Education Drivers

Classroom Management

Classroom management plays a critical role in creating an environment conducive to learning. It consists of practices and procedures that teachers apply to establish an environment conducive to instruction and learning. Research ranks classroom management near the top of issues that impact effective instruction and student achievement. Administrator and teacher surveys consistently list disruptive student behavior as the primary reason for teacher turnover. Ultimately, success in the classroom depends on a classroom climate that encourages and supports learning. However, a well-managed classroom doesn’t just happen on its own; it results when a teacher is trained in key competencies and becomes fluent in them. The four categories of competencies that rigorous research has identified as critical are: (1) rules and procedures, (2) proactive management, (3) effective and stimulating instruction, and (4) reduction of disruptive and inappropriate student conduct.

Competent command of student conduct is essential to a teacher’s success. Classroom management is how teachers influence student behavior to create an environment conducive to learning. The primary goal is to maximize appropriate conduct and minimize student misbehavior. Effective teachers accomplish this by managing contingencies, the events that occur immediately before and after a behavior. In this way, they remove impediments to teaching students the skills for effective communication, interpersonal interactions, and academic achievement needed for success in life. Ineffective classroom management results in chaos; student learning is disrupted and teacher morale is often damaged beyond repair (Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2003). Where instructional control is poor, neither teacher nor students win.

 

Impact of behavior management 2

Not surprisingly, research reveals that principals and teachers list classroom management among the top five indispensable teaching skills. Disruptive student behavior has ranked among teachers’ top concerns for more than 15 years and is one of the prime reasons teachers leave teaching (Smart & Igo, 2010). Ingersoll (2001) found that over 30% of teachers indicated classroom management issues as their primary reason for leaving the profession.

 

What is classroom management? The goal of effective classroom management is to (1) teach pro-social behaviors, (2) effectively address issues as they happen, and (3) prevent disruptive behavior. Classroom management consists of practices and procedures that teachers apply to keep students organized, orderly, focused, attentive, on-task, and academically productive (Oliver, Wehby, & Reschly, 2011). Success in the classroom depends on the teacher’s ability to maintain an environment that encourages and supports learning. However, a well-managed classroom doesn’t just happen on its own; it develops from well-designed training and experience in working with students. The four classroom management categories that rigorous research identifies as critical are (1) rules and procedures, (2) proactive management, (3) well-designed and -delivered instruction, and (4) disruptive behavior management.

 

Rules and procedures: An indispensable tool for preventing disruptive conduct is the systematic use of rules. Rules describe generally acceptable routines, standards, and procedures that inform students how to behave. Rules and procedures at both school and classroom levels are important in communicating to students and teachers the conduct expected. They prevent disruptive behavior by objectively defining how to behave, how to solve and avoid problems, and consequences of rule violation (Colvin, Kame’enui, & Sugai, 1993).

 

Posting the rules publicly, teaching appropriate behavior, and frequently reviewing expected conduct, when paired with constructive feedback, are found to significantly decrease common disruptive behavior such as veering off-task and talking in class. The various rules and procedures increase opportunities for teachers to reinforce appropriate behavior. These classroom management strategies are also associated with increased engagement, reduced frequency of student conflicts, and greater academic achievement (Johnson, Stoner, & Green, 1996; Lane, Wehby, & Menzies, 2003; Lo, Loe, & Cartledge, 2002; McNamara, Evans, & Hill, 1986; Sharpe, Brown, & Crider, 1995; Rosenberg, 1986).

 

Rules and Procedures

 

Proactive management: Another set of preventive strategies focuses on recognizing and acknowledging desirable conduct. These strategies range from the simple “catching them being good,” which emphasizes contingent praise, to more complex sets of classwide group contingencies such as token economies and behavioral contracts.

 

At the core of a proactive approach is the use of active supervision, which consists of teachers frequently moving around the classroom, remaining alert, engaging with students, and providing feedback including reinforcement for desirable conduct. Active supervision also has been proved effective outside the classroom, for example, in the hallway, on the playground, and on field trips, locations that are often trouble spots for disruptive behavior (Colvin, Sugai, Good, & Lee, 1997).

