Education Drivers

Treatment Integrity

For the best chance of a positive impact on educational outcomes, two conditions must be met: (a) Effective interventions must be adopted, and (b) those interventions must be implemented with sufficient quality (treatment integrity) to ensure benefit. To date, emphasis in education has been on identifying effective interventions and less concern with implementing the interventions. The research on the implementation of interventions is not encouraging. Often, treatment integrity scores are very low and, in practice, implementation is rarely assessed. If an intervention with a strong research base is not implemented with a high level of treatment integrity, then the students do not actually experience the intervention and there is no reason to assume they will benefit from it. Under these circumstances, it is not possible to know if poor outcomes are the result of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of that intervention. Historically, treatment integrity has been defined as implementing an intervention as prescribed. More recently, it has been conceptualized as having multiple dimensions, among them dosage and adherence which must be measured to ensure that it is occurring at adequate levels.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Evidence-Based Practice in the Broader Context: How Can We Really Use Evidence to Inform Decisions?

This paper provides an overview of the considerations when introducing evidence-based services into established mental health systems.

Chorpita, B. F., & Starace, N. K. (2010). Evidence-Based Practice in the Broader Context: How Can We Really Use Evidence to Inform Decisions? Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 4-29.

Treatment Integrity: Fundamental to Education Reform

To produce better outcomes for students two things are necessary: (1) effective, scientifically supported interventions (2) those interventions implemented with high integrity.  Typically, much greater attention has been given to identifying effective practices.  This review focuses on features of high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258-271.

Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform

Schools are often expected to implement innovative instructional programs.  Most often these initiatives fail because what we know from implementation science is not considered as part of implementing the initiative.  This chapter reviews the contributions implementation science can make for improving outcomes for students.

Detrich, R. Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform. Handbook on Innovations in Learning, 31.

Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Unit of Sustainable Educational Programs.

Reform efforts tend to come and go very quickly in education. This paper makes the argument that the sustainability of programs is closely related to how well those programs are implemented.

Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2010). Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Unit of Sustainable Educational Programs. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 4-29.

Roles and responsibilities of researchers and practitioners for translating research to practice

This paper outlines the best practices for researchers and practitioners translating research to practice as well as recommendations for improving the process.

Shriver, M. D. (2007). Roles and responsibilities of researchers and practitioners for translating research to practice. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 8(1), 1-30.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How does performance feedback affect the way teachers carry out interventions?
This analysis examined the impact of performance feedback on the quality of implementation of interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). How does performance feedback affect the way teachers carry out interventions? Retrieved from how-does-performance-feedback.
How long do reform initiatives last in public schools?
This analysis examined sustainability of education reforms in education.
Detrich, R. (2015). How long do reform initiatives last in public schools? Retrieved from how-long-do-reform.
How often are treatment integrity measures reported in published research?
This analysis examined the frequency that treatment integrity is reported in studies of research-based interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). How often are treatment integrity measures reported in published research? Retrieved from how-often-are-treatment.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Roles and Responsibilities of Researchers and Practitioners Translating Research to Practice

This paper outlines the best practices for researchers and practitioners translating research to practice as well as recommendations for improving the process.

Shriver, M. (2006). Roles and Responsibilities of Researchers and Practitioners Translating Research to Practice [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2006-wing-presentation-mark-shriver.

The Role of Data-based Decision Making

This paper identifies the critical features required for developing and maintaining a systemic data-based decision making model aligned at all levels, beginning with an individual student in the classroom and culminating with policy makers.

States, J. (2009). The Role of Data-based Decision Making [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2009-campbell-presentation-jack-states.

The Role of Data-based Decision Making

This presentation examines the impact of data-based decision making in schools. It looks at the critical role data plays in building an evidence-based model for education that relies on monitoring for the reliable implementation of practices.

States, J. (2010). The Role of Data-based Decision Making [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-hice-presentation-jack-states.

What the Data Tell Us

This paper offers an overview of issues practitioners must consider in selecting practices. Types of evidence, sources of evidence, and the role of professional judgment are discussed as cornerstones of effective evidenced-based decision-making.

States, J. (2010). What the Data Tell Us [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-capses-presentation-jack-states.

