Despite the significant time students spend on homework, research suggests these efforts have a modest effect. However, homework can play an important role when used wisely. It is most valuable when students have already learned the fundamentals and use the time to achieve fluency. If homework is assigned to students who haven’t acquired basic command of the material, the exercise can lead to frustration and failure. Generally, homework in early grades, before students have developed effective study skills, is counterproductive. For post-elementary students, homework is more effective, especially for writing assignments, which require practice to hone skills. Unfortunately, too many parents and educators see homework as a simple solution to increase achievement. Sending home loads of worksheets sounds good, but in the end it mostly benefits parents’ and teachers’ sense they doing the right thing. Success requires making smart choices about when to assign homework and how much to assign. To maximize the impact, teachers must grade homework assignments promptly and provide timely feedback. Unless these rules are followed, homework unsurprisingly achieves poor results.