This document discusses what is needed for accurate graduation rates and provides data on state graduation rates, along with adequate yearly progress information.
Hall, D. (2005). Getting Honest about Grad Rates: How States Play the Numbers and Students Lose. Education Trust.
This paper is based on the simple idea that students’ educational achievement is affected by the effort put in by those participating in the education process: schools, parents, and, of course, the students themselves.
DeFraja, G., Oliveira, T., & Zanchi, L. (2010). Must try harder: Evaluating the role of effort in educational attainment. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 92(3), 577–597. Retrieved from https://art.torvergata.it/retrieve/handle/2108/55644/108602/De%20Fraja%20Zanch%20Oliveira%20REStats%202010.pdf
This paper describes two models for understanding dropping out as a developmental process that may begin in the earliest grades.
Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of educational research, 59(2), 117-142.
The American Academy of Pediatrics just released a policy statement regarding the negative impact that chronic student absenteeism has on children’s health. They cite numerous ways the two are linked.
Allison, M. A., & Attisha, E. (2019). The Link Between School Attendance and Good Health. Pediatrics, e20183648.
The Condition of Education. This year’s report presents 49 indicators of important developments and trends in U.S. education.
Aud, S., Hussar, W., Johnson, F., Kena, G., Roth, E., Manning, E., ... & Zhang, J. (2012). The Condition of Education 2012. NCES 2012-045. National Center for Education Statistics.
The Condition of Education. This year's report presents 50 indicators of important developments and trends in U.S. education.
Aud, S., Hussar, W., Kena, G., Bianco, K., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., & Tahan, K. (2011). The Condition of Education 2011. NCES 2011-033. National Center for Education Statistics.
This book examines research on the problem of student dropouts and standardized and high stakes testing. Information comes from papers presented at a 2000 workshop in which experts offered their diverse perspectives and technical expertise.
Beatty, A., Neisser, U., Trent, W. T., & Heubert, J. P. (2001). Understanding Dropouts: Statistics, Strategies, and High-Stakes Testing. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.
Gaps in educational opportunities persist, and more work is needed to make sure that every child has a fair shot at success. Earlier CEA analysis highlights that gaps in learning outcomes have already emerged at the time of school entry, and they persist or even widen as children progress through school.
Black, S., Giuliano, L., & Narayan, A, (2016, December 9). Civil rights data show more work is needed to reduce inequities in K–12 schools.
This paper examines the effects of school characteristics on both the probability of dropping out and the strongest predictor of dropping out-absenteeism.
Bryk, A. S., & Thum, Y. M. (1989). The effects of high school organization on dropping out: An exploratory investigation. American Educational research journal, 26(3), 353-383.
Teach For America (TFA) is a nonprofit organization that seeks to improve educational opportunities for disadvantaged students by recruiting and training teachers to work in low income schools. The program uses a rigorous screening process to select college graduates and professionals with strong academic backgrounds and
leadership experience and asks them to commit to teach for two years in high-needs schools.
Clark, M. A., Isenberg, E., Liu, A. Y., Makowsky, L., & Zukiewicz, M. (2015). Impacts of the Teach For America investing in innovation scale-up. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.
This book reviews the evaluation research literature that has accumulated around 19 K-12 mathematics curricula and breaks new ground in framing an ambitious and rigorous approach to curriculum evaluation that has relevance beyond mathematics.
Confrey, J., & Stohl, V. (2004). On Evaluating Curricular Effectiveness: Judging the Quality of K-12 Mathematics Evaluations. National Academies Press.
America's capacity to survive as a democracy relies not only on the provision of free public education, although that is a crucial foundation; it rests on the kind of education that arms people with an intelligence capable of free and independent thought. In addition, it rests on an education that helps people to build common ground across diverse experiences and ideas.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1996). The right to learn and the advancement of teaching: Research, policy, and practice for democratic education. Educational researcher, 25(6), 5-17.
This report gauges progress toward achieving high quality teaching in every classroom,
using data about teaching conditions that are, new since publication of an earlier report by
the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). Doing what matters most: Investing in quality teaching. National Commission on Teaching & America's Future, Kutztown Distribution Center, 15076 Kutztown Road, PO Box 326, Kutztown, PA 19530-0326.
This information is used to determine the current number of charter schools in each state and to estimate total charter school enrollment at the national level.
David, R., & Hesla, K. (2018). Estimated public charter school enrollment, 2017–2018. Washington, D.C.: National Alliance for Public Charter Schools. Retrieved from https://www.publiccharters.org/sites/default/files/documents/2018-03/FINAL%20Estimated%20Public%20Charter%20School%20Enrollment%252c%202017-18_0.pdf
This Digest examines some of the ways that truancy affects both individuals and society. It identifies factors that may place students at greater risk of becoming truant and lists some consequences of nonattendance, including delayed promotion and graduation, lowered self-esteem, and lessened employment potential.
DeKalb, J. (1999). Student truancy. ERIC Digest
Fine, M. (1986). Why urban adolescents drop into and out of public high school. Teachers College Record, 87(3), 393-409.