Evolution of the Revolution: How Can Evidence-based Practice Work in the Real World?
This paper provides an overview of the considerations when introducing evidence-based services into established mental health systems.
Chorpita, B. (2008). Evolution of the Revolution: How Can Evidence-based Practice Work in the Real World? [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-wing-presentation-bruce-chorpita.
Treatment Integrity and Program Fidelity: Necessary but Not Sufficient to Sustain Programs
If programs are to sustain they must be implemented with integrity. If there is drift over time, it raises questions about whether the program is sustaining or has been substantially changed.
Detrich, R. (2008). Treatment Integrity and Program Fidelity: Necessary but Not Sufficient to Sustain Programs [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-aba-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
The Four Assumptions of the Apocalypse
This paper examines the four basic assumptions for effective data-based decision making in education and offers strategies for addressing problem areas.
Detrich, R. (2009). The Four Assumptions of the Apocalypse [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2009-wing-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Toward a Technology of Treatment Integrity
If research supported interventions are to be effective it is necessary that they are implemented with integrity. This paper describes approahes to assuring high levels of treatment integrtiy.
Detrich, R. (2011). Toward a Technology of Treatment Integrity [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-apbs-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Treatment Integrity: Necessary by Not Sufficient for Improving Outcomes
Treatment integrity is necessary to improve outcomes but it is not sufficient. It is also necessary to implement scientifically supported interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). Treatment Integrity: Necessary by Not Sufficient for Improving Outcomes [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-ebpindisabilities-txint-presentation-ronnie-detrich.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Transporting an evidence-based school engagement intervention to practice: Outcomes and barriers to implementation.
Check and Connect is an intervention designed to increase student engagement in school. This study was a transportability study that evaluated the impact of Check and Connect when implemented by school personnel rather than researchers.
Pankow, C. (2009). Transporting an evidence-based school engagement intervention to practice: Outcomes and barriers to implementation. Retrieved from student-research-2009-a.
Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes.
This study evaluated the effects of a problem solving intervention package that included problem-solving information, performance feedback, and coaching in a student intervention planning protocol.
Vaccarello, C. A. (2011). Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes. Retrieved from student-research-2011.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Increasing Pre-service Teachers' Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior.

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback to increase the implementation of skills taught during in-service training.

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.

Increasing pre-service teachers’ use of differential reinforcement: Effects of performance feedback on consequences for student behavior

Significant dollars are spent each school year on professional development programs to improve teachers’ effectiveness. This study assessed the integrity with which pre-service teachers used a differential reinforcement of alternate behavior (DRA) strategy taught to them during their student teaching experience.

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing pre-service teachers’ use of differential reinforcement: Effects of performance feedback on consequences for student behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.

The Use of E-Mail to Deliver Performance-Based Feedback to Early Childhood Practitioners.

This study evaulates the effects of performance feedback as part of proffessional development across three studies.

Barton, E. E., Pribble, L., & Chen, C.-I. (2013). The Use of E-Mail to Deliver Performance-Based Feedback to Early Childhood Practitioners. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(3), 270-297.

Putting the pieces together: An Integrated Model of program implementation

One of the primary goals of implementation science is to insure that programs are implemented with integrity.  This paper presents an integrated model of implementation that emphasizes treatment integrity.

Berkel, C., Mauricio, A. M., Schoenfelder, E., Sandler, I. N., & Collier-Meek, M. (2011). Putting the pieces together: An Integrated Model of program implementation. Prevention Science, 12, 23-33.

Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process

This study investigated the effects of performance feedback as a means for increasing the integrity of problem-solving teams following a decision protocol.

Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550. 

Graphical Feedback to Increase Teachers' Use of Incidental Teaching.

Incidental teaching is often a component of early childhood intervention programs.  This study evaluated the use of grahical feedback to increase the use of incidental teaching.

Casey, A. M., & McWilliam, R. A. (2008). Graphical Feedback to Increase Teachers’ Use of Incidental Teaching. Journal of Early Intervention, 30(3), 251-268. 

The impact of checklist-based training on teachers' use of the zone defense schedule.

One of the challenges for increasing treatment integrity is finding effective methods for doing so.  This study evaluated the use of checklist-based training to increase treatment integrity.

Casey, A. M., & McWilliam, R. A. (2011). The impact of checklist-based training on teachers’ use of the zone defense schedule. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(2), 397-401. 

Using Performance Feedback To Decrease Classroom Transition Time And Examine Collateral Effects On Academic Engagement.

This study evaluated the impact of performance feedback on how well problem-solving teams implemeted a structured decision-making protocal.  Teams performed better when feedback was provided.

Codding, R. S., & Smyth, C. A. (2008). Using Performance Feedback To Decrease Classroom Transition Time And Examine Collateral Effects On Academic Engagement. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 18(4), 325-345. Retrieved from http://content.epnet.com/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=35383935&EbscoContent=dGJyMNXb4kSeprY4zdnyOLCmr0yep7VSr6m4Ta6WxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMOzprk%2BvqrdPuePfgeyx%2BEu3q64A&D=eue

 

Effects of Immediate Performance Feedback on Implementation of Behavior Support Plans.

This study investigated the effects of performance feedback to increase treatment integrity.

Codding, R. S., Feinberg, A. B., & Dunn, E. K. (2005). Effects of Immediate Performance Feedback on Implementation of Behavior Support Plans. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(2), 205-219. 

 

Using Performance Feedback to Improve Treatment Integrity of Classwide Behavior Plans: An Investigation of Observer Reactivity

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback in increasing treatment integrity.  It also evaluated the possible reactivitiy effects of being observed.

Codding, R. S., Livanis, A., Pace, G. M., & Vaca, L. (2008). Using Performance Feedback to Improve Treatment Integrity of Classwide Behavior Plans: An Investigation of Observer Reactivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(3), 417-422. 

 

The effects of video modeling on staff implementation of a problem-solving intervention with adults with developmental disabilities.

This study evaluated the effects of video modeling on staff implementation of a problem solving intervention.

