Education Drivers

External Influences - Home

A child’s home can nurture his or her love of learning or it can instill low expectations and discourage learning. Parents or guardians inculcate the soft skills that are necessary for success in life, and they play a critical role in teaching the foundation skills required for academic success such as language development. Research supports providing children with a stimulating environment as they grow. Homes that do not provide enriched experiences and do not reinforce high expectations for achievement disadvantage children. The overall impact of home on achievement is an effect size of 0.57. The most powerful variable associated with home and achievement is socio-economic status. Children from homes in which the parents or guardians earn adequate incomes, have achieved higher levels of education, and whose occupations have status are much more likely to be successful in school. Research finds the family structure in which children are raised (single parent, blended home, divorced home) has only a small impact on achievement. Homes in which children spend significant time engaged in electronic entertainment negatively impacts achievement. Children with parents or guardians who participate in the school have a higher level of achievement.

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Are Student Achievement and Poverty Related?
This analysis compares National Free and Reduce-Price School Lunch Program Eligibility data with NAEP Reading and Math score data to examine correlations between poverty and student performance.
Gibson, S. (2009). Are Student Achievement and Poverty Related? Retrieved from are-student-achievement-and.
What is the relationship between 13 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights?
This review examined the relationship between the amount of time 13 year old students watch TV/video and performance in math.
Gibson, S. (2009). What is the relationship between 13 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between858.
What is the relationship between 13 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights?
This inquiry examined the relationship between the amount of time 13 year old students watch TV/video and performance in reading.
Gibson, S. (2009). What is the relationship between 13 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between860.
What is the relationship between 17 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights?
This inquiry examined the relationship between the amount of time 13 year old students watch TV/video and performance in math.
Gibson, S. (2009). What is the relationship between 17 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between859.
What is the relationship between 17 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights?
This review examined the relationship between the amount of time 17 year old students watch TV/video and performance in reading.
Gibson, S. (2009). What is the relationship between 17 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between861.
How does math proficiency correlate with a student's socio-economic status?
This analysis examines the influence of poverty on student math performance across grade levels.
Keyworth, R. (2015). How does math proficiency correlate with a student's socio-economic status? Retrieved from how-does-math-proficiency.
How does reading proficiency correlate with a student's socio-economic status?
This analysis examines the influence of poverty on student reading performance across grade levels.
Keyworth, R. (2015). How does reading proficiency correlate with a student's socio-economic status? Retrieved from how-does-reading-proficiency.
What is the impact of student absence on student performance?
This review examined the impact of student absences on student achievement.
States, J. (2009). What is the impact of student absence on student performance? Retrieved from what-is-impact-of857.
What Part Does a Parent's Level of Education Play in Parental Involvement in Children’s Education?
This analysis examined the relationship between parent involvement in school and level of parental education.
States, J. (2009). What Part Does a Parent's Level of Education Play in Parental Involvement in Children’s Education? Retrieved from what-part-does-parent's.
Does Reading Practice Correspond With Improved Reading Performance?
This analysis examined the relationship between the number of pages students read and improved reading performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Reading Practice Correspond With Improved Reading Performance? Retrieved from does-reading-practice-correspond.
What is the optimum amount of sleep that students should get for best academic achievement results?
This analysis examined the relationship between the amount of sleep students receive each night and performance in reading and math.
States, J. (2012). What is the optimum amount of sleep that students should get for best academic achievement results? Retrieved from what-is-optimum-amount.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Including Parents in Evidence-based Education
Parents are important stakeholders in evidence-based education yet, little attention has been given to how they can best participate in decisions regarding their children.
Detrich, R. (2010). Including Parents in Evidence-based Education [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-region6-presentation-ronnie-detrich.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Preparing teachers to train parents in the use of evidence-based strategies for reading fluency.
This study evaluated the effects of training teachers to train parents to implement a program for increasing reading fluency for struggling readers. While all students improved, the quality of implementation moderated effects.
Kupzyk, S. (2009). Preparing teachers to train parents in the use of evidence-based strategies for reading fluency. Retrieved from student-research-2009-c.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Maternal employment and children's achievement in context: a meta-analysis of four decades of research

This meta-analysis of 68 studies (770 effect sizes) used random effects models to examine whether children's achievement differed depending on whether their mothers were employed.

Goldberg, W. A., Prause, J., Lucas-Thompson, R., & Himsel, A. (2008). Maternal employment and children's achievement in context: a meta-analysis of four decades of research. Psychological bulletin, 134(1), 77.

