Education Drivers

Teacher Retention

Decades of data attest to high rates of teacher turnover. Almost half of new teachers leave the profession within 5 years. For the past 10 years, turnover has leveled off at a disconcerting 16% per year. High turnover impedes student performance and diverts resources away from efforts to improve schools. It places large numbers of inexperienced, less effective teachers in classrooms, resulting in increased recruiting, hiring, and training budgets. With effective retention, the United States could save a meaningful portion of the $2.2 billion spent annually on replacing teachers. Research shows that increases in teacher turnover consistently correspond with decreases in achievement in core academic subjects. Attrition disproportionately affects schools with the greatest needs, low-achieving and high-poverty schools. Chronic turnover also negatively impacts a school’s culture, increasing student disciplinary problems and principal turnover. It damages collegiality, adding chaos and complexity to schoolwide operations and perpetuating new cycles of turnover. Effective interventions can remediate this situation, but they require administrators’ long-term commitment to improve the learning environment and working conditions.

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-working.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between900.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of working conditions how this correlates to student performance.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between901.
Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff?
This inquiry analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of race experience and age on teacher recruiting and retention.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff? Retrieved from are-schools-adequately-attracting899.
Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff?
This analysis looks at retention and experience data for teachers in the United States.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff? Retrieved from are-schools-adequately-attracting927.
Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers?
This analysis examines evidence on the influence of teacher induction programs on reducing teacher turnover.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers? Retrieved from does-teacher-induction-impact884.
Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers?
This review examines the effectiveness of teacher induction.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers? Retrieved from does-teacher-induction-impact928.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This inquiry looks at the effect of time on the job and the quality of a teacher's skills.
Keyworth, R. (2010). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between882.
How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Percentages of Minority Students?
This piece analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of race on teacher attrition and mobility.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Percentages of Minority Students? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-turnover898.
How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Socio-Economic Conditions?
This inquiry analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of poverty on teacher attrition and mobility.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Socio-Economic Conditions? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-turnover897.
How Has Percent of Teacher Turnover Changed Over Time?
This piece analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at trends in teacher turnover for public and private schools.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Has Percent of Teacher Turnover Changed Over Time? Retrieved from how-has-percent-of.
How Has Teacher Turnover Changed Over Time?
This analysis lookes at data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at trends in teacher turnover.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Has Teacher Turnover Changed Over Time? Retrieved from how-has-teacher-turnover.
What percentage of new teachers receive induction services?
This probe examines the increasing use of teacher induction as a tool for offering new teachers training and support.
Keyworth, R. (2011). What percentage of new teachers receive induction services? Retrieved from what-percentage-of-new.
What is the turnover for new teachers over time?
This analysis looks at the rate of teacher turnover as it relates to the length of time a person is on the job.
States, J. (2009). What is the turnover for new teachers over time? Retrieved from what-is-turnover-for.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This review looks at the impact of principal and administrative support in retaining teachers.
States, J. (2012). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals904.
Can the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) and Promise Academies of the Harlem Children's Zone (HCZ) charter school model be replicated on a national scale?
The analysis examined the impact of two charter school models, Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) academic performance and Harlem Children's Zone (HCZ) and looks at issues of taking these models to scale.
States, J. (2014). Can the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) and Promise Academies of the Harlem Children's Zone (HCZ) charter school model be replicated on a national scale? Retrieved from can-knowledge-is-power.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This analysis is based on data from New York City public schools that linking working conditions to teacher career trajectories and retention with a focus on administrative support.
States, J. (2014). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals833.
Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex?
This is an analysis of teacher and principal views on the responsibilities and challenges facing school leaders, including the changing roles, finances, satisfaction, and Common Core.
States, J. (2015). Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex? Retrieved from is-job-of-school.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Academies KIPP 2013: Report Card (2013)

This report from KIPP provides a snap short of critical indicators from KIPP schools from across the United States.

Academies KIPP 2013: Report Card (2013) Retrieved from http://www.kipp.org/reportcard.

Stepping stones: Principal career paths and school outcomes

This study examines the detrimental impact of principal turnover, including lower teacher retention and lower student achievement. Particularly hard hit are high poverty schools, which often lose principals at a higher rate as they transition to lower poverty, higher student achievement schools.

Beteille, T., Kalogrides, D., & Loeb, S. (2012). Stepping stones: Principal career paths and school outcomes. Social Science Research, 41(4), 904-919.

Visible learning

This influential book is the result of 15 years research that includes over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. This is a great resource for any stakeholder interested in conducting a serious search of evidence behind common models and practices used in schools.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning. A synthesis of over, 800.

Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning

This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

A coming crisis in teaching? Teacher supply, demand, and shortages in the US

Recent media reports of teacher shortages across the country are confirmed by the analysis of several national datasets reported in this brief. Shortages are particularly severe in special education, mathematics, science, and bilingual/English learner education, and in locations with lower wages and poorer working conditions. Shortages are projected to grow based on declines in teacher education enrollments, coupled with student enrollment growth, efforts to reduce pupil-teacher ratios, and ongoing high attrition rates.

Sutcher, L., Darling-Hammond, L., & Carver-Thomas, D. (2016). A coming crisis in teaching? Teacher supply, demand, and shortages in the US. Washington, DC: Learning Policy Institute. Available at: https://learningpolicyinstitute. org/sites/default/files/product-files/A_Coming_Crisis_in_Teaching_REPORT. pdf.

The adequacies and inadequacies of three current strategies to recruit, prepare, and retain the best teachers for all students

This paper analyzes the research base on recruiting, preparing, and retaining good teachers being implemented in U.S. teacher education.

Zeichner, K. M. (2003). The adequacies and inadequacies of three current strategies to recruit, prepare, and retain the best teachers for all students. Teachers college record, 105(3), 490-519.

The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study
This research reports on the cost of teacher turnover in five school districts. It reports the rate of turnover, the relationship between turnover and teacher and school characteristics, and the costs associated with recruiting, hiring, and training replacement teachers. The authors of the study report that turnover costs were significant. The paper also found that teachers left schools that were predominantly minority and low achieving schools at significantly higher rates than average schools.
Barnes, G., Crowe, E., & Schaefer, B. (2007). The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study. National Commission on Teaching and America's Future.
Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey
This report offers the results from the Public School Teacher and Private School Teacher Data Files of the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a national sample survey of public1 and private K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Bitterman, A., Goldring, R., and Gray, L. (2013). Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (NCES 2013-313). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved March 16, 2015 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.
Report to the North Carolina General Assembly: 2012-2013 Annual Report on Teachers Leaving the Profession G.S. 115C-12 (22)
This report to the North Carolina General Assembly provides detailed information on teacher retention in the state’s public schools for the period ending 2013.
Coby, W. et al., (2013). Report to the North Carolina General Assembly: 2012-2013 Annual Report on Teachers Leaving the Profession G.S. 115C-12 (22). North Carolina Department Of Public Instruction, Educator Effectiveness Division. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from https://eboard.eboardsolutions.com/meetings/TempFolder/Meetings/Attachment%201%20-%202012-13%20Teacher%20Turnover%20Report_19785ndyywn45kqzxm045lztxku45.pdf
2011 State Teacher Policy Yearbook National Summary
This paper is an analysis of 50 state’s performance toward 36 teacher policy goals aimed at helping states build a comprehensive policy framework in support of teacher effectiveness.
Coggshall, J. G. (2012). Toward the Effective Teaching of New College-and Career-Ready Standards: Making Professional Learning Systemic. Research-to-Practice Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
The relationship between principal characteristics, principal turnover, teacher quality, and student achievement
The purpose of this study is to examine how the principal preparation programs of newly hired elementary school principals might influence school achievement. The study looks at differing elementary school principal preparation program approaches impact on build teams and the affect this has on student achievement. The study also is interested in possible relationships between the overall school-level qualifications of teams of teachers and school-level student achievement.
Fuller, E. J., Young, M. D., & Baker, B. (2007). The relationship between principal characteristics, principal turnover, teacher quality, and student achievement. In annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.ucea. org/storage/implications/ ImplicationsMar2008.pdf
The Revolving Door of the Principalship
This study examines the importance of selection and retention of quality principals for improving and sustaining school success. Data from Texas educational employment files provides a basis for inquiry into this problem.
Fuller, E., Terry Orr, M., & Young, M. D. (2008). The Revolving Door of the Principalship. Implications from UCEA. University Council for Educational Administration. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.ucea. org/storage/implications/ ImplicationsMar2008.pdf
Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis
This paper investigates organizational characteristics and conditions in schools that drive staffing problems and teacher turnover.
Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534.
Why Schools Have Difficulty Staffing Their Classrooms with Qualified Teachers
This is taken from the testimony of Richard Ingersoll in front the Pennsylvania legislature on the issues of school turnover.
Ingersoll, R. M. (2013). Why Schools Have Difficulty Staffing Their Classrooms with Qualified Teachers. Retrieved October 3, 2014
2011 State Teacher Policy Yearbook: National Summary
This is a national analysis of each state’s performance against and progress toward a set of 36 specific, research-based teacher policy goals aimed at helping states build a comprehensive policy of teacher effectiveness.
Jacobs, S., Brody, S., Doherty, K, and Michele, K. (2011). 2011 State Teacher Policy Yearbook: National Summary. National Council on Teacher Quality.
The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Challenges for School Leadership (2012)
The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher has been completed annually since 1984. This report examines the views of teachers and principals on the responsibilities and challenges facing schools.
Markow, D., Marcia, L., and Lee, H. (2012). The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Challenges for School Leadership. Metlife Incorporated. Retrieved August 19, 2014
Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2004-05 Teacher Follow-up Survey
This survey provides information about teacher mobility and attrition among elementary and secondary school teachers in the United States and the District of Columbia.
Marvel, J., Lyter, D. M., Peltola, P., Strizek, G. A., Morton, B. A., & Rowland, R. (2007). Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2004-05 Teacher Follow-Up Survey. NCES 2007-307. National Center for Education Statistics.
Evidence-Based Teaching: A Practical Approach
This book offers a thorough array of practical teaching methods backed by rigorous research to have the greatest effect along with practical techniques to apply these in actual classroom settings.
Petty. G. (2009). Evidence-Based Teaching: A Practical Approach. Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham, United Kingdom.
Research Synthesis: Does evidence suggest that some teachers are significantly more effective than others at improving student achievement?
This report looks at the evidence behind the proposition that some teachers are more effective than other teachers.
Prince, C., Koppich, et al., (2007). Research Synthesis: Does evidence suggest that some teachers are significantly more effective than others at improving student achievement? Center for Education Compensation
How teacher turnover harms student achievement
This study provides empirical evidence that teacher turnover has a significant and negative effect on student achievement in math and ELA, that it is particularly harmful to students in schools with low performing and black students, and that it also negatively affects performance by undermining trust and loss of institutional knowledge.
Ronfeldt, M., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2013). How teacher turnover harms student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 50(1), 4-36.
Teaching and Learning International Survey
In 2013, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Defelopment (OECD) published the results of their second international, large-scale survey of the teaching workforce, the conditions of teaching, and the learning environments of schools in participating countries, titled, Teaching and Learning International Survey.
Rutkowski,D., Rutkowski,L., Bélanger,J., Knoll,S., Weatherby,K., and Prusinski, E. (2013). Teaching and Learning International Survey TALIS 2013, Conceptual Framework
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Bellwether Education Partners
Bellwether Education Partners is a nonprofit dedicated to helping education organizations in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors.
Calder: Longitudinal Data in Education Research
CALDER is a National Research and Development Center that utilizes longitudinal state and district data on student and teachers to examine the effects of real policies and practices on the learning gains of students over time.
Center on Great Teachers and Leaders
The Center on Great Teachers and Leaders (GTL Center) is dedicated to supporting state education leaders in their efforts to grow, respect, and retain great teachers and leaders for all students.
Common Core of Data (CCD)
CCD is a program of the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics that annually collects fiscal and non-fiscal data about all public schools, public school districts and state education agencies in the United States
Condition of Education
The Condition of Education is an annual report on key indicators of the U.S. education system. It is published by the Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)
CCSSO is a nonpartisan, nationwide, nonprofit organization of public officials who head departments of elementary and secondary education in the states, provides leadership, advocacy, and technical assistance on major educational issues.
Council of the Great City Schools