Collins, S., Higbee, T. S., & Salzberg, C. L. (2009). The effects of video modeling on staff implementation of a problem-solving intervention with adults with developmental disabilities. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 42(4), 849-854.

Test Driving Interventions to Increase Treatment Integrity and Student Outcomes.

This study evaluated the effects of allowing teachers to “test drive” interventions and then select the intervention they most preferred.  The result was an increase in treatment integrity.

Dart, E. H., Cook, C. R., Collins, T. A., Gresham, F. M., & Chenier, J. S. (2012). Test Driving Interventions to Increase Treatment Integrity and Student Outcomes. School Psychology Review, 41(4), 467-481.

A comparison of performance feedback procedures on teachers' treatment implementation integrity and students' inappropriate behavior in special education classrooms.

This study comared the effects of goal setting about student performance and feedback about student performance with daily written feedback about student performance, feedback about accuracy of implementation, and cancelling meetings if integrity criterion was met. 

DiGennaro, F. D., Martens, B. K., & Kleinmann, A. E. (2007). A comparison of performance feedback procedures on teachers' treatment implementation integrity and students' inappropriate behavior in special education classrooms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(3), 447-461. 

 

Increasing Treatment Integrity Through Negative Reinforcement: Effects on Teacher and Student Behavior

This study evaluated the impact of allowing  teachers to miss coaching meetings if their treatment integrity scores met or exceeded criterion.

DiGennaro, F. D., Martens, B. K., & McIntyre, L. L. (2005). Increasing Treatment Integrity Through Negative Reinforcement: Effects on Teacher and Student Behavior. School Psychology Review, 34(2), 220-231.

Effects of video modeling on treatment integrity of behavioral interventions.

This study evaluated the effects of video modeling on how well teachers implemented interventions.  There was an increase in integrity but it remained variable.  More stable patterns of implementation were observed when teachers were given feedback about their peroformance.

Digennaro-Reed, F. D., Codding, R., Catania, C. N., & Maguire, H. (2010). Effects of video modeling on treatment integrity of behavioral interventions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43(2), 291-295. 

 

Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance.

This study evaluated the impact of public feedback in RtI team meetings on the quality of implementation.  Feedback improved poor implementation and maintained high level implementation.

Duhon, G. J., Mesmer, E. M., Gregerson, L., & Witt, J. C. (2009). Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance. Journal of School Psychology, 47(1), 19-37.

Sustaining fidelity following the nationwide PMTO™ implementation in Norway

This paper describes the scaling up and dissemination of a partent training program in Norway while maintaining fidelity of implementation.

Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2011). Sustaining fidelity following the nationwide PMTO™ implementation in Norway. Prevention Science, 12(3), 235-246. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3153633

 

Establishing Treatment Fidelity in Evidence-Based Parent Training Programs for Externalizing Disorders in Children and Adolescents.
This review evaluated methods for improving treatment integrity based on the National Institutes of Health Treatment Fidelity Workgroup.  Strategies related to treatment design produced the highest levels of treatment integrity.  Training and enactment of treatment skills resulted in the lowest level of treatment integrity across the 65 reviewed studies.

Garbacz, L., Brown, D., Spee, G., Polo, A., & Budd, K. (2014). Establishing Treatment Fidelity in Evidence-Based Parent Training Programs for Externalizing Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 17(3).

Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention

This article evaluated the effects of response dependent feedback on accurate implementation of an intervention.  Whenever teachers failed to meet 100% accuracy criterion they were given feedback about their performance.

Gilbertson, D., Witt, J., Singletary, L., & VanDerHeyden, A. (2007). Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16(4), 311-326.

Strategies for Improving Treatment Integrity in Organizational Consultation

Organizations house many individuals.  Many of them are responsible implementing the same practice.  If organizations are to meet their goal it is important for the organization have systems for assuring high levels of treatment integrity.

Gottfredson, D. C. (1993). Strategies for Improving Treatment Integrity in Organizational Consultation. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 4(3), 275. 

Does treatment integrity matter? A preliminary investigation of instructional implementation and mathematics performance

This study examined the impact of three levels of treatment integrity on students'
responding on mathematics tasks.

Noell, G. H., Gresham, F. M., & Gansle, K. A. (2002). Does treatment integrity matter? A preliminary investigation of instructional implementation and mathematics performance. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11(1), 51-67.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies
The mission of the organization is to advance the scientific study of behavior and its humane application to the solution of practical problems in the home, school, community, and the workplace
Center for Research and Reform in Education (CRRE)
CRRE is a research center who’s major goal is to improve the quality of education through high-quality research and evaluation studies and the dissemination of evidence-based research.
Cochrane Collaboration
Cochrane is an independent network of health practitioners, researchers, patient advocates and others, responding to the challenge of making the vast amounts of evidence generated through research useful for informing decisions about health.
Daniel Willingham - Web Site
Daniel Willingham is a resource to help those interested in issues of education to find practical, helpful information on what works and what doesn’t. His videos are of special interest.
National Education Policy Center
The mission of the National Education Policy Center is to produce and disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed research to inform education policy discussions.
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