Education Drivers

Professional Judgment

Educators make many decisions regarding services for students. Even when there is abundant evidence to guide their decisions, educators must use their judgment about what is appropriate in a given situation. Only on rare occasion does the available evidence perfectly match the service context of concern to the educator. To bridge the gap between research and local circumstance, the educator must make a series of judgments such as defining the problem, determining which evidence is relevant, and deciding which features of the local context are likely to require adaptations to the selected evidence-based intervention. Professional judgment is a cornerstone of evidence-based practice, as are best available evidence, stakeholder values, and the context in which services are provided. In this definition of evidence-based practice, the integration of these variables influences decisions. No one cornerstone can be substituted for the others. Judgment must be informed and constrained by the best available evidence, stakeholder values, and context.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
The Evidence-Based Practice of Applied Behavior Analysis

Applied behavior analysis emphasizes being scientifically-based In this paper, we discuss how the core features of evidence-based practice can be integrated into applied behavior analysis.

Slocum, T. A., Detrich, R., Wilczynski, S. M., Spencer, T. D., Lewis, T., & Wolfe, K. (2014). The Evidence-Based Practice of Applied Behavior Analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 37(1), 41-56.

Evidence-based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions

Synopsis: Evidence-based practice is characterized as a framework for decision-making integrating best available evidence, clinical expertise, and client values and context.  This paper reviews how these three dimensions interact to inform decisions.

Spencer, T. D., Detrich, R., & Slocum, T. A. (2012). Evidence-based practice: A framework for making effective decisions. Education and Treatment of Children, 35(2), 127-151.

Identifying research-based practices for response to intervention: Scientifically based instruction

This paper examines the types of research to consider when evaluating programs, how to know what “evidence’ to use, and continuums of evidence (quantity of the evidence, quality of the evidence, and program development).

Twyman, J. S., & Sota, M. (2008). Identifying research-based practices for response to intervention: Scientifically based instruction. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 9(2), 86-101.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Does sample size correlate to larger or smaller effect sizes obtained from reviews of research studies?
This analysis looks at the relationship between the sample size used in studies and the size plays on effect sizes derived from these studies.
States, J. (2010). Does sample size correlate to larger or smaller effect sizes obtained from reviews of research studies? Retrieved from does-sample-size-correlate.
How big will be the impact of an intervention?
The analysis shows how effect size can be used to understand the impact of educational interventions.
States, J. (2010). How big will be the impact of an intervention? Retrieved from how-big-will-be.
How can I interpret the effect size from a study into the impact a practice might have if I implement the practice in my classroom or school?
This item provides information for practitioners on how to interpret effect sizes found in research papers.
States, J. (2010). How can I interpret the effect size from a study into the impact a practice might have if I implement the practice in my classroom or school? Retrieved from how-can-i-interpret.
What is Qualitative Research?
This overview examines qualitative research and how it can be effectively used in educational research.
States, J. (2010). What is Qualitative Research? [Overview, Type A]. Retrieved from what-is-qualitative-research.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
A Systematic Approach to Data-based Decision Making in Education: Building School Cultures

This paper examines the critical pracitce elements of data-based decision making and strategies for building school cultures to support the process.

Keyworth, R. (2009). A Systematic Approach to Data-based Decision Making in Education: Building School Cultures [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2009-campbell-presentation-randy-keyworth.

Building a Data-based Decision Making Culture through Performance Management

This paper examines the issues, challenges, and opportunities of creating a school culture that uses data systematically in all of its decision making.

Keyworth, R. (2009). Building a Data-based Decision Making Culture through Performance Management [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.

A Systematic Approach to Data-based Decision Making in Education

Systematic data-based decision making is critical to insure that educators are able to identify, implement, and trouble shoot evidence-based interventions customized to individual students and needs.

Keyworth, R. (2010). A Systematic Approach to Data-based Decision Making in Education [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-hice-presentation-randy-keyworth.

Contingencies for the Use of Effective Educational Practices: Developing Utah’s Alternate Assessment

This paper dissusses the contingencies that create opportunities and obstacles for the use of effective educational practices in a state-wide system.

Slocum, T. (2006). Contingencies for the Use of Effective Educational Practices: Developing Utah’s Alternate Assessment [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2006-wing-presentation-tim-slocum.

What the Data Tell Us

This paper offers an overview of issues practitioners must consider in selecting practices. Types of evidence, sources of evidence, and the role of professional judgment are discussed as cornerstones of effective evidenced-based decision-making.

States, J. (2010). What the Data Tell Us [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-capses-presentation-jack-states.

Identifying Research-based Practices for RtI: Scientifically Based Reading

This paper examines the types of research to consider when evaluating programs, how to know what “evidence’ to use, and continuums of evidence (quantity of the evidence, quality of the evidence, and program development).

Twyman, J. (2007). Identifying Research-based Practices for RtI: Scientifically Based Reading [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2007-wing-presentation-janet-twyman.