The Council’s mission is to promote the cause of urban schools and to advocate for inner-city students through legislation, research and media relations.

Education Week
This organization is a source of news, information, and analysis on American education
Education Writers Association (EWA)
EWA is a professional organization of members of the media who cover education at all levels.
EducationNews.org
EducationNews provides the latest daily coverage from U. S. and world media publications, commentaries and reports are featured and include comprehensive views on education issues from all sides of the political spectrum.
Hechinger Report | Common Core
The Hechinger Report is an independent, nonprofit newsroom that covers inequality and innovation in education with in-depth journalism.
Joyce Foundation
The Joyce Foundation invests in and focuses on today's most pressing problems while also informing the public policy decisions critical to creating opportunity and achieving long-term solutions. The work is based on sound research and is focused on where it can add the most value.
K-12 Education: Gates Foundation
K-12 Education works to make sure tools, curriculum, and supports are designed using teacher insights.
National Commission on Teaching & America's Future (NCTAF)
NCTAF is a bipartisan endeavor to engage experienced policymakers and practitioners in researching the entrenched national challenge of recruiting, developing, and retaining teachers.
National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ)

The National Council on Teacher Quality works to achieve fundamental changes in the policy and practices of teacher preparation programs, school districts, state governments, and teachers unions.

New Teacher Center
The New Teacher Center provides research, policy analyses, training and support for improving new teacher support and induction.
Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS)
The SASS is a system of related questionnaires that provide descriptive data on the context of elementary and secondary education and policymakers a variety of statistics on the condition of education in the United States.
Back to Top