 

Teachers can avoid disruptive behavior by organizing the physical layout of the classroom. The dividers, desks, seating patterns, traffic flow, and classroom decorations can be designed either to maximize or minimize the probability of misbehavior. Effective organization of the physical environment can reduce visual and auditory distractions as well as eliminate locations that are known sources of misconduct (Maxwell, 1996; Ahrentzen & Evans, 1984).

 

Proactive Behavior Management

 

Well-designed and -delivered instruction: Good classroom management and effective instruction are interdependent; you can’t have one without the other. To minimize misbehavior, teachers must employ the most effective instructional practices. To maximize learning, teachers must be proficient in evidence-based behavior management strategies.

 

Research finds that students who persistently perform poorly on academic assignments have a negative attitude toward school and are more likely than academically successful students to act out and be labeled as problem students (Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, 2002). Sometimes, students may act out to escape instruction that is at their failure level. Similarly, gifted students who are not challenged or given quality instruction also display disruptive behavior. In either case, poor instruction only exacerbates poor conduct. Teachers must assign work that is neither too easy nor too hard. Students need lessons that are well matched to their abilities and the difficulty of the assignment. When mismatches occur, students become frustrated, bored, distracted, and eventually disruptive.

 

Effective instruction practices: A consistent and predictable schedule is important when creating an affirming learning environment. Teachers must pay special attention to transition periods in the daily schedule. The time between lessons, during moves between classrooms, before and after recess, and before and after lunch provide opportunities for students to act out because of the low structure in these situations. Planning ahead, establishing routines for transitions, and avoiding long periods of inactivity are important strategies for avoiding pandemonium and the loss of valuable instructional time.

Teaching practices

Teaching Practice Citations

Clear Instructional Objective – Hattie (2009), Hattie, Bigs, and Purdie (1996)
High Rates of Responding – Hattie (2009)
Quantity of Instruction – Hattie (2009)
Teacher Demonstration – Wilson and Sindelar (1991)
Spaced vs. Massed – Hattie (2009)
Student Verbalization – Hattie (2009)
Guided Practice – Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock (2001)
Peer Coaching – Hattie (2009)
Meta-cognitive Strategies – Hattie (2009), Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock (2001)
Cumulative Review – Hattie, Bigs, and Purdie (1996), Rosenshine and Meister (1994)
Mastery Learning – Hattie (2009)
Research reveals that lesson planning is the indispensable foundation on which to build effective instruction. Explicit instruction or as it is sometimes referred to, direct instruction, is a systematic instructional approach based on design and delivery of practices derived from rigorous research. It provides supports or scaffolds that guide students through lessons and encourage mastery of each lesson; clear statements about the purpose and rationale for a new skill, clear explanations and demonstrations of the material to be learned, and focus on supported practice with feedback are fundamental to explicit instruction. It is an approach to classroom instruction that combines individual instructional practices characterized by clear presentation of content; carefully sequenced (components and subcomponents of skills are seamlessly and progressively presented) and supported instruction; high rates of responding; judicious review of content; systematic feedback; initial and ongoing assessment of student progress and placement; and student mastery of concepts and skills (Becker & Gersten, 1982; Carnine, Silbert, Kame’enui, & Tarver, 2004).

 

Teachers who develop instructional objectives, link lessons through the use of scope and sequencing, tie instruction to “big ideas” (concepts or skills central to the lesson that connect these to the “bigger ideas” or ways these concepts and skills will be used in later lessons and in “real world” settings), and to standards are the most successful. Teachers who provide each student with a sufficient quantity of instruction and require high rates of responding for each student to demonstrate acquisition of the lesson are better instructors.

 

To build long-term success, the most effective teachers require students to demonstrate mastery of the material before moving on the next assignment. In this way, students gain the foundational skills to be successful in future assignments. For learning to be sustained beyond the moment, teachers must return to previously taught material in future lessons. They must also find opportunities for students to use the skills or knowledge in real-life settings to increase student motivation and establish greater relevancy.

