron, S. I. (1998). The validity of gains on the Kentucky instructional results information system. KIRIS). Santa Monica: RAND.
This study review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement.
Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research, 88(4), 547-588.
The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.
Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(4), 279-299.
This study examined the effects of in-service plus follow-up coaching on first grade teachers’ accurate delivery of three research-based strategies during math instruction.
Kretlow, A. G., Cooke, N. L., & Wood, C. L. (2012). Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies. Remedial and Special Education, 33(6), 348-361.
This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.
Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education, 44(4), 234-246.
The seven guiding principles in this manuscript offer research-based directions for literacy coaching.
L’Allier, S., Elish-Piper, L., & Bean, R. M. (2011). What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement. The Reading Teacher, 63,544-554. doi: 10.1598/RT.63.7.2
Three questions are addressed. First, what are the principles behind creating optimal teacher incentives, and how close do the actual structures in Sweden and the US conform to the ideal ones? Second, how much is performance affected by creating incentives for current teachers, and how much by changing the pool of teacher applicants? Third, do teacher preferences align with those of their students and of society in general, and if not, why not? Associated with each of these questions are policy implications that may remedy existing distortions.
Lazear, E. P. (2003). Teacher incentives. Swedish Economic Policy Review, 10(2), 179-214.
This study evaluated three different types of feedback to determine the effects on teaching practices.
Leach, D. J., & Conto, H. (1999). The Additional Effects of Process and Outcome Feedback Following Brief In-service Teacher Training. Educational Psychology, 19(4), 441.
Using longitudinal data from a cohort of middle school students from a large school district,
we estimate separate “value‐added” teacher effects for two subscales of a mathematics
assessment under a variety of statistical models varying in form and degree of control for
student background characteristics.
Lockwood, J. R., McCaffrey, D. F., Hamilton, L. S., Stecher, B., Le, V. N., & Martinez, J. F. (2007). The sensitivity of value‐added teacher effect estimates to different mathematics achievement measures. Journal of Educational Measurement, 44(1), 47-67.
This paper examines the practice of “tootling.” Tootling is a peer-mediated classroom management practice designed to have students identify and then report on peer prosocial behavior. Students are taught to be on the look-out for peer behavior that met the criterion for being reinforced. When they witness prosocial behavior, they write it down on a piece of paper and turn it into the teacher. At the end of the class, three “tootles” are drawn from the lot and read out to the classroom. The results suggest that peer reinforcement had a positive impact on increasing appropriate student behavior, reducing disruptive conduct, and student engagement
Lum, J. D., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dufrene, B. A., Olmi, D. J., & Wright, S. J. (2019). Tootling With a Randomized Independent Group Contingency to Improve High School Classwide Behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 21(2), 93-105.
the present study was designed to learn more about how to strengthen the integrity of the problem-solving process
Lundahl, A. A. (2010). Effects of Performance Feedback and Coaching on the Problem-Solving Process: Improving the Integrity of Implementation and Enhancing Student Outcomes. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
This study demonstrates mathematically that the use of such “construct-shifting” vertical scales in longitudinal, value-added models introduces remarkable distortions in the value-added estimates of the majority of educators
Martineau, J. A. (2006). Distorting value-added: The use of longitudinal, vertically scaled student achievement data for growth-based, value-added accountability. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31(1), 35–62.
The goal of the Massachusetts Educator Evaluation Framework is to support student learning by providing educators with enhanced opportunities for professional growth and feedback for improvement. Distributing leadership is a key strategy to ensure the provision of high quality feedback.
Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. (n.d.). An interactive planning guide for distributed leadership.
In a distributed leadership model, responsibilities for providing feedback and support to teachers are shared by the principal and other school and/or district staff. This feedback may be given by a wide variety of educators—from peers to coaches to administrators—and be used formatively for self-reflection, collaborative planning, and/or formally used in evaluation. Implementing a distributed leadership approach creates an opportunity for districts to ensure all educators are receiving high quality feedback to improve their practice.
Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. (n.d.). An interactive planning guide for distributed leadership.
This study examines the effect of a comprehensive literacy-coaching program focused on enacting a discussion-based approach to reading comprehension instruction (content-focused coaching [CFC]) on the quality of classroom text discussions over 2 years.
Matsumura, L. C., Garnier, H.E., Spybrook, J. (2012). The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions. Journal of Teacher Education, 63,214-228.
In this brief, we discuss what is and is not known about how well value‐added measures level the playing field for teachers by controlling for student characteristics.
McCaffrey, D. F. (2012). Do value-added methods level the playing field for teachers. Carnegie Knowledge Network.
In this brief, we discuss the challenges of using value-added to evaluate teachers of students with disabilities.
