Education Drivers

Multi-Tiered Systems / Support

Multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) is a framework for organizing service delivery. At the core of MTSS is the adoption and implementation of a continuum of evidence-based interventions that result in improved academic and behavioral outcomes for all students. MTSS is a data-based decision making approach based on the frequent screening of progress for all students and intervention for students who are not making adequate progress. When employed effectively, a multi-tiered approach prevents problems, and allows earlier identification and intervention when there are issues in a more cost efficient manner than traditional approaches. Most models of MTSS have three tiers. The first tier is designed around a core curriculum that addresses and meets the needs of all students. The second tier provides additional instruction for those students needing supplementary support. The third tier offers intensive and individualized services for the students for whom less intensive support has not worked. Many educational initiatives, such as Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, Response to Intervention, Continuous Improvement Model, and Lesson Study, Differentiated Accountability, have incorporated the core elements of MTSS into their programs.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Taking Response to Intervention to Scale: Developing and Implementing a Quality Response-to-Intervention Process

This paper presents RtI as a continuous evaluation cycle: problem identification, problem analysis, goal setting, plans implementation and plan evaluation.

Daly, III, E. J., Kupzyk, S., Bossard, M., Street, J., & Dymacel, R. (2008). Taking Response to Intervention to Scale: Developing and Implementing a Quality Response-to-Intervention Process. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 9(2), 102-127.

Response to intervention: What it is and what it is not

Response to Intervention is a framework for determining the intensity of services that are necessary for a student to benefit from instruction. This paper addresses some of the misconceptions about RtI.

Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2008). Response to Intervention: What it Is and What it Is Not. Journal of Evidence-based Practices for Schools, 9(2), 60-83.

Conceptual and empirical issues related to developing a response-to-intervention framework

This paper examines five dimensions when implementing RtI: the tier model, identification of “at risk students”, preventative treatment, progress monitoring, and strategies for nonresponders.

Hintze, J. M. (2008). Conceptual and empirical issues related to developing a response-to-intervention framework. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=17426155176752854167&hl=en&inst=569367360547434339&oi=scholarr

Establishing and sustaining statewide positive behavior supports implementation: A description of Maryland’s model

This paper examines the evidence-based education issues that come into play with the implementation of a Positive Behavior Support school culture.

Lewis-Palmer, T., & Barrett, S. (2007). Establishing and sustaining statewide positive behavior supports implementation: A description of Maryland’s model. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 8(1), 45-61.

Culture, Context, and Connections: Behavior Analytic Considerations for Enhancing School Climate"

This paper examines the issue of school culture from the context of helping schools adopt and implement positive behavior interventions.

Sugai, G. (2014). Culture, Context, and Connections: Behavior Analytic Considerations for Enhancing School Climate" Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/2014WingSummitGS.pdf.

School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence based practices

This paper provides an overview of "lessons learned" from efforts to sustain and scale-up a school-wide continuum of evidence-based behavioral practices and systems in schools.

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence based practices. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 62-83.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Developing and Implementing a Quality RtI Process

This paper presents RtI as a continuous evaluation cycle: problem identification, problem analysis, goal setting, plans implementation and plan evaluation.

Daly, E, III. (2007). Developing and Implementing a Quality RtI Process [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2007-wing-presentation-john-hintze.

Evaluating Student Response to Instruction Using a 3 Tier RtI Progress Monitoring System

This paper examines five dimensions when implementing RtI: the tier model, identification of “at risk students”, preventative treatment, progress monitoring, and strategies for nonresponders.

Hintze, J. (2007). Evaluating Student Response to Instruction Using a 3 Tier RtI Progress Monitoring System [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2007-wing-presentation-john-hintze.

Supporting and Evaluating Broad Scale Implementation of Positive Behavior Support

This paper examines the evidence-based education issues that come into play with the implementation of a Positive Behavior Support school culture.

Lewis, T. (2006). Supporting and Evaluating Broad Scale Implementation of Positive Behavior Support [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2006-wing-presentation-teri-lewis-palmer.

Sustainability and Scaling and the Failure of the Friday Inservice Day

This paper provides an overview of "lessons learned" from efforts to sustain and scale-up a school-wide continuum of evidence-based behavioral practices and systems in schools.

Sugai, G. (2008). Sustainability and Scaling and the Failure of the Friday Inservice Day [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-wing-presentation-george-sugai.

Culture, Context, and Connections: Behavior Analytic Considerations for Enhancing School Climate

This paper examines the issue of school culture from the context of helping schools adopt and implement positive behavior interventions.

Sugai, G. (2014). Culture, Context, and Connections: Behavior Analytic Considerations for Enhancing School Climate" [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2014-wing-presentation-george-sugai.

From the Boutique to the Mainstream: The Role of Behavior Analysis in Education Reform
Much of the work in education by behavior analysts could be characterized as boutique programs. If we are to reform education we must be able to take our interventions to scale.
Detrich, R. (2010). From the Boutique to the Mainstream: The Role of Behavior Analysis in Education Reform [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-midaba-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Installing Tier 2/3 Behavior Supports in Schools: The Principal's Role
This paper describes the development, content and delivery of a professional development course for Principals regarding their role in multi-tiered systems of school-wide positive behavior supports.
Eber, L. (2015). Installing Tier 2/3 Behavior Supports in Schools: The Principal's Role [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-wing-presentation-lucille-eber.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Supporting teachers’ professional development: Investigating the impact of a targeted intervention on teacher’ presentation of opportunities to respond.
This study evaluated a multi-tiered system of support for teachers to increase the rate of teacher presented opportunities to respond.
MacSuga-Gage, A. S. (2012). Supporting teachers’ professional development: Investigating the impact of a targeted intervention on teacher’ presentation of opportunities to respond. Retrieved from student-research-2012.
Effects of behavioral skills training and instruction coaching on teachers’ implementation of empirically supported procedures.
This study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training and coaching to help new teachers implemented empirically supported practices. Also, evaluated was the quality of implementation (treatment integrity) as function of coaching.
Sawyer, M. (2013). Effects of behavioral skills training and instruction coaching on teachers’ implementation of empirically supported procedures. Retrieved from student-research-2013.
A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum.
The Responsive Classroom is a specific curriculum designed to improve social skills of students and reduce problem behavior. This study evaluated the impact across several schools and classrooms.
Solomon, B. Klein, S., Marcotte, & Hintze, J. (2009). A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum. Retrieved from student-research-2009-b.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school

This study investigates the effect of a school-wide intervention plan, consisting of precorrection and active supervision strategies, on the social behavior of elementary students.