This investigation examines the aspect of the structural and regulatory environment of schools to identify features that are associated with higher levels of engagement among eighth-grade students at risk.
Finn, J. D., & Voelkl, K. E. (1993). School characteristics related to student engagement. The Journal of Negro Education, 62(3), 249-268.
The authors assessed the contribution of self-regulated learning strategies (SRL), when
combined with problem-solving transfer instruction (LS Fuchs et al., 2003), on 3rd-graders'
mathematical problem solving. SRL incorporated goal setting and self-evaluation.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Prentice, K., Burch, M., Hamlett, C. L., Owen, R., & Schroeter, K. (2003). Enhancing Third-Grade Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving With Self-Regulated Learning Strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 306-315.
This brief describes seven promising programs that have developed a coordinated response to reduce truancy and juvenile delinquency.
Garry, E. M. (1996). Truancy: First Step to a Lifetime of Problems. Juvenile justice bulletin.
This paper presents a systematic review of the literature that assessed the effectiveness of frequency building and precision teaching with school-aged children. The authors evaluated studies in accordance with the What Works Clearinghouse standards and the council for exceptional children standards for evidence-based practices in special education.
Gist, C., & Bulla, A. J. (2020). A systematic review of frequency building and precision teaching with school-aged children. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1-26.
Where, when, and how we teach reading says more about us than it does the students. Explicitly teaching and leveraging the science allows us to overcome our blind spots, assumptions, and biases which impact every aspect of instruction. In doing so, we save us from ourselves and avoid a permanent underclass filling our correctional institutions as prisoners of the ‘reading wars.’
Goldenberg, C., Glaser, D. R., Kame'enui, E. J., Butler, K., Diamond, L., Moats, L., ... & Grimes, S. C. (2020). The Four Pillars to Reading Success: An Action Guide for States. National Council on Teacher Quality.
In order to meet writing objectives specified in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), many teachers need to make significant changes in how writing is taught. While CCSS identified what students need to master, it did not provide guidance on how teachers are to meet these writing benchmarks.
Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Santangelo, T. (2015). based writing practices and the common core: Meta-analysis and meta-synthesis. The Elementary School Journal, 115(4), 498-522.
The report examines the effect of state funding systems and high stakes testing on special
Greene, J. P., & Forster, G. (2002). Effects of Funding Incentives on Special Education Enrollment. Civic Report.
This report uses a newly defined version of the Greene Method to calculate graduation rates for the public school class of 2000, comparing results to those of 1998.
Greene, J. P., & Winters, M. A. (2002). Public School Graduation Rates in the United States. Civic Report.
There are both personal and societal costs of dropping out.
Hale, L. F. (1998). School dropout prevention: Information and strategies for parents. National Association of School Psychologists. Retrieved September, 30, 2005.
The number of college graduates has steadily increased in the past decade, especially among those earning bachelor’s degrees. Graduation rates have also increased overall, especially at public, 4-year institutions; college graduation statistics suggest greater student success at these institutions.
Hanson, M. (2021). College Graduation Statistics. Educationdata.org.
Although the current evidence based fad has turned into a debate about test scores, this book is about using evidence to build and defend a model of teaching and learning. A major contribution is a fascinating benchmark/dashboard for comparing many innovations in teaching and schools.
Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge.
Community colleges typically offer extensive developmental education programs to students
with weak academic skills in order to prepare them for college-level coursework. Yet, for
students referred to developmental mathematics education, rates of completion in
developmental math courses and in college-level math courses required for a degree are
Hodara, M. (2011). Improving pedagogy in the developmental mathematics classroom. CCRC Brief, 51, 1-4.
The document contains the final report of a project to determine the factors that account for disproportionate representation of minority students in special education programs, especially programs for mentally retarded students; and to identify placement criteria for practices that do not affect minority students disproportionately
Holtzman, W. H., Messick, S., & National Research Council. (1982). Placing children in special education: A strategy for equity. National Academies.
The purpose of this article is to provide prospectus to the problem and develop key recommendations that may be utilized by urban districts to reduce its financial costs and to significantly improve staff and student attendance.
Jacobs, K. D., & Kritsonis, W. A. (2007). An Analysis of Teacher and Student Absenteeism in Urban Schools: What the Research Says and Recommendations for Educational Leaders. Online Submission.
In this study, the authors examined whether students of different racial-ethnic groups vary in attachment and engagement and whether properties of schools (eg, racial-ethnic composition) influence these outcomes over
and above individual characteristics.
Johnson, M. K., Crosnoe, R., & Elder Jr, G. H. (2001). Students' attachment and academic engagement: The role of race and ethnicity. Sociology of education, 318-340.
This report examines data on out of school suspension rates in every school district in the country.
Losen, D. J., Hodson, C. L., Keith, I. I., Michael, A., Morrison, K., & Belway, S. (2015). Are we closing the school discipline gap?.
