Education Drivers

Quantity Of Instruction

Does the amount of instruction have an impact on student achievement? The answer is, it depends. The total hours spent in school typically do not significantly impact student outcomes, unless the hours are unusually low or high. But not all time is equal. The actual time students spend engaged in a specific subject is critical. This has important implications for education policy. Over the past 30 years, conventional wisdom has driven increases in the length of the school day and the school year in attempts to improve student performance. Disappointingly, the evidence is just not there to support these efforts. An analysis comparing total hours internationally finds little evidence for one model over another in affecting student outcomes. The focus needs to shift from total hours to ensuring that adequate time is allocated to high-quality instruction. Classroom time must be divided between time spent on instruction and time-off tasks such as lunch, recess, or moving from one class to another. Teachers need to ensure that an adequate amount of academic instruction is executed using quality instructional methods, such as active student responding, that pay the greatest dividends.

Data Mining

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CITATION
What is the relationship between hours of instruction and math and reading achievement?

This analysis examines an international comparison of the length of the school year and it's impact on student's math and reading achievement.

States, J. (2011). What is the relationship between hours of instruction and math and reading achievement? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between919.

Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores?
This reviews looks at the issue, do longer school days and longer school years improve student achievement?
States, J. (2011). Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores? Retrieved from does-longer-school-year.
Does Reading Practice Correspond With Improved Reading Performance?
This analysis examined the relationship between the number of pages students read and improved reading performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Reading Practice Correspond With Improved Reading Performance? Retrieved from does-reading-practice-correspond.
How Effective is Retrieval Practice?
This analysis compares retrieval practice to three other commonly used learning activities.
States, J. (2012). How Effective is Retrieval Practice? Retrieved from how-effective-is-retrieval.
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Instructional Time and Student Achievement

What is the relationship between instructional time and student achievement—that is, does increasing instructional time increase achievement?

Baker, D. P., Fabrega, R., Galindo, C., & Mishook, J. (2004). Instructional time and national achievement: Cross-national evidence. Prospects 34(3), 311–334.

Educational time factors

The findings presented in this book are based on an analysis of 57 research studies concerned with the relationship between one or more of the educational time factors cited above and the student outcomes of achievement and attitudes. Twenty-nine are primary sources (studies or evaluations) and 28 are secondary source (reviews, syntheses, and meta-analyses).

Cotton, K., & Wikelund, K. (1990). Educational time factors. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

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Fluency Project
This web site disseminates information about behavioral fluency; and to connect people interested in building fluent behavior of all kinds and for all types of people.
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