Education Drivers

Staff Treatment Integrity

For the best chance of a positive impact on educational outcomes, two conditions must be met: (a) Effective interventions must be adopted, and (b) those interventions must be executed with sufficient quality (treatment integrity) to ensure the intervention is implemented as designed. Treatment integrity research finds that integrity scores are very low and, in practice, implementation is rarely assessed. If an intervention with a strong research base is not implemented with a high level of treatment integrity, then the students do not actually experience the intervention and there is no reason to assume they will benefit from it. Under these circumstances, it is impossible to know if poor outcomes are the result of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of that intervention. Treatment integrity is defined as consistently implementing the essential components of an intervention as planned, intended, and originally designed. Studies find degradation of fidelity begins shortly after training. To ensure consistent levels of treatment integrity, teachers require ongoing monitoring and feedback of implementation. To date, research has not identified what threshold of treatment integrity is required to ensure the optimum benefit of an evidence-based practice.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Performance Feedback in Education: On Who and For What
This paper reviews the importance of feedback in education reviewed the scientific model of behavior change (antecedent, behavior, consequences).
Daniels, A. (2013). Feedback in Education: On Whom and for What. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 77-95). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.
Working with Staff to Promote Data-Based Decision Making: Recommended Strategies and Common Pitfalls [Publication]
This paper discusses evidence-based ways of working with staff to promote program intervention integrity and accurate data collection.
Reid, D. (2010). Working with Staff to Promote Data-Based Decision Making: Recommended Strategies and Common Pitfalls.Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(2), 169–186.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
What Teacher Training Methods Result in Changes in Classroom Practices?

This analysis compares the effectiveness of staff development methods that include, didactic presentation, modeling, practice with feedback, and coaching.

States, J. (2011). What Teacher Training Methods Result in Changes in Classroom Practices? Retrieved from what-teacher-training-methods.

How does performance feedback affect the way teachers carry out interventions?
This analysis examined the impact of performance feedback on the quality of implementation of interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). How does performance feedback affect the way teachers carry out interventions? Retrieved from how-does-performance-feedback.
How often are treatment integrity measures reported in published research?
This analysis examined the frequency that treatment integrity is reported in studies of research-based interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). How often are treatment integrity measures reported in published research? Retrieved from how-often-are-treatment.
How well are Interventions Implemented in Educational Settings?
This analysis examined two studies to understand the reliability of self-reporting of practitioners implementing interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). How well are Interventions Implemented in Educational Settings? Retrieved from how-well-are-interventions.
Does Feedback Improve Performance?
This review is a summary of the effect size of the effectiveness feedback to improve both student and teacher performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Feedback Improve Performance? Retrieved from does-feedback-improve-performance.
Does professional development make a difference in student performance?
This analysis looks at a systematic review of teacher professional development on student achievement.
States, J. (2011). Does professional development make a difference in student performance? Retrieved from does-professional-development-make.
Is there empirical research to validate the use of prereferral intervention teams (PIT) to reduce special education referrals, achieve gains, or improve student conduct?
This is a review of a meta-analysis of Prereferral Intervention Teams on student and system outcomes.
States, J. (2011). Is there empirical research to validate the use of prereferral intervention teams (PIT) to reduce special education referrals, achieve gains, or improve student conduct? Retrieved from is-there-empirical-research.
How does coaching compare with traditional staff development in improving student achievement?
This analysis compares the effectiveness of coaching compared to traditional forms of professional development for teachers.
States, J. (2012). How does coaching compare with traditional staff development in improving student achievement? Retrieved from how-does-coaching-compare.
What evidence do principals rely on in assessing the quality of a teacher’s instruction?
This analysis examines principal sources of information on teacher instructional competency and the amount of time spent assessing teacher's instructional skills.
States, J. (2015). What evidence do principals rely on in assessing the quality of a teacher’s instruction? Retrieved from what-evidence-do-principals.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Performance Feedback: Use It or Lose It

This paper examines the importance of performance feedback systems at all levels of school, staff and student outcomes to achieve desired results over time.

