Education Drivers

Implementation (Overview)

Regardless of the evidence in support of an intervention, that intervention will not be effective unless implemented well. Implementation science is the study of variables that influence the probability of successful implementation and sustainability of an intervention. It is the bridge between research and practice that helps educators realize the benefits of evidence-based interventions. The four stages of effective implementation are exploration, installation, initial implementation, and full implementation. Different activities and outcomes are associated with each stage. In the exploration stage, the critical activities are identifying the problem, reviewing the evidence for various interventions, and ultimately making a decision about which intervention to adopt. In the installation stage, the system is reorganized to ensure that all levels of the system are aligned to support the adopted intervention. During the initial installation stage, the intervention is rolled out on a small scale to determine what adjustments need to be made before the intervention is implemented at scale. Finally, in the full implementation stage, the intervention is rolled out across the entire system. Across all stages of implementation, data are used to guide decisions.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Performance Architecture: Improving the Performance of Organizations

This paper introduces performance architecture as a framework that allows someone to assess all features of an organization so that the parts of the system can be aligned to support an innovation. 

Addison, R. (2012). Performance Architecture: Improving the Performance of Organizations Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/2012%20Wing%20Summit%20RA.pdf.

Changing Hearts, Minds, and Behavior: Can Implementation Science Offer Any Clues?

This paper examines school cultural issues in the context of implementation research.

Blasé, K. (2014). Changing Hearts, Minds, and Behavior: Can Implementation Science Offer Any Clues? Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/KBlase2014.pdf.

Taking Response to Intervention to Scale: Developing and Implementing a Quality Response-to-Intervention Process

This paper presents RtI as a continuous evaluation cycle: problem identification, problem analysis, goal setting, plans implementation and plan evaluation.

Daly, III, E. J., Kupzyk, S., Bossard, M., Street, J., & Dymacel, R. (2008). Taking Response to Intervention to Scale: Developing and Implementing a Quality Response-to-Intervention Process. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 9(2), 102-127.

From Policy to Practice

The reauthorization of the special education act (IDEIA) placed great emphasis of scientifically based instruction and interventions.  This chapter reviews the implications for how special education services are delivered.

Detrich, R. (2008). From Policy to Practice. Grigorenko, E. L. (Ed.). Educating individuals with disabilities: IDEIA 2004 and beyond. Springer Publishing Company.

Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform

Schools are often expected to implement innovative instructional programs.  Most often these initiatives fail because what we know from implementation science is not considered as part of implementing the initiative.  This chapter reviews the contributions implementation science can make for improving outcomes for students.

Detrich, R. Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform. Handbook on Innovations in Learning, 31.

A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?

The promise of evidence-based education was improved outcomes for all students.  In the intervening 10 years, it has become clear that without careful attention to implementation the promise of evidence-based education will not be realized.

Detrich, R., & Lewis, T. (2013). A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(4).

Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Unit of Sustainable Educational Programs.

Reform efforts tend to come and go very quickly in education. This paper makes the argument that the sustainability of programs is closely related to how well those programs are implemented.

Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2010). Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Unit of Sustainable Educational Programs. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 4-29.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How long do reform initiatives last in public schools?
This analysis examined sustainability of education reforms in education.
Detrich, R. (2015). How long do reform initiatives last in public schools? Retrieved from how-long-do-reform.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Changing Hearts, Minds, and Behavior: Can Implementation Science Offer Any Clues?

This paper examines school cultural issues in the context of implementation research.

Blasé, K. (2014). Changing Hearts, Minds, and Behavior: Can Implementation Science Offer Any Clues? [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/KBlase2014.pdf.

Developing and Implementing a Quality RtI Process

This paper presents RtI as a continuous evaluation cycle: problem identification, problem analysis, goal setting, plans implementation and plan evaluation.

Daly, E, III. (2007). Developing and Implementing a Quality RtI Process [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2007-wing-presentation-john-hintze.