McCaffrey, D. F., & Buzick, H. (2014). Is value-added accurate for teachers of students with disabilities. Carnegie Knowledge Network Brief, (14).
The current study extends recent value-added modeling approaches for longitudinal student achievement data Lockwood et al. [J. Educ. Behav. Statist. 32 (2007) 125–150] to allow data to be missing not at random via random effects selection and pattern mixture models, and applies those methods to data from a large urban school district to estimate effects of elementary school mathematics teachers.
McCaffrey, D. F., & Lockwood, J. R. (2011). Missing data in value-added modeling of teacher effects. The Annals of Applied Statistics, 773-797.
Value added modeling has become of interest to policymakers interested in evaluating teacher performance. The authors argue that the models work well when the schools in the sample are homogenous but as heterogeneity of the student population increases estimates of teacher effects are likely to confounded.
McCaffrey, D. F., Lockwood, J. R., Koretz, D. M., & Hamilton, L. S. (2003). Evaluating Value-Added Models for Teacher Accountability. Monograph. ERIC. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED529961
This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented.
Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.
This paper reports on the results of the analysis of an additional year of evaluation and student achievement data at some research.
Milanowski, A. T., Kimball, S. M., & White, B. (2004). The Relationship Between Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation Scores and Student Achievement: Replication and Extensions at Three Sites Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE)-University of Wisconsin Working Paper Series. TC, 4(01).
This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on the implementation of a classroom intervention.
Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review, 613-627.
How important are teenagers' cognitive skills in predicting subsequent labor market success? Do cognitive skills pay off in the labor market only for students who go to college? Does college benefit only students who enter with strong basic skills? These questions are often part of current policy debates about how to improve the earnings prospects for young Americans.
Murnane, R. J., Willett, J. B., Duhaldeborde, Y., & Tyler, J. H. (2000). How important are the cognitive skills of teenagers in predicting subsequent earnings?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 19(4), 547-568.
Most studies on feedback compare elaborated feedback types presenting knowledge on the correct response (KCR) immediately together with further information to simple feedback types providing knowledge of result (KR) or KCR. This study uses bug-related tutoring feedback (BRT-feedback) offering strategic information for error correction, but no immediate KCR.
Narciss, S., & Huth, K. (2006). Fostering achievement and motivation with bug-related tutoring feedback in a computer-based training for written subtraction. Learning and Instruction, 16(4), 310-322.
This study examines the impact of 2 forms of professional development on prekindergarten teachers' early language and literacy practice: coursework and coaching.
Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 11,63-86. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2002).
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ESEA Reauthorization
No child left behind act of 2001. Publ. L, 107-110. (2002)
This study contributes to the data-base on the use of performance feedback to increase treatment integrity.
Noell, G. H., Duhon, G. J., Gatti, S. L., & Connell, J. E. (2002). Consultation, Follow-up, and Implementation of Behavior Management Interventions in General Education. School Psychology Review, 31(2), 217.
This study evaluated the impact of training on treatment integrity. After finding that positive effects lasted 2-4 days, performance feedback was used to increase treatment integrity.
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1).
Effects of a 1-semester professional development (PD) intervention that included expert coaching with Head Start teachers were investigated in a randomized controlled trial with 88 teachers and 759 children.
Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299-312.
This study evaluated how teacher burnout, perceptions of efficacy, and perceptions of curriculum supports impacted treatment integrity.
Ransford, C. R., Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C. E., Small, M., & Jacobson, L. (2009). The Role of Teachers’ Psychological Experiences and Perceptions of Curriculum Supports on the Implementation of a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 510-532.
This study evaluted the impact of coaching on the implementation of an intervention. Coaching with higher rates of performance feedback resulted in the highest level of treatment integrity.
Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Herman, K., & Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 150-167.
This study evaluted the impact of coaching on the implementation of an intervention. Coaching with higher rates of performance feedback resulted in the highest level of treatment integrity.
Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Herman, K., & Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 150-167.
This paper examines the coaching model imbedded in the Incredible Years Curriculum in terms of effectiveness in promoting generalization to classroom settings.
Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Webster-Stratton, C., Newcomer, L. L., & Herman, K. C. (2012). The incredible years teacher classroom management program: Using coaching to support generalization to real-world classroom settings. Psychology in the Schools, 49(5), 416-428.
This paper disentangles the impact of schools and teachers in influencing achievement with special attention given to the potential problems of omitted or mismeasured variables and of student and school selection.
Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417-458.
This study evaluated the impact of performance feedback as a means of increasing treatment integrity for teachers implementing First Steps to Success.
Rodriguez, B. J., Loman, S. L., & Horner, R. H. (2009). A preliminary analysis of the effects of coaching feedback on teacher implementation fidelity of First Step to Success. Behavior analysis in practice, 2(2), 11-21.