If We Want More Evidence-based Practice, We Need More Practice-based Evidence
This paper discusses the importance, strengths, and weaknesses of using practice-based evidence in conjunction with evidence-based practice.
Cook, B. (2015). If We Want More Evidence-based Practice, We Need More Practice-based Evidence [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-wing-presentation-bryan-cook.
The Four Assumptions of the Apocalypse
This paper examines the four basic assumptions for effective data-based decision making in education and offers strategies for addressing problem areas.
Detrich, R. (2009). The Four Assumptions of the Apocalypse [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2009-wing-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Clinical Expertise: Where Would We Be Without It
Clinical expertise is one of the cornerstones of evidence-based practice and influences all decisions made by practitioners. This session describes ways that expertise can be used in a responsible, evidence-based fashion.
Detrich, R. (2015). Clinical Expertise: Where Would We Be Without It [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-ebpindisabilities-clinical-expertise-ronnie-detrich.
Evidence-based Practice for Applied Behavior Analysts: Necessary or Redundant
Evidence-based practice has been described as a decision making framework. This presentation describes the features and challenges of this perspecive.
Detrich, R. (2015). Evidence-based Practice for Applied Behavior Analysts: Necessary or Redundant [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-aba-presentation-ronnie-detrich-tim-slocum-teri-lewis-trina.
Workshop: Evidence-based Practice of Applied Behavior Analysis.
Evidence-based practice is a decision-making framework that integrates best available evidence, professional judgement, and client values and context. This workshop described the relationship across these three dimensions of decision-making.
Detrich, R. (2015). Workshop: Evidence-based Practice of Applied Behavior Analysis. [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-missouriaba-workshop-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Data-Based Decision Making for Students Social Behavioral Difficulties
This paper discusses methods for making valid data-based decisions for student social behavior.
Gresham, F. (2009). Data-Based Decision Making for Students Social Behavioral Difficulties [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2009-wing-presentation-frank-gresham.
Professional Judgment: Fallibility, Inevitability,and Manageability
This paper examines the many obstacles to effective professional judgment, the role it plays, and strategies for improving this critical function.
Keyworth, R. (2007). Professional Judgment: Fallibility, Inevitability,and Manageability [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2007-aba-presentation-rk.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Professional judgment: A critical appraisal.

Professional judgment is required whenever conditions are uncertain.  This article provides an analysis of professional judgment and describes sources of error in decision making.

Barnett, D. W. (1988). Professional judgment: A critical appraisal. School Psychology Review., 17(4), 658-672.

Chapter 2 Evidence-Based Education and Best Available Evidence: Decision-Making Under Conditions of Uncertainty.

Decisions always involve a degree of uncertainty because the outcomes are not known.  This chapter explores the sources of evidence that can inform educational decisions.

Detrich, R., Slocum, T. A., & Spencer, T. D. (2013). Chapter 2 Evidence-Based Education and Best Available Evidence: Decision-Making Under Conditions of Uncertainty. In B. G. Cook, M. Tankersley, & T. J. Landrum (Eds.), Evidence-Based Practices (pp. 21-44.). Emerald Group Publishing Limited

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies
The mission of the organization is to advance the scientific study of behavior and its humane application to the solution of practical problems in the home, school, community, and the workplace
Campbell Collaboration (C2)

The organization promotes well-informed decision making by preparing, maintaining and disseminating systematic reviews in education, crime and justice, social welfare and international development.

Center for Research and Reform in Education (CRRE)
CRRE is a research center who’s major goal is to improve the quality of education through high-quality research and evaluation studies and the dissemination of evidence-based research.
Cochrane Collaboration
Cochrane is an independent network of health practitioners, researchers, patient advocates and others, responding to the challenge of making the vast amounts of evidence generated through research useful for informing decisions about health.
Current Controlled Trials - Medicine
This is an example from medicine of dissemination of evidence-based practices.
Daniel Willingham - Web Site
Daniel Willingham is a resource to help those interested in issues of education to find practical, helpful information on what works and what doesn’t. His videos are of special interest.
Data Quality Campaign
This nonprofit organization promotes the systematic and outcome driven use of data at all levels of education
Institute of Education Sciences
IES is the statistics, research, and evaluation arm of the U.S. Department of Education. Its mission is to provide scientific evidence on which to ground education practice and policy and to share this information in formats that are useful and accessible to educators, parents, policymakers, researchers, and the public.
Journal of Contemporary Clinical Trials
Contemporary Clinical Trials is an international journal that publishes manuscripts pertaining to the design, methods and operational aspects of clinical trials.
Logical Positivism
An overview of Logical Positivism and it’s impact on science and the issue of verifiability.
National Education Policy Center
The mission of the National Education Policy Center is to produce and disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed research to inform education policy discussions.
National Institute of child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
The NICHD conducts and supports research, that explore health processes; examines the impact of disabilities, diseases, and variations on the lives of individuals.
National Science Foundation
NSF is a federal agency created to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense.
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

The Technical Assistance Center on PBIS provides support states, districts and schools to establish, scale-up and sustain the PBIS framework.

Back to Top