 

Another hallmark of effective teaching is the proficient use of feedback. Teachers who provide acknowledgment and corrective feedback in a non-judgmental way to guide students toward improving performance achieve better results. The ratio of positive to corrective feedback should be 4:1. Specific, clearly defined feedback is more effective than general statements, and immediate feedback is more powerful than delayed feedback.

 

Few instructional practices have as much impact on student performance as formative assessment. Teachers who regularly collect performance data and then chart and analyze the data see student learning notably enhanced. Even greater results can be achieved when teachers provide the outcome of their analysis to their students (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986).

 

formative Assessment

Other effective instructional practices include guided notes (handouts that guide a student through a lecture with cues and prepared space in which to write the key facts and concepts), and peer tutoring.

 

Disruptive behavior management: Disorderly behavior will occur despite teachers’ best efforts to prevent it. Setting rules, using proactive management, and implementing well-designed instruction work most of the time, but inevitably situations arise in which a teacher needs to effectively respond to unacceptable student conduct. The key to weathering these events successfully is to have a plan, remain calm, react in an unemotional manner that minimizes any payoff to the students, and impose any punishment in a measured way that is commensurate with the infraction.

 

Students misbehave for a reason. Generally, they act out to avoid something they perceive to be aversive, such as an activity or lesson in which they are doing poorly or failing, or to gain something they perceive to be reinforcing, such as peer or teacher attention. The important point to remember is each student misbehaves for his or her own reasons. To reduce the frequency, intensity, and impact of misbehavior, the teacher must assess each situation to determine what is motivating the student to act out and then develop an intervention best designed to meet the student’s needs. It is important not to skip this step when designing a behavior intervention. If a teacher intervenes without assessing the motivation, he or she might inadvertently reinforce the student and make the problem worse. For example, being sent to the office is a reward in the mind of a student whose motivation for misbehavior is to avoid class.

 

Teachers must adopt a continuum of strategies to respond to disruptive or inappropriate behavior. They must use the tool that best suits the situation. As a rule, they should begin with the least intrusive and uncomplicated intervention to remedy a problem, such as correcting the inappropriate behavior, and move on to more complex behavior interventions when required.

 

One of the most important strategies available to teachers is differential reinforcement, which essentially ignores the inappropriate behavior and instead reinforces the appropriate behavior to replace the inappropriate conduct. It is designed to reduce misconduct in a positive manner and is a powerful alternative to the use of negative consequences. Other important strategies for behavior reduction include ignoring misbehavior (withdrawal or discontinuance of reinforcement in order to eliminate inappropriate conduct); corrective feedback (a verbal statement for the student to stop engaging in a behavior or an instruction to engage in an alternative behavior); an explicit reprimand (a verbal statement that describes the behavior and tells the student exactly how to behave in the future); and response cost (the withdrawal of access to a reinforcer immediately after the disruptive behavior) (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008).

 

Behavior Reduction 

Conclusion

 

Educators currently have access to a solid knowledge base that outlines effective practices for building classroom management systems. In this overview, strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and -delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels. A teacher can adapt and implement each practice to meet his or her requirements and each student’s needs. The strategies are intended to be compatible for use within each teacher’s classroom structure and with the current curriculum. They are designed as a continuum of strategies beginning with the least intrusive practices and building to more complex interventions required to address serious misbehavior. Good classroom management starts with a universal system to support all students in the classroom and moves to more intensive interventions for students not benefiting from the universal level of intervention.

 

These strategies produce the best results when teacher training uses a professional development model that includes ongoing coaching and active support by the school administration. One-time in-service workshops have been proved to be ineffective in sustainable implementation of practices. When implemented with integrity, classroom management is an essential driver in establishing a classroom environment that produces the best results for students and teachers.

 

References

 

Ahrentzen, S., & Evans, G. W. (1984). Distraction, privacy, and classroom design. Environment and Behavior, 16(4), 437–454.

