Education Drivers


Despite the significant time students spend on homework, research suggests these efforts have a modest effect. However, homework can play an important role when used wisely. It is most valuable when students have already learned the fundamentals and use the time to achieve fluency. If homework is assigned to students who haven’t acquired basic command of the material, the exercise can lead to frustration and failure. Generally, homework in early grades, before students have developed effective study skills, is counterproductive. For post-elementary students, homework is more effective, especially for writing assignments, which require practice to hone skills. Unfortunately, too many parents and educators see homework as a simple solution to increase achievement. Sending home loads of worksheets sounds good, but in the end it mostly benefits parents’ and teachers’ sense they doing the right thing. Success requires making smart choices about when to assign homework and how much to assign. To maximize the impact, teachers must grade homework assignments promptly and provide timely feedback. Unless these rules are followed, homework unsurprisingly achieves poor results.

Data Mining

Does Reading Practice Correspond With Improved Reading Performance?
This analysis examined the relationship between the number of pages students read and improved reading performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Reading Practice Correspond With Improved Reading Performance? Retrieved from does-reading-practice-correspond.
Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement?: If So, How Much Is Best?

This article examines the issue of home. It looks at how effective home is as a strategy for improving student achievement along with best practices for requiring homework.

Cooper, H. (2008). Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement?: If So, How Much Is Best?. SEDL Letter, 20 (2).


Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987–2003

In this article, research conducted in the United States since 1987 on the effects of homework is summarized. No strong evidence was found for an association between the homework–achievement link and the outcome measure (grades as opposed to standardized tests) or the subject matter (reading as opposed to math.

Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987–2003. Review of educational research, 76(1), 1-62.

What research says about the value of homework: Research review

This literature examines the issue of home. It attempts to answer important questions of the efficacy of homework, does homework help or hinder student learning—and which students, under what conditions, does it help or hinder?

Edvantia for the Center for Public Education. (2007). What research says about the value of homework: Research review. The Center for Public Education.

Visible learning

This influential book is the result of 15 years research that includes over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. This is a great resource for any stakeholder interested in conducting a serious search of evidence behind common models and practices used in schools.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning. A synthesis of over, 800.

Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning

This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

Responding to Changing Demographics: The Case For and Against Homework

This paper examines the efficacy of homework. It looks at issues of how to make homework more effective as a tool for improving student performance.

Marzano, R. J., & Pickering, D. J. (2007). Special topic: The case for and against homework. Educational leadership, 64(6), 74-79.

Metacognition of Multitasking: How Well Do We Predict the Costs of Divided Attention?
The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of multi-taking on performance. This has implications for student performance completing homework assignments while simultaneously engaged in the use of media.
Finley, J. R., Benjamin, A. S., & McCarley, J. S. (2014). Metacognition of multitasking: How well do we predict the costs of divided attention?

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