Differential reinforcement is a basic component of many educational practices. It is the delivery of reinforcement when a specified behavior occurs, and no reinforcement when there is an incorrect response (extinction). Reinforcement is a consequence that follows behavior and increases the frequency of that behavior. It can be either praise or a tangible activity. Extinction is defined as the withholding of the positive reinforcer that is maintaining an undesirable behavior. Differential reinforcement combines reinforcement and extinction in a single intervention package to increase the frequency of a targeted behavior while decreasing the frequency of an undesirable behavior. It offers teachers a positive way to develop skills and reduce undesirable behavior without using negative consequences. Evidence supports differential reinforcement as effective in increasing student achievement and creating a classroom climate favorable for learning, but only when used correctly. Reinforcement is most effective when it is clearly linked to student progress toward goals, is specific about expected performance, closely follows the desired behavior, occurs at a higher frequency than reinforcement for the problem behavior, and is of greater value to the student than the reinforcement for the problem behavior.