 

Becker, W. C., & Gersten, R. (1982). A follow-up of Follow Through: The later effects of the Direct Instruction model on children in fifth and sixth grades. American Educational Research Journal, 19(1), 75–92.

 

Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., Kame’enui, E. J., & Tarver, S. G. (2004). Direct Instruction reading. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.

 

Colvin, G., Kame’enui, E. J., & Sugai, G. (1993). Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and Treatment of Children, 16(4), 361–381.

 

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good, R. H., III, & Lee, Y. Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly

 

Fuchs, L. S. & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of systematic formative evaluation: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199–208.

 

Hattie, J., (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

 

Hattie, J., (2012).

 

Ingersoll, R. M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499–534.

 

Johnson, T. C., Stoner, G., & Green, S. K. (1996). Demonstrating the Experimenting Society Model with Classwide Behavior Management Interventions. School Psychology Review, 25(2), 199-214.

 

Lane, K. L., Wehby, J., Menzies, H. M., Doukas, G. L., Munton, S. M., & Gregg, R. M. (2003). Social skills instruction for students at risk for antisocial behavior: The effects of small-group instruction. Behavioral Disorders, 229-248.

 

Lo, Y. Y., Loe, S. A., & Cartledge, G. (2002). The effects of social skills instruction on the social behaviors of students at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 371-385.

 

Maxwell, L. E. (1996). Multiple effects of home and daycare crowding. Environment and Behavior, 28(4), 494-511.

 

Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. J. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

 

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

 

McNamara, E., Evans, M., & Hill, W. (1986). The reduction of disruptive behaviour in two secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 56(2), 209-215.

 

Oliver, R. M., Wehby, J. H., & Reschly, D. J. (2011). Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior. Evanston, IL: Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness.

 

Rosenberg, M. S. (1986). Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students. Behavior Disorders, 11(4), 239-248.

 

Sharpe, T., Crider, K., Vyhlidal, T., & Brown, M. (1996). Description and effects of prosocial instruction in an elementary physical education setting. Education and Treatment of Children, 435-457.

 

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351–380.

 

Smart, J. B., & Igo, L. B. (2010). A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers. Elementary School Journal, 110(4), 567–584.

 

Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., & Nolet, V. (2002). Prevention and management of behavior problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H. M. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches (pp. 373–401). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

 

White, W. A. T., (1998). A meta-analysis of the effects of Direct Instruction in special education. Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 364–374.

 

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation.

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Effective Teaching Practices: Narrowing the Field
This paper distills the research on effective teaching practices to basic assumptions and core practices. It presents a impact-cost paradigm for rating and prioritizing such practices.
Heward, W. (2013). Effective Teaching Practices: Narrowing the Field [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-william-heward.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
The relative impact of long and short reprimands on children's off-task behavior in the classroom.

This study compared the impact of long and short reprimands on children's off-task behavior in a classroom.

Abramowitz, A. J., O'Leary, S. G., & Futtersak, M. W. (1988). The relative impact of long and short reprimands on children's off-task behavior in the classroom. Behavior Therapy, 19(2), 243-247.

Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers

This book provides a basic understanding of the principles and practices of applied behavior analysis for use by teachers in the classroom.

Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers.

Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior

Differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior is an important skill for classroom teachers. This study examined the use of performance feedback to increase the rate of differential reinforcement by pre-service teachers.

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.

Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Training in Empirically-Validated Behavioral Instruction Practices

This study surveys master's-level elementary, secondary, and special education students about their coursework and applied training in 25 behavioral instruction practices and principles.

Begeny, J. C., & Martens, B. K. (2006). Assessing pre-service teachers' training in empirically-validated behavioral instruction practices. School Psychology Quarterly, 21(3), 262.

Meta-Analysis Of Applied Single Subject Research Utilizing Differential Reinforcement Of Behavior Omission

This meta-analysis looks at the efficacy of behavioral interventions for problem behavior in persons with autism.

Campbell, J. M. (2003). Efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism: a quantitative synthesis of single-subject research. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24(2), 120-138.

