Lesson planning is essential for effective teaching. It organizes the depth and breadth of daily lessons so they align with long-range goals as well as state and national standards. Effective teachers develop instructional objectives that establish measurable outcomes of what a learner will do as a result of instruction. Objectives must be organized around major themes that connect content and learning, leading to concepts and skills used in higher order thinking. Careful preparation is required to ensure that students have the prerequisite skills to master new lessons. Planning is needed to effectively sequence content in a logical order for learning that builds on past knowledge and skills needed in future lessons. Successful instruction requires teachers to procure resources in advance and allot sufficient time for students to master assignments. Effective teachers need to include previously mastered content in future lessons so that skills and knowledge are maintained. They must incorporate formative assessment in lessons to ensure that students are progressing and that enrichment and remediation opportunities are made available as necessary.