Keyworth, R. (2011). Performance Feedback: Use It or Lose It [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.

Performance Feedback in Education: On Who and For What
This paper reviews the importance of feedback in education reviewed the scientific model of behavior change (antecedent, behavior, consequences).
Daniels, A. (2011). Performance Feedback in Education: On Who and For What [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-wing-presentation-aubrey-daniels.
Using Student Data as a Basis for Feedback to Teachers
This paper offers an alternative to evaluating teachers based on student performance on annual high stakes tests.
Detrich, R. (2011). Using Student Data as a Basis for Feedback to Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-aba-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Treatment Integrity: Necessary by Not Sufficient for Improving Outcomes
Treatment integrity is necessary to improve outcomes but it is not sufficient. It is also necessary to implement scientifically supported interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). Treatment Integrity: Necessary by Not Sufficient for Improving Outcomes [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-ebpindisabilities-txint-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road
The paper examines one of the most critical components of teach training: an on-the-job, ongoing system of coaching and performance feedback to improve skill acquisition, generalization and maintenance.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
School Reform and Culture Change: What We Missed
This analysis reviews the ongoing failure of school reform efforts in the context of poor teacher preparation and performance feedback.
Keyworth, R. (2012). School Reform and Culture Change: What We Missed [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2012-wing-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development
Research suggests that coaching is one of the most effective strategies in training teachers. This paper identifies the critical practice elements of coaching and their absence in teacher training.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Working with Staff to Promote Data-Based Decision Making: Recommended Strategies and Common Pitfalls
This paper discusses evidence-based ways of working with staff to promote program intervention integrity and accurate data collection.
Reid, D. (2009). Working with Staff to Promote Data-Based Decision Making: Recommended Strategies and Common Pitfalls [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2009-wing-presentation-dennis-reid.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes.
This study evaluated the effects of a problem solving intervention package that included problem-solving information, performance feedback, and coaching in a student intervention planning protocol.
Vaccarello, C. A. (2011). Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes. Retrieved from student-research-2011.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior

Differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior is an important skill for classroom teachers. This study examined the use of performance feedback to increase the rate of differential reinforcement by pre-service teachers.

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.

Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans, 2005

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of feedback on treatment integrity for implementing behavior support plans.

Codding, R. S., Feinberg, A. B., Dunn, E. K., & Pace, G. M. (2005). Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(2), 205-219.

Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform

Over the last fifty years, there have been many educational reform efforts, most of which have had a relatively short lifespan and failed to produce the promised results. One possible reason for this is for the most part these innovations have been poorly implemented. In this chapter, the author proposes a data-based decision making approach to assuring high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, and J. Twyman (Eds). Handbook on Innovations in Learning, 31. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing

Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children.

This study reviewed all intervention studies published between 1980-1990 in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in which children were the subjects of the study. The authors found that treatment integrity was reported in only 16% of the studies.

Gresham, F. M., Gansle, K. A., & Noell, G. H. (1993). Treatment ?integrity in ?applied behavior analysis with children. Journal of Applied ?Behavior Analysis, 26(2), 257-263.

Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies.

This study compared the effects of discussing issues of implementation challenges and performance feedback on increasing the integrity of implementation. Performance feedback was more effective than discussion in increasing integrity.

Noell, G. H., & Witt, J. C. (2000). Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 271.

Increasing Teacher Intervention Implementation in General Education Settings through Consultation and Performance Feedback

This study looks at treatment integrity with which general education teachers implemented a reinforcement based intervention designed to improve the academic performance of elementary school students.

Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 77.

Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process
This study examines the importance of implementation integrity for problem-solving teams (PST) and response-to-intervention models.
Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550.
From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) as federal policy required the use of scientifically based instruction to improve educational outcomes. It is a long way from policy to impacting what actually happens in a classroom. In this chapter, the author reviews what is known from implementation science to assure that policy becomes practice.
Detrich, R. (2008). From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA. In Grigorenko, E. L. (Ed.) Educating Individuals with Disabilities: IDEIA 2004 and Beyond, 85. Springer Publishing Company
Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform
At the heart of any educational reform effort is how well the practices of that effort are implemented in classrooms. In this paper, the author reviews what is known about effective implementation and proposes a data-based approach to scaling up quality of implementation in educational settings.
Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258-271.
A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) emphasizing scientifically based instruction became law in 2001. In this paper, the authors review the progress that has been made in implementing NCLB and conclude that the greatest threat to its effectiveness is the quality of the implementation of the scientifically based instructional practices.
Detrich, R., & Lewis, T. (2012). A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1098300712460278.
Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions
The article discusses treatment integrity.
Gresham, F. M. (2009). Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 533-540.
Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980-?1990.
The authors reviewed seven journals known for publishing behavioral intervention research in school settings were reviewed to establish the percent of articles that reported treatment integrity measures between 1980-1990. Only 14% reported measures of treatment integrity.
Gresham, F. M., Gansle, K. A., Noell, G. H., Cohen, S., & Rosenblum, S. (1993). Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980-1990. School Psychology Review, 254-272.
Treatment integrity in learning disabilities intervention research: Do we really know how treatments are implemented
The authors reviewed three learning disabilities journals between 1995-1999 to determine what percent of the intervention studies reported measures of treatment integrity. Only 18.5% reported treatment integrity measures.
Gresham, F. M., MacMillan, D. L., Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E., & Bocian, K. M. ?(2000). Treatment integrity in learning disabilities intervention research: Do we really know how treatments are implemented. Learning Disabilities ?Research & Practice, 15(4), 198-205.
Toward Developing a Science of Treatment Integrity: Introduction to the Special Series
This article provides an overview of the current state of conceptual models of treatment integrity and suggest future directions for research, practice, and policy related to treatment integrity.
Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2009). Toward Developing a Science of Treatment Integrity: Introduction to the Special Series. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 445-459.
Balancing Fidelity With Flexibility and Fit: What Do We Really Know About Fidelity of Implementation in Schools
Treatment fidelity is critical for the effective implementation of evidence-based practices. It is assumed that evidence-based practices implemented with high fidelity will result in improved outcomes, whereas low fidelity will lead to poorer outcomes. This article discusses treatment fidelity as well as the implications for measuring and analyzing it in relation to student outcomes.
Harn, B., Parisi, D., & Stoolmiller, M. (2013). Balancing Fidelity With Flexibility and Fit: What Do We Really Know About Fidelity of Implementation in Schools?. Exceptional Children, 79(2), 181-193.
Treatment integrity of school-based interventions with children in the journal of applied behavior analysis 1991-2005.
The authors reviewed all intervention studies published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis between 1991-2005 that occurred in school settings to determine the percent of studies that reported treatment integrity measures. In this review, 30% of the studies reported treatment integrity.
McIntyre, L. L., Gresham, F. M., DiGennaro, F. D., & Reed, D. D. (2007). Treatment integrity of school-based interventions with children in the ?journal of applied behavior analysis 1991-2005. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(4), 659-672.
The Use of Weekly Performance Feedback to Increase Teacher Implementation of a Pre-referral Academic Intervention
This study investigates the effects of performance feedback on the implementation of a reinforcer-based classroom intervention.
Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review.
The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention.
Accurate implementation of an intervention is a pre-requisite to determining its effectiveness. The study examined the effects of weekly performance feedback on the accuracy of implementation of an academic intervention.
Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review, 27, 613-627.
Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback
This study evaluated the effects of consultation and performance feedback in a public school setting.
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). ?Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 77-88.
Treatment Implementation Following Behavioral Consultation in Schools: A Comparison of Three Follow-up Strategies
This study examines teachers' implementation of treatment plans following consultation.
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Slider, N. J., Connell, J. E., Gatti, S. L., Williams, K. L., ... & Duhon, G. J. (2005). Treatment implementation following behavioral consultation in schools: A comparison of three follow-up strategies. School Psychology Review.

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