Use of differential reinforcement to reduce behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities: A methodological review

The purpose of this literature review is to summarize and provide a methodological analysis of studies using a differential reinforcement to reduce problem behaviors.

Chowdhury, M., & Benson, B. A. (2011). Use of differential reinforcement to reduce behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities: A methodological review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(2), 383-394.

Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school

This study investigates the effect of a school-wide intervention plan, consisting of precorrection and active supervision strategies, on the social behavior of elementary students.

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good III, R. H., & Lee, Y. Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4), 344.

A comparison of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior to reduce disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom.

This study investigates the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom.

Conyers, C., Miltenberger, R., Maki, A., Barenz, R., Jurgens, M., Sailer, A., ... & Kopp, B. (2004). A comparison of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior to reduce disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(3), 411-415.

Instructional Classroom Mangement: A Proactive Approach to Behavior Management

This volume describes basic concepts and strategies for thinking about instructional classroom management and reviews general strategies for rethinking and reorganizing a classroom to reflect an instructional classroom management approach. Instructional classroom management approaches student behavior based on the premise that strategies for teaching and managing social behavior are not different from strategies for teaching subject matter.

Darch, C.B., & Kame’enui, E.J. (1995). Instructional Classroom Mangement: A Proactive Approach to Behavior Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Classwide peer tutoring

The purpose of this article is to discuss classwide peer tutoring as an effective instructional procedure. The article is organized into three major sections:(a) general principles of instruction,(b) description of classwide peer tutoring procedures, and (c) review of effectiveness data concerning classroom process (ie, ecological and behavioral factors) and student achievement outcomes.

Delquadri, J., Greenwood, C. R., Whorton, D., Carta, J. J., & Hall, R. V. (1986). Classwide peer tutoring. Exceptional children, 52(6), 535-542.

Chicago

Developing Curriculum-Based Measurement Systems for Data-Based Special Education Problem Solving

This paper provides procedures for developing curriculum-based measurement systems in special education problem solving.

Deno, S. L., & Fuchs, L. S. (1987). Developing Curriculum-Based Measurement Systems for Data-Based Special Education Problem Solving. Focus on Exceptional Children, 19(8), 1-16.

A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

This study is a meta-analysis of behavioral treatment studies and behavior modification for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Fabiano, G. A., Pelham Jr, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(2), 129-140

Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support A Review of Current Literature

This is a literature review of culture and student behavior. Based on this review, general recommendations are presented for practitioners, personnel preparers, policy makers, and researchers, especially, in the context of implementing SWPBS.

Fallon, L. M., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Sugai, G. (2012). Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support A Review of Current Literature. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 209-219.

The effects of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on-task behaviour

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on task behaviour. Continuous data collection indicated that following training in the appropriate use of praise, as specified by Canter, all three teachers successfully increased their rates of praising. Of the 24 children, all but one evidenced increases in levels of on‐task behaviour.

Ferguson, E. & Houghton, S. (1992). The effects of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on-task behaviour. Educational Studies, 18(1), 83-93.

Using a whole-class token economy and coaching of teacher skills in a preschool classroom to manage disruptive behavior.

This study evaluates the effectiveness of the Level System (token economy, response cost, stimulating rewards, and strategic attention) in a preschool classroom compared to (a) strategies already employed by the teacher, and (b) coaching the teacher in the Child-Directed Interaction and Parent-Directed Interaction phases of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.

Filcheck, H. A., McNeil, C. B., Greco, L. A., & Bernard, R. S. (2004). Using a whole?class token economy and coaching of teacher skills in a preschool classroom to manage disruptive behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 41(3), 351-361.

A comparison of cognitive training and response cost procedures in modifying aggressive behavior of elementary school children

This study compares cognitive restructuring, response cost, or placebo control conditions to examine the impact on aggressive elementary school students.

Forman, S. G. (1980). A comparison of cognitive training and response cost procedures in modifying aggressive behavior of elementary school children. Behavior Therapy, 11(4), 594-600.