The author develop falsification tests for three widely used VAM specifications, based on the idea that future teachers cannot influence students' past achievement.
Rothstein, J. (2010). Teacher quality in educational production: Tracking, decay, and student achievement. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 125(1), 175-214.
Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group.
Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.
Using data from 35 seventh-grade teachers and 2,026 students across seven schools, we employ VA methods to measure teacher contributions to students’ motivational orientations (mastery and performance achievement goals) and their mathematics performance.
Ruzek, E. A., Domina, T., Conley, A. M., Duncan, G. J., & Karabenick, S. A. (2015). Using value-added models to measure teacher effects on students’ motivation and achievement. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 35(5-6), 852-882.
In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students.
Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110,301-323.
The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System determines the effectiveness of school systems, schools, and teachers based on student academic growth over time.
Sanders, W. L., & Horn, S. P. (1998). Research findings from the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) database: Implications for educational evaluation and research. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 12(3), 247-256.
This study evaluated the relative benefits of verbal feedback and verbal plus grahic feedback as a means for increasing treatment integrity. The verbal plus graphic feedback was more effective than verbal feedback alone.
Sanetti, L. M. H., Luiselli, J. K., & Handler, M. W. (2007). Effects of Verbal and Graphic Performance Feedback on Behavior Support Plan Implementation in a Public Elementary School. Behavior Modification, 31(4), 454-465.
This study utilized a “bug in the ear” device to provide immediate feedback on implementation of specific teaching practices.
Scheeler, M. C., Congdon, M., & Stansbery, S. (2010). Providing Immediate Feedback to Co-Teachers Through Bug-in-Ear Technology: An Effective Method of Peer Coaching in Inclusion Classrooms. Teacher Education & Special Education, 33(1).
This paper describes the use of wireless technology to give feedback to students in a teacher prep program about their integrity of implementation.
Scheeler, M. C., McAfee, J. K., & Ruhl, K. L. (2006). Effects of Corrective Feedback Delivered via Wireless Technology on Preservice Teacher Performance and Student Behavior. Teacher Education & Special Education, 29(1).
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' accurate use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction and the extent to which teachers maintained use of these strategies.
Schnorr, C. I. (2013). Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte).
This study evaluated the relationship between the time coaches spent in a classroom and student outcomes.
Shidler, L. (2009). The Impact of Time Spent Coaching for Teacher Efficacy on Student Achievement. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36(5), 453-460. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10643-008-0298-4
This article reviews the corpus of research on feedback, with a focus on formative feedback—defined as information communicated to the learner that is intended to modify his or her thinking or behavior to improve learning. According to researchers, formative feedback should be nonevaluative, supportive, timely, and specific.
Shute, V. J. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of educational research, 78(1), 153-189.
The effects of two error-correction procedures on oral reading errors and a control condition were compared in an alternating treatments design with three students who were moderately mentally retarded. The two procedures evaluated were word supply and sentence repeat.
Singh, N. N. (1990). Effects of two error-correction procedures on oral reading errors: Word supply versus sentence repeat. Behavior Modification, 14(2), 188-199.
This study is a meta-analysis of studies using performance feedback to improve treatment integrity. The overall result was that performance feedback had moderate effects on integrity.
Solomon, B., Klein, S. A., & Politylo, B. C. (2012). The Effect of Performance Feedback on Teachers’ Treatment Integrity: A Meta-Analysis of the Single-Case Literature. School Psychology Review, 41(2), 160-175.
Two experiments were conducted in which two ways of dealing with reading mistakes by beginning readers were systematically examined. In one condition (whole word), the whole correct word sound was provided when a reading error was made or when the pupil did not read the word within a certain time limit. In another condition (segmented feedback, the correct word sound was produced phoneme-by-phoneme when a reading error or an omission occurred.
Spaai, G. W., Ellermann, H. H., & Reitsma, P. (1991). Effects of segmented and whole-word sound feedback on learning to read single words. The Journal of Educational Research, 84(4), 204-214.
the authors examine how the five profiled systems are addressing assessment quality, evaluating teachers in nontested subjects and grades, and assigning teachers responsibility for particular students. The authors also examine what is and is not known about the quality of various student performance measures used by school systems.
Steele, J. L., Hamilton, L. S., & Stecher, B. M. (2010). Incorporating Student Performance Measures into Teacher Evaluation Systems. Technical Report. Rand Corporation.
This paper reviewed the use of coaching to increase the classroom level adoption of interventions within Positive Behavior Interventions and Support.
Stormont, M., & Reinke, W. M. (2012). Using Coaching to Support Classroom-Level Adoption and Use of Interventions Within School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support Systems. Beyond Behavior, 21(2), 11-19
This is a systematic review of the effects of coaching teachers to implement social behavior interventions.