Home environment and early cognitive development: Longitudinal research

This book presents the results of longitudinal studies in Canada and the United States that looked into the relationship between home environment and early cognitive development.

Gottfried, A. W. (Ed.). (2013). Home environment and early cognitive development: Longitudinal research. Academic Press.

Reliability and Validity of Inferences about Teachers Based on Student Scores

Policymakers and school administrators have embraced value-added models of teacher effectiveness as tools for educational improvement. Teacher value-added estimates may be viewed as complicated scores. This Paper examines the use of value-added modeling as a tool to identify effective teachers from ineffective instructors.

Haertel, E. H. (2013). Reliability and Validity of Inferences about Teachers Based on Student Scores. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series. Educational Testing Service.

The early catastrophe

In this study, researchers studied the ways in which daily exchanges between a parent and child shape language and vocabulary development. After four years these differences in parent-child interactions produced significant discrepancies in not only children’s knowledge, but also their skills and experiences with children from high-income families being exposed to 30 million more words than children from families on welfare.

Hart, B., & Risley, T. (2003). The early catastrophe. American Educator, 27(4), 6-9.

Visible learning

This influential book is the result of 15 years research that includes over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. This is a great resource for any stakeholder interested in conducting a serious search of evidence behind common models and practices used in schools.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning. A synthesis of over, 800.

Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning

This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

Great Myths Of Child Development

Great Myths of Child Development reveals the latest evidence–based science behind the myths and misconceptions about the developing child. The book challenges the most commonly held child development myths. It provides the best available evidence science behind such topical issues as sugar and behavior, antidepressants impact on children, childhood vaccines, spankings, time–out, and children crying before bedtime.

Hupp, S., & Jewell, J. (2015). Great myths of child development. John Wiley & Sons.

Home environment and school learning: A quantitative synthesis

This systematic search of educational, psychological, and sociological literature found 18 studies of 5,831 school-aged students on the correlation of home environment and learning in eight countries over a 19-year period were selected.

Iverson, B. K., & Walberg, H. J. (1982). Home environment and school learning: A quantitative synthesis. The Journal of Experimental Education, 50(3), 144-151.

Family policies and children's school achievement in single‐versus two‐parent families.

This study investigated the gap in math and science achievement of third-and fourth-graders who live with a single parent versus those who live with two parents in 11 countries.

Pong, S. L., Dronkers, J., & Hampden‐Thompson, G. (2003). Family policies and children's school achievement in single‐versus two‐parent families. Journal of marriage and family, 65(3), 681-699.

The complex model of television viewing and educational achievement

Six studies containing data obtained from over 1 million students in elementary, intermediate, and high school were meta-analyzed to examine the relationship between amount of television viewing and educational achievement.

Razel, M. (2001). The complex model of television viewing and educational achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(6), 371-379.

Father Absence, Socioeconomic Status, and Race: Relations to Children's Cognitive Performance.

This meta-analysis looked at socioeconomic status and race statistics to determine whether there were relationships among socioeconomic status, race, and fathers absence from the home. The results of the meta-analysis appear to indicate that father-absence effects are independent of socioeconomic status or race.

Salzman, S. A. (1988). Father Absence, Socioeconomic Status, and Race: Relations to Children's Cognitive Performance.

Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review of research

This meta-analysis reviewed the literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and academic achievement in journal articles published between 1990 and 2000. The results showed a medium to strong SES–achievement relation.

Sirin, S. R. (2005). Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review of research. Review of educational research, 75(3), 417-453.

The relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement

This meta-analysis of almost 200 studies that considered the relation between SES and academic achievement were examined. Results indicated that as SES is typically defined (income, education, and/or occupation of household heads) and typically used (individuals as the unit of analysis), SES is only weakly correlated (r = .22) with academic achievement.

White, K. R. (1982). The relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. Psychological bulletin, 91(3), 461.