Training Our future Teachers: Classroom Management

This report examines teacher preparation in classroom management. It surveyed over 100 elementary and secondary, graduate and undergraduate programs.

Greenberg, J., Putman, H., and Walsh, K. (2013). Training Our future Teachers: Classroom Management. Date accessed: 5/7/14

Effects of teacher attention on study behavior.

This study examines the effects of contingent teacher attention on study behavior.

Hall, R. V., Lund, D., & Jackson, D. (1968). EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTENTION ON STUDY BEHAVIOR1. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(1), 1-12.

A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors.

This study employs an alternating treatments design to investigate the effects of three types of opportunities to respond (i.e., individual, choral, and mixed responding) on sight words and syllable practice in six elementary students with behavioral problems.

Haydon, T., Conroy, M. A., Scott, T. M., Sindelar, P. T., Barber, B. R., & Orlando, A. M. (2010). A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 27-40.

Differential reinforcement of other behavior: A preferred response elimination procedure

Ethical and legal concerns which have been raised regarding many types of response elimination techniques. The differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) schedule is compared with other response elimination techniques. It is concluded that DRO schedules compare favorably with other techniques in speed and completeness of response elimination. In addition, DRO schedules may be superior to other techniques in durability and generalization of response reduction and in the type of side effects produced.

Homer, A. L., & Peterson, L. (1980). Differential reinforcement of other behavior: A preferred response elimination procedure. Behavior Therapy, 11(4), 449-471.

The effects of differential reinforcement of unprompted responding on the skill acquisition of children with autism

The purpose of this study is to compare high-quality reinforcers following unprompted responses (differential reinforcement) with high-quality reinforcers following both prompted and unprompted responses (non-differential reinforcement) on the skill acquisition of 2 children with autism.

Karsten, A. M., & Carr, J. E. (2009). The effects of differential reinforcement of unprompted responding on the skill acquisition of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(2), 327-334.

Rules, praise, and ignoring: Elements of elementary classroom control.

This is a study of the effects on classroom behavior of Rules, Ignoring Inappropriate Behaviors, and showing Approval for Appropriate Behavior.

Madsen Jr, C. H., Becker, W. C., & Thomas, D. R. (1968). Rules, praise, and ignoring: Elements of elementary classroom control. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(2), 139.

A systematic evaluation of token economies as a classroom management tool for students with challenging behavior

This is a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of token economies in increasing rates of appropriate classroom behavior for students demonstrating behavioral difficulties.

Maggin, D. M., Chafouleas, S. M., Goddard, K. M., & Johnson, A. H. (2011). A systematic evaluation of token economies as a classroom management tool for students with challenging behavior. Journal of School Psychology, 49(5), 529-554.

A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research on Instruction.

This research synthesis examines instructional research in a functional manner to provide guidance for classroom practitioners.

Marzano, R. J. (1998). A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research on Instruction.

 

Classroom Instruction That Works: Research Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement

This is a study of classroom management on student engagement and achievement.

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Ascd

A review of empirical support for differential reinforcement of alternative behavior

Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is one of the most common behavior analytic interventions used to decrease unwanted behavior. This literature review examined the DRA literature from the past 30 years to identify the aspects that are thoroughly researched and those that would benefit from further emphasis.

Petscher, E. S., Rey, C., & Bailey, J. S. (2009). A review of empirical support for differential reinforcement of alternative behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30(3), 409-425.

Differential reinforcement as treatment for behavior disorders: Procedural and functional variations

For many years, differential reinforcement has been a prevalent and preferred treatment procedure for the reduction of behavior disorders. This paper reviews the procedural variations of differential reinforcement and discusses their functional properties.

Vollmer, T. R., & Iwata, B. A. (1992). Differential reinforcement as treatment for behavior disorders: Procedural and functional variations. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13(4), 393-417.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI)
ABAI organization promotes the development, and support of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

The Technical Assistance Center on PBIS provides support states, districts and schools to establish, scale-up and sustain the PBIS framework.

School Wide Information System
School Wide Information System is a web-based information system to collect, summarize, and use student behavior data for decision making
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