Stormont, M., Reinke, W. M., Newcomer, L., Marchese, D., & Lewis, C. (2015). Coaching Teachers’ Use of Social Behavior Interventions to Improve Children’s Outcomes: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(2).
This study evaluated the level of treatment integrity when parents were conductiong function communication training while being coached via telehealth.
Suess, A., Romani, P., Wacker, D., Dyson, S., Kuhle, J., Lee, J., . . . Waldron, D. (2014). Evaluating the Treatment Fidelity of Parents Who Conduct In-Home Functional Communication Training with Coaching via Telehealth. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 34-59.
In this article, the authors describe key features of the multi-tiered support (MTS) continuum of intervention and assessment and present a case study to illustrate implementation of some components of the framework with four middle school teachers.
Sugai, G. (2014). Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(3), 179-190.
The aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the effects of feedback on learning from text in conventional readers. If feedback is provided during reading, no differences are found between the effects of different types of feedback. Additionally, computer-delivered feedback is more beneficial for learning from text than non-computer-delivered feedback. Implications for optimizing conditions to support learning from text are discussed.
Swart, E. K., Nielen, T. M., & Sikkema-de Jong, M. T. (2019). Supporting learning from text: A meta-analysis on the timing and content of effective feedback. Educational Research Review, 28, 100296.
This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom teacher intervention, the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), in helping struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade. This intervention used biweekly literacy coaching in the general education classroom to help classroom teachers use diagnostic strategies with struggling readers in one-on-one 15-min sessions.
Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 102-114.
"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely.
TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development
The authors examine the causes and consequences of the status of teacher evaluation and its implications for the current national debate about performance pay for teachers. The report also examines a number of national, state, and local evaluation systems that offer potential alternatives to current practice.
Toch, T., & Rothman, R. (2008). Rush to Judgment: Teacher Evaluation in Public Education. Education Sector Reports. Education Sector.
In this meta-analysis, we investigated the effects of methods for providing item-based feedback in a computer-based environment on students’ learning outcomes. Effect sizes were negatively affected by delayed feedback timing and by primary and high school. Although the results suggested that immediate feedback was more effective for lower order learning than delayed feedback and vice versa, no significant interaction was found.
Van der Kleij, F. M., Feskens, R. C., & Eggen, T. J. (2015). Effects of feedback in a computer-based learning environment on students’ learning outcomes: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 85(4), 475-511.
In this study, the results of five training studies evaluating the effects of a coaching program for use in Dutch primary and secondary schools are described.
Veenman, S, & Denessen, E. (2001). The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.
Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(4), 385–417.
This report examines the pervasive and longstanding failure to recognize and respond to variations in the effectiveness of teachers.
Weisberg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., Keeling, D., Schunck, J., Palcisco, A., & Morgan, K. (2009). The widget effect: Our national failure to acknowledge and act on differences in teacher effectiveness. New Teacher Project.
U.S. public policy has increasingly been conceived, debated, and evaluated through the lenses of politics and ideology. The fundamental question -- Will the policy work? -- too often gets short shrift or even ignored. A remedy is an evidence-based policy--a rigorous approach that draws on careful data collection, experimentation, and both quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine what the problem is, which ways it can be addressed, and the probable impacts of each of these ways.
Wesley, P. W., & Buysse, V. (2006). Making the case for evidence- based policy. In V. Buysse & P. W. Wesley (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp. 117–159). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.
The report of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Panel on Research and Teacher Education (2005) recommended that teacher educators need to systematically and empirically study their own practice. The premise of the report was that teacher educators need to carry out quality research in order to better inform those inside and outside the field of education.
Wilkins, E. A., Shin, E. K., & Ainsworth, J. (2009). The effects of peer feedback practices with elementary education teacher candidates. Teacher Education Quarterly, 36(2), 79-93.
Due to the increased need to support teachers' use of evidence-based practices in multi-tiered systems of support such as RTI [Response to Intervention] and PBIS [Positive Behavior Interventions and Support], coaching can extend and strengthen professional development. This paper describes a multi-level approach to coaching and provides implications for practice and research.
Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.
The purpose of this study is to examine research to answer the question, What is the impact of teacher professional development on student achievement.
Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033. Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest (NJ1).
This study evaluated the effects of graphed feedback alone compared to the effects of graphed feedback plus verbal feedback. The combined graphed and verbal resulted in slightly better performance.
Zoder-Martell, K., Dufrene, B., Sterling, H., Tingstrom, D., Blaze, J., Duncan, N., & Harpole, L.-. (2013). Effects of Verbal and Graphed Feedback on Treatment Integrity. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 29(4).