This article examines the relationship between school-climate-related research findings on the one hand and educational policy, school improvement practice, and teacher education on the other.
Cohen, J., McCabe, L., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate: Research, policy, practice, and teacher education. Teachers college record, 111(1), 180-213.
The reauthorization of the special education act (IDEIA) placed great emphasis of scientifically based instruction and interventions. This chapter reviews the implications for how special education services are delivered.
Detrich, R. (2008). From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA. In Grigorenko, E. L. (Ed.) Educating Individuals with Disabilities: IDEIA 2004 and Beyond, 85. Springer Publishing Company
It is important to select interventions that have the greatest impact we can afford. Using Stuart Yeh’s effectiveness cost ratio formula, a rough comparison can be drawn comparing class size reduction with other educational interventions.
Yeh, S. S. (2007). The Cost-Effectiveness of Five Policies for Improving Student Achievement, American Journal of Evaluation, 28(4), 416-436.
The United States Supreme Court's recent inaugural decision involving the scope of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, 1 Board of Education v. Rowley, 2 wherein the Court ruled that the Westchester County public school district is not required to provide a deaf student with a sign language interpreter in the classroom, represents an extraordinary example of judicial usurpation of the legislative function.
Powell Jr, L. F. (1981). Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District, Westchester County v. Rowley.
This article explore the relationship between per pupil spending and learning, particularly in developing countries that spend much lower levels in education than do OECD countries. Their findings suggest that, when education systems spend above $8,000, the association between student learning and per student spending is no longer statistically significant. Therefore, they find a threshold effect after this level of resources is met, indicating a declining relationship between resources and achievement at high levels of expenditure (consistent with other recent literature). There is a positive relationship between student learning and per pupil expenditure among the low-spending countries (below $8,000 per student), but a flat relationship among high-spending countries.
Vegas, E. (2016).Why Money Matters for Improving Education. Brooking Institutions. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/up-front/2016/07/21/why-money-matters-for-improving-education/
This report highlights the very important role that states play in cultivating principal leadership talent. This paper speaks concern about improving human resources management at the state and district levels, doing quality control at the entry requirements, and give states tools and strategies to re-frame policies to bolster the principal talent pipeline.
Change Agents: How States Can Develop Effective School Leaders. (2013). New York: New Leaders. Retrieved from
This paper discusses the potential and challenges of a “cohesive leadership system” which coordinates leadership standards, training, and conditions at both the State and district levels. Effective coordination of these components, then, has the potential to both speed and make more permanent the benefits to the learning of all students.
Leadership for Learning: Making the Connections among State, District, and School Policies and Practices. (2006). New York: The Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from https://schoolturnaroundsupport.org/resources/leadership-learning-making-connections
This report is a call to action for chiefs and an invitation to our colleagues, especially members of NASBE and NGA who contributed to this report. The recommendations contained in this report focus on the levers for change that are the responsibility of state education agencies (SEAs) and, where applicable, their partner professional standards boards: licensure; program approval; and data collection, analysis, and reporting.
Our responsibility, Our promise: Transforming Educator Preparation and Entry Into the Profession. (2012). Washington, DC: The Council of Chief State School Officers. Retrieved from https://www.ccsso.org/sites/default/files/2017-10/Our%20Responsibility%20Our%20Promise_2012.pdf
This paper offer a number of research findings and action steps drawn from policies and practices that have been shown to be critical to the success of educational reforms at the local, district and state levels.
Research Findings to Support effective Educational policymaking: Evidence& Action Steps for State, District & Local Policymakers. (2009). New York: The Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from: https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/Research-Findings-Action-Items-to-Support-Effective-Educational-Policymaking.pdf
Research supports that school districts' prereferral consultation teams adhere less closely to quality consultation procedures and are less effective than those conducted through university research projects. This study investigated whether this finding might be due to incompatibilities between school settings and recommended team consultation practices.
(2005) The Dilemma of Pragmatics: Why Schools Don't Use Quality Team Consultation Practices, Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 16(3), 127–155.
This report describes the “bottom-line” economics of programs that try to reduce crime. This report also provides a snapshot of the Institute’s cost-benefit findings as of May 2001.
Aos, S., Phipps, P., Barnoski, R., Leib, R. The comparative costs and benefits of programs to reduce crime: a review of national research findings with implications for Washington State. Washington State Institute for Public Policy, Olympia (WA); 1999
This cheat sheet provide the accountability, early reaction and more details on other aspect (an update of past Politics K-12 cheat sheets, including some new information on which programs made it into the agreement and which are on the chopping block) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA).
Accountability and the ESEA Reauthorization Deal: Your Cheat Sheet. (2015). Education Week. Retrieved from http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/campaign-k-12/2015/11/accountability_and_the_esea_re.html
This case study examines the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation's promotion of the Homebuilders type of family preservation services as the sole model worthy of public support.
Adams, P. (1994). Marketing social change: The case of family preservation. Children and Youth Services Review, 16(5-6), 417-431.
This article discuss about The State Board of Education advise to make changes to Ohio's new and more rigorous graduation requirements. This article show the conditions that the board ignore, and the problem lies in the other options recommended by the board. This article also give suggestion to create a tiered diploma system based on current graduation requirements.
Aldis, C. L., Churchill, A. (2017). State board's graduation fix falls woefully short. Fordham Institute. Retrieved from https://fordhaminstitute.org/national/commentary/state-boards-graduation-fix-falls-woefully-short
This policy brief focuses on the clinical aspects of teacher preparation in each of these key features. These aspects include the typical processes of clinical work, the location, and the duration of the training.
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE). (2010). The clinical preparation of teachers: A policy brief. Washington, DC: Author.
State-level policy support for teacher induction programs can help teachers realize their full potential, keep them in the profession, promote greater student learning, and save money. Higher education institutions and school districts must work together to provide high-quality and well-designed induction programs.
American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). (2006). Teacher induction programs: Trends and opportunities. Policy Matters, 3(10), 1–4.
Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups examines the educational progress and challenges of students in the United States by race / ethnicity. This report shows that over time, the number of students of each race / ethnicity who have completed high school and continue their education in college have increased. Despite these gains, the rate of progress has varied, and differences persist among Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders, American Indians / Alaska Natives and students of two or more races in their performance on key indicators of educational performance.
Aud, S. (2011). Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups (2010). DIANE Publishing.
This paper has three objectives: (1) to create set of policies and initiatives by document the actions taken by Wallace Foundation, (2) to describe how states and districts have worked together to forge more-cohesive policies and initiatives aroung school leadership, (3)to examine the hypothesis that more-cohesive systems do in fact improve school leadership.
Augustine, C. H., Gonzalez, G., Ikemoto, G. S., Russell, J., & Zellman, G. L. (2009). Improving school leadership: The promise of cohesive leadership systems. Rand Corporation.
This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher–student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.
Barile, J. P., Donohue, D. K., Anthony, E. R., Baker, A. M., Weaver, S. R., & Henrich, C. C. (2012). Teacher–student relationship climate and school outcomes: Implications for educational policy initiatives. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(