Performance Architecture: The Art and Science of Improving Organizations
This paper examines school culture change in the context of Performance Architecture, which views each organization as a dynamic system where every part affects every other part.
Addison, R. (2012). Performance Architecture: The Art and Science of Improving Organizations [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2012-wing-presentation-roger-addison.
An Expanded Model of Evidence-based Practice in Special Education
This paper reviews the types of evidence that can used to guide decision-making in special education as well as the necessity for high quality implementation, and monitoring the effects of intervention.
Detrich, R. (2006). An Expanded Model of Evidence-based Practice in Special Education [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2006-campbell-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Research to Practice: An analysis of the Interaction between the Research Community and Special Education
The research to practice gap has long been a concern in education. This paper identifies some of the reasons the gap exists and some possible solutions.
Detrich, R. (2006). Research to Practice: An analysis of the Interaction between the Research Community and Special Education [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2006-campbell-presentation-jack-states.
Some Emerging Characteristics of Sustainable Practices
Research has identified characteristics that increase the sustainability of programs and practices. This paper reviews those characteristics.
Detrich, R. (2007). Some Emerging Characteristics of Sustainable Practices [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2007-aba-sustainability-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Building Sustainable Programs: From Myth to Reality
This paper makes the case that if programs are to sustain then it will be necessary to carefully plan for it from the inception of the program.
Detrich, R. (2008). Building Sustainable Programs: From Myth to Reality [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-louisiana-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Treatment Integrity and Program Fidelity: Necessary but Not Sufficient to Sustain Programs
If programs are to sustain they must be implemented with integrity. If there is drift over time, it raises questions about whether the program is sustaining or has been substantially changed.
Detrich, R. (2008). Treatment Integrity and Program Fidelity: Necessary but Not Sufficient to Sustain Programs [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-aba-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Data-based Decision Making Cultures: Four Assumptions.
Data-based decision making is often found in ethichal guidelines for practice. This paper explores four assumptions that have to be true if students are to benefit.
Detrich, R. (2010). Data-based Decision Making Cultures: Four Assumptions. [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-apbs-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Toward a Technology of Treatment Integrity
If research supported interventions are to be effective it is necessary that they are implemented with integrity. This paper describes approahes to assuring high levels of treatment integrtiy.
Detrich, R. (2011). Toward a Technology of Treatment Integrity [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-apbs-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Bridging the Research to Practice Gap: Perspectives from the Practice Side
The research to practice gap has been a long standing concern in education. This talk examines varables that contribute to the gap and suggests ways to close the gap.
Detrich, R. (2015). Bridging the Research to Practice Gap: Perspectives from the Practice Side [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-ebpindisabilities-bridgingthegap-ronnie-detrich.
Treatment Integrity: Necessary by Not Sufficient for Improving Outcomes
Treatment integrity is necessary to improve outcomes but it is not sufficient. It is also necessary to implement scientifically supported interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). Treatment Integrity: Necessary by Not Sufficient for Improving Outcomes [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-ebpindisabilities-txint-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Data-based Decision Making: More than the Data
Data-based decision making requires more than having data. This paper reviews what is necessary to effectively employ data-based decision making.
Detrich, R. (?). Data-based Decision Making: More than the Data [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2009-calaba-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Data Visualisation: A Handbook for Data Driven Design

This book provides information on the process and skills of data visualization, teaching the concepts and skills of how to present data and inspiring effective visual design.

Kirk, A. (2016). Data visualisation: a handbook for data driven design. Sage.

Diffusion of innovations

This book looks at how new ideas spread via communication channels over time. Such innovations are initially perceived as uncertain and even risky. To overcome this uncertainty, most people seek out others like themselves who have already adopted the new idea. Thus the diffusion process typically takes months or years. But there are exceptions: use of the Internet in the 1990s, for example, may have spread more rapidly than any other innovation in the history of humankind. 

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.