A Parent’s Guide to Response-to-Intervention
This guide provides a description of RTI specifically designed for parents of students with Learning disabilities.
Cortiella, C. (2006). A parent's guide to response-to-intervention. National Center for Learning Disabilities.
The Longitudinal Effects of Kindergarten Enrollment and Relative Age on Children’s Academic Achievement
This research looked at early, on-time, or delayed kindergarten enrollment and children’s mathematics and reading achievement from kindergarten through third grade.
DA?LI, . Y., & Jones, I. (2013). The Longitudinal Effects of Kindergarten Enrollment and Relative Age on Children’s Academic Achievement. Teachers College Record, 115, 030304.
Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents
This study examined self-discipline on eighth-grade students and the impact on final grades, school attendance, standardized achievement-test scores, and selection into a competitive high school program the following spring.
Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939-944.
Multiple effects of home and daycare crowding.
This research examines the relationship between noise and preschool children's acquisition of prereading skills, environmental factors in preschool inclusive classrooms, and children's use of outdoorplay equipment.
Maxwell, L. E. (1996). Multiple effects of home and day care crowding. Environment and Behavior, 28(4), 494-511.
The Marshmallow Test: Mastering Self-control.
This book by psychologist Walter Mischel examines delayed gratification through his seminal work known as the �marshmallow test’ and how this factor has been shown to be a reliable predictor of one having a successful life, predicting higher SAT scores, better social and cognitive functioning, a healthier lifestyle and a greater sense of self-worth.
Mischel, W. (2014). The Marshmallow Test: Mastering Self-control. New York. Little, Brown and Company. 2014.
“Willpower” over the life span: decomposing self-regulation.
This article reviews the longitudinal work derived from the marshmallow test’, originally conducted by Mischel and colleagues, used to measure preschoolers’ ability to delay gratification.
Mischel, W., Ayduk, O., Berman, M. G., Casey, B. J., Gotlib, I. H., Jonides, J., ... & Shoda, Y. (2010). Willpower’over the life span: decomposing self-regulation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, nsq081.
Evidence-Based Teaching: A Practical Approach
This book offers a thorough array of practical teaching methods backed by rigorous research to have the greatest effect along with practical techniques to apply these in actual classroom settings.
Petty. G. (2009). Evidence-Based Teaching: A Practical Approach. Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham, United Kingdom.
Read To Kids, But Not Necessarily From Birth
This commentary is in response to a recent article in the New York Times suggesting parents should read to their children from birth. Willingham examines the research and offers practical suggestions to parents.
Willingham, D. (2014). Read To Kids, But Not Necessarily From Birth. Daniel Willingham Science and Education Blog.
The Effects of On-time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children’s Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-economic Status
This study examined the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement the impact of the children's gender, race, and family SES status.
Yesil Dagli, U., & Jones, I. (2012). The Effects of On-Time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-Economic Status. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(4), 3061-3074.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Campbell Collaboration (C2)

The organization promotes well-informed decision making by preparing, maintaining and disseminating systematic reviews in education, crime and justice, social welfare and international development.

Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE)
CPRE looks at issues of teacher compensation, school finance, and principal evaluation for PK20.
Council of the Great City Schools

The Council’s mission is to promote the cause of urban schools and to advocate for inner-city students through legislation, research and media relations.

Education Trust
The Education Trust is a national non-profit advocacy organization that promotes high academic achievement for all students at all levels, particularly for students of color and low-income students.
Joyce Foundation
The Joyce Foundation invests in and focuses on today's most pressing problems while also informing the public policy decisions critical to creating opportunity and achieving long-term solutions. The work is based on sound research and is focused on where it can add the most value.
National Institute of child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
The NICHD conducts and supports research, that explore health processes; examines the impact of disabilities, diseases, and variations on the lives of individuals.
National Science Foundation
NSF is a federal agency created to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense.
National Urban Alliance
The National Urban Alliance for Effective Education (NUA) provides professional development, advocacy and organizational guidance that transform urban and suburban schools.
Parents for Evidence Based Education
The organization believes that education policy should be instituted based on high quality, mainstream, relevant research, rather than by the unsubstantiated "beliefs", "philosophies" and "ideas".
Pew Research Center's Internet and American Life Project
Pew Research Center informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world through public opinion polling, demographic research, content analysis and other data-driven social science research.
Society for Prevention Research
This organization is dedicated to advancing scientific investigation on the etiology and prevention of social, physical and mental health, and academic problems and the translation of that information to promote health and the well being of the public.
Southern Education Foundation
The Southern Education Foundation’s mission is to advance equity and excellence in education for all students in the South, particularly low income students and students of color.
Southern Regional Education Board

The Southern Regional Education Board works with states to improve public education at every level helping policymakers' make informed decisions by providing independent, accurate data and recommendations.

Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education (SCOPE)
The Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education (SCOPE) was founded in 2008 to foster research, policy, and practice to advance high quality, equitable education systems in the United States and internationally.
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