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good III, R. H., & Lee, Y. Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4), 344.

Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support A Review of Current Literature

This is a literature review of culture and student behavior. Based on this review, general recommendations are presented for practitioners, personnel preparers, policy makers, and researchers, especially, in the context of implementing SWPBS.

Fallon, L. M., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Sugai, G. (2012). Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support A Review of Current Literature. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 209-219.

A meta-analysis of school-wide positive behavior support: An exploratory study using single-case synthesis

This meta-analysis of School-wide Positive Behavior Supports examines 20 articles. Single-case studies were evaluated using a regression-based procedure to establish efficacy of the approach.

Solomon, B. G., Klein, S. A., Hintze, J. M., Cressey, J. M., & Peller, S. L. (2012). A meta?analysis of school?wide positive behavior support: An exploratory study using single?case synthesis. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 105-121.

A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support

This article considers culture within the context of School-wide Positive Behavior Support. The paper provides an overview of culture and working definitions to assist educators to more effectively implement evidence-based practices.

Sugai, G., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Fallon, L. M. (2012). A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 197-208. Can pd

Improving teachers means improving principals, too
The article discusses the critical role principals play in improving teacher performance.
Borsuk, A., (2010) Improving teachers means improving principals, too
Meta-Analytic Review of Responsiveness-To- Intervention Research: Examining Field-Based and Research-Implemented Models
This study conducted a meta-analysis on four existing large-scale RTI models and other models implemented for research.
Burns, M. K., Appleton, J. J., & Stehouwer, J. D. (2005). Meta-analytic review of responsiveness-to-intervention research: Examining field-based and research-implemented models. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 23(4), 381-394.
A Parent’s Guide to Response-to-Intervention
This guide provides a description of RTI specifically designed for parents of students with Learning disabilities.
Cortiella, C. (2006). A parent's guide to response-to-intervention. National Center for Learning Disabilities.
Effective Behavior Support: A Systems Approach to Proactive School-wide Management
This study describes Effective Behavioral Support, a systems approach to enhancing the capacity of schools to adopt and sustain use of effective processes for all students.
Lewis, T. J., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effective Behavior Support: A Systems Approach to Proactive Schoolwide Management. Focus on Exceptional Children, 31(6), 1-24.
A meta-analysis of positive behavior support.
This meta-analysis of School-wide Positive Behavior Supports examines the effectiveness of systems wide intervention.
Marquis, J. G., Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Turnbull, A. P., Thompson, M., Behrens, G. A., ... & Doolabh, A. (2000). A meta-analysis of positive behavior support. Contemporary special education research: Syntheses of the knowledge base on critical instructional issues, 137-178.
Response to intervention and teacher preparation
A review of the critical skills taught teachers in 13 teacher preparation programs in the state of Connecticut with the emphasis on progress monitoring.
Spear-Swerling, L. (2008). Response to intervention and teacher preparation. In E. L. Grigorenko (Ed.), Educating Individuals with Disabilities: IDEIA 2004 and Beyond. (pp.273-293). New York, NY : Springer Publishing Company.
The Emergence and Possible Futures of Response To Intervention
This study is designed to operationalize, standardize, and field test the RtI process by examining four measures of student performance, curriculum-based measurement, Brigance subtests, state reading test, and teacher identification.
VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Barnett, D. W. (2005). The emergence and possible futures of response to intervention. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 23(4), 339-361.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Brookings Institution - The Brown Center on Educational Policy
This is national nonprofit public policy organization with the mission to conduct high-quality, independent research and, based on that research, to provide recommendations that advance the American education system. The Brown Center on Educational Policy is the division of Brookings that is dedicated to improving the American education system.
California Services for Technical Assistance and Training (CalSTAT)
CalSTAT is a project of the California Department of Education. that supports and develops partnerships with schools and families by providing training, technical assistance and resources to both special education and general education.
CalSTAT
CalSTAT (California Services for Technical Assistance and Training) is a project of the California Department of Education. CalSTAT supports and develops partnerships with schools and families by providing training, technical assistance and resources to both special education and general education.
Center on Teaching and Learning (CTL)
CTL is research center that conducts and disseminates research that focuses on practical solutions to serious problems in school systems.
Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation
MDRC is best known for mounting large-scale evaluations of real-world policies and programs targeted to low-income people.
National School Climate Center
NSCC works to translate research into practice by establishing meaningful and relevant guidelines, programs and services that support a model for whole school improvement with a focus on school climate.
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

The Technical Assistance Center on PBIS provides support states, districts and schools to establish, scale-up and sustain the PBIS framework.

Raising the Bar on Instruction: 21st Century Learning Standards
West Ed has a new web site to support educators coping with the demands for providing effective instruction under the guidelines of Common Core. The site offers free resources, professional development tools, implementation strategies, and collaboration opportunities with other educators.
The Hechinger Institute on Education and the Media
This in-depth education journal investigates, analyzes, and reports on issues in education.
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