Psychometric properties of the Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Caregivers and Parents.
This study examines the psychometric properties of the Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Caregivers and Parents (TASCP) in a sample of 209 caregivers whose children (4-13 years of age) presented with disruptive behavior problems.
Accurso, E. C., Hawley, K. M., & Garland, A. F. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Caregivers and Parents. Psychological assessment, 25(1), 244.
Being concrete about culture and cultural evolution
This study looks at the issue of culture from a behavior analytic perspective. Baum postulates the key to understanding cultural evolution lies in understanding practices in the light of their environmental contexts and short-term and long-term consequences.
Baum, W. M. (2000). Being concrete about culture and cultural evolution. In N. Thompson and F. Tonneau (Eds.) Perspectives in Ethology (Vol. 13, pp. 181-212). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum
Implementation science: Key concepts, themes, and evidence for practitioners in educational psychology
This report looks at the critical issues that are necessary for effective implementation of innovations.
Blase, K., Van Dyke, M., Fixsen, D., & Bailey, F. W. (2012). Implementation science: Key concepts, themes and evidence for practitioners in educational psychology. Handbook of implementation science for psychology in education, 13-34.
Comprehensive school reform and achievement: A meta-analysis
This study is a meta-analysis of the research on the impact of comprehensive school reform (CSR) on student achievement. The research summarizes the specific effects of 29 widely implemented models.
Borman, G. D., Hewes, G. M., Overman, L. T., & Brown, S. (2003). Comprehensive school reform and achievement: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 73(2), 125-230.
Epilogue The Contemporary Crucible: Putting Scientific Evidence to the Test in the Context of Schools
The article in a special issue of Behavioral Disorders asks what science and its empirical rigors mean to those who work with children with emotional or behavioral disorders.
Crockett, J. B. (2001). Epilogue: The contemporary crucible: Putting scientific evidence to the test in the context of schools. Behavioral Disorders, 27(1), 69-73.
End Games: The Challenge of Sustainability
This study investigates how funders are viewing sustainability and what foundations can do to ensure pilot projects survive.
Culter, I. (2002). End games: The challenge of sustainability.
From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) as federal policy required the use of scientifically based instruction to improve educational outcomes. It is a long way from policy to impacting what actually happens in a classroom. In this chapter, the author reviews what is known from implementation science to assure that policy becomes practice.
Detrich, R. (2008). From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA. In Grigorenko, E. L. (Ed.) Educating Individuals with Disabilities: IDEIA 2004 and Beyond, 85. Springer Publishing Company
Implementation Matters: A Review of Research on the Influence of Implementation on Program Outcomes and the Factors Affecting Implementation
The first purpose of this review is to assess the impact of implementation on program outcomes, and the second purpose is to identify factors affecting the implementation process.
Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American journal of community psychology, 41(3-4), 327-350.
Issues in disseminating and replicating effective prevention programs
This study looks at the issue of culture from a behavior analytic perspective. Baum postulates the key to understanding cultural evolution lies in understanding practices in the light of their environmental contexts and short-term and long-term consequences.
Elliott, D. S. & Mihalic, S. (2004). Issues in disseminating and replicating effective prevention programs. Prevention Science, 5(1), 47-53.
Evidence-Based Kernels: Fundamental Units Of Behavioral Influence
This paper describes evidence-based kernels; the fundamental units of behavioral underlie effective practices.
Embry, D. D., & Biglan, A. (2008). Evidence-based kernels: Fundamental units of behavioral influence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11(3), 75-113.
Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature
This is a comprehensive literature review of the topic of Implementation examining all stages beginning with adoption and ending with sustainability.
Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., & Friedman, R. M. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature.
Evidence-based practice: Promoting evidence-based interventions in school psychology
This report presents an overview of issues related to evidence-based practice and the role that the school psychology profession can play in developing and disseminating evidence-based interventions.
Kratochwill, T. R., & Shernoff, E. S. (2003). Evidence-based practice: Promoting evidence-based interventions in school psychology. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(4), 389.