This report examines the educational progress and challenges students face in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that, over time, students in the racial/ethnic groups of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Two or more races have completed high school and continued their education in college in increasing numbers. Despite these gains, the rate of progress has varied among these racial/ethnic groups and differences by race/ethnicity persist in terms of increases in attainment and progress on key indicators of educational performance.
Musu-Gillette, L., Robinson, J., McFarland, J., KewalRamani, A., Zhang, A., & Wilkinson-Flicker, S. (2016). Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2016. NCES 2016-007. National Center for Education Statistics.
Data through 1995 are for institutions of higher education, while later data are for degree-granting institutions. Degree-granting institutions grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. The degree-granting classification is very similar to the earlier higher education classification, but it includes more 2-year colleges and excludes a few higher education institutions that did not grant degrees. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
National Center for Education Statistics Table 303.70. (2018) Total undergraduate fall enrollment in degree-granting postsecondary institutions by attendance status, sex of student, and control and level of institution: Selected years, 1970 through 2028.
Studies employing applied behavior analysis in the teaching and remediation of mathematics are reviewed. The review shows that a large variety of remediation techniques have been used, with an increasing trend towards student-initiated procedures, often as part of a treatment package.
Pereira, J. A., & Winton, A. S. (1991). Teaching and remediation of mathematics: A review of behavioral research. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1(1), 5-36.
The authors report a randomized field experiment (N = 15,329) that tests the impact of two types of symbolic awards on student attendance: preannounced awards (prospective) and surprise awards (retrospective).
Robinson, C., Gallus, J., Lee, M., & Rogers, T. (2018). The Demotivating Effect (and Unintended Message) of Retrospective Awards.
This descriptive summary is one of the first reviews to examine the number of days of “lost instruction” resulting from student suspensions. The study examines the total number of days lost nationwide, disparities among different student subgroups, and differences across individual states. The impact of loss of instruction due to suspensions has a lifelong impact on students, including: lower graduation rates (Rumberger and Losen, 2017), increased involvement in the juvenile justice system (Mowicki, 2018), and arrests as adults Rosenbaum (2018).
Russell W. Rumberger and Daniel J.Losen, The Hidden Cost of California’s Harsh School Discipline, The Civil Rights Project at UCLA, (2017) Retrieved from http://www.schooldisciplinedata.org/ccrr/docs/CostofSuspensionReportFinal.pdf
Janet Rosenbaum (2018). Educational and Criminal Justice Outcomes 12 Years After School Suspension. Youth & Society.
Jacqueline M. Mowicki, Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys and Students with Disabilities, GAO (March 2018). Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/assets/700/690828.pdf
Recently, the term science of reading has been used in public debate to promote policies and instructional practices based on research on the basic cognitive mechanisms of reading, the neural processes involved in reading, computational models of learning to read, and the like. According to those views, such data provide convincing evidence that explicit decoding instruction (e.g., phonological awareness, phonics) should be beneficial to reading success.
Shanahan, T. (2020). What constitutes a science of reading instruction?. Reading Research Quarterly, 55, S235-S247.
Data through 1995 are for institutions of higher education, while later data are for degree-granting institutions. Degree-granting institutions grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. The degree-granting classification is very similar to the earlier higher education classification, but it includes more 2-year colleges and excludes a few higher education institutions that did not grant degrees. Some data have been revised from previously published figures
Snyder, T., de Brey, C., & Dillow, S. A. (2018). Total Fall Enrollment in Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions, by Level and Control of Institution and Race/Ethnicity of Student: Selected Years, 1976 Through 2028. Table, 306, 2017-094.
This report presents findings associated with public high school graduation and event dropout counts for the 2008–09 school year. These data were collected as part of the Common Core of Data Survey Collection, a universe collection of public schools operating in the United States and associated other jurisdictions.
Stillwell, R., Sable, J., & Plotts, C. (2011). Public school graduates and dropouts from the common core of data: School year 2008–09. (NCES 2011-312). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http:// nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2011312
For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The pattern was spread across the nation. This paper show the percentage data from across the country.
Suitts, S. (2015). A new majority research bulletin: Low income students now a majority in the nation’s public schools. Atlanta, GA: Southern Education Foundation.
This paper outlines the consequences that these young people face after leaving high school.
Sum, A., Khatiwada, I., McLaughlin, J., & Palma, S. (2009). The consequences of dropping out of high school. (Paper 23). Retrieved from Center for Labor Market Studies Publications website: http://hdl.handle.net/2047/d20000596
Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment. [Table A-4]. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/webapps/legacy/cpsatab4.htm
The final regulations establish a uniform and more accurate measure of calculating high school graduation rate that is comparable across states; strengthen public school choice and supplemental educational services requirements; and increase accountability and transparency.
U.S. Department of Education. (2008). A uniform, comparable graduation rate: How the final regulations for Title I hold schools, districts, and states accountable for improving graduation rates. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/reg/proposal/uniform-grad-rate.pdf
This report examines students’ sense of belonging and participation at school, two of the most important measures of student engagement.
Willms, J. D. (2003). Student engagement at school: A sense of belonging and participation. Results from PISA 2000. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.