Factors Related to Sustained Implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support.
This paper empirically evaluates factor related to sustained implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support.
MCINTOSH, K., MERCER, S., HUME, A., FRANK, J L., TURRI, M. G., & MATHEWS, S. (2013). Factors Related to Sustained Implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support. Exceptional Children, 79(3), 293-311.
Treatment Implementation Following Behavioral Consultation in Schools: A Comparison of Three Follow-up Strategies
This study examines teachers' implementation of treatment plans following consultation.
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Slider, N. J., Connell, J. E., Gatti, S. L., Williams, K. L., ... & Duhon, G. J. (2005). Treatment implementation following behavioral consultation in schools: A comparison of three follow-up strategies. School Psychology Review.
A transtheoretical approach to changing organizations
This article attempts to synthesize major approaches of organizational change into a single framework that can be applied by leaders to reduce resistance, increase participation, reduce dropout, and increase change progress among employees.
Prochaska, J. M., Prochaska, J. O., & Levesque, D. A. (2001). A transtheoretical approach to changing organizations. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 28(4), 247-261.
Planning for the sustainability of community-based health programs: conceptual frameworks and future directions for research, practice and policy
This study provides an evidence-based look at the issue of sustainability.
Shediac-Rizkallah, M. C., & Bone, L. R. (1998). Planning for the sustainability of community-based health programs: conceptual frameworks and future directions for research, practice and policy. Health education research, 13(1), 87-108.
Moving Innovations into Treatment: A Stage-based Approach to Program Change
The process of innovation adoption and implementation is the focus of this paper.
Simpson, D. D., & Flynn, P. M. (2007). Moving innovations into treatment: A stage-based approach to program change. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 33(2), 111-120.
Barriers to the Preparation of Highly Qualified Teachers in Reading
This paper looks at the reasons why despite education having an extensive knowledge base in what works in teaching reading, teacher preparation programs continue to turn out teachers who are not competent in the skills needed to effectively teach reading.
Smartt, S. M., & Reschly, D. J. (2007). Barriers to the Preparation of Highly Qualified Teachers in Reading. TQ Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
Pasteur’s Quadrant as the Bridge Linking Rigor with Relevance
The authors propose educational design research and communities of practice as frameworks through which to realize the promise of Pasteur's quadrant.
Smith, G. J., Schmidt, M. M., Edelen-Smith, P. J., & Cook, B. G. (2013). Pasteur's Quadrant as the Bridge Linking Rigor With Relevance. Exceptional Children, 79(2), 147-161.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI)
ABAI organization promotes the development, and support of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.
Center for Research and Reform in Education (CRRE)
CRRE is a research center who’s major goal is to improve the quality of education through high-quality research and evaluation studies and the dissemination of evidence-based research.
Data Quality Campaign
This nonprofit organization promotes the systematic and outcome driven use of data at all levels of education
Edward Tufte

This web site provides readers with content that charts on data effective methods for presenting data.

ERIC -

ERIC is an online library of education research and information, sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Frameworks Institute
FrameWorks designs, conducts and publishes communications research to prepare nonprofit organizations to expand their constituency base, to build public will, and to further public understanding of specific social issues.
National Education Policy Center
The mission of the National Education Policy Center is to produce and disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed research to inform education policy discussions.
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

The Technical Assistance Center on PBIS provides support states, districts and schools to establish, scale-up and sustain the PBIS framework.

Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL)
SEDL is a nonprofit education research, development, and dissemination organization that provides consultation, research and evaluation cross a wide range of education issues.
Toolkit for Program Sustainability, Capacity Building, and Volunteer Recruitment/Management
The toolkit is intended to assist AmeriCorps, to develop a program that is sustainable, builds organizational, has involvement of community volunteers, and produces outcomes.
Visualizing Data

This web site provides readers with content that charts on data effective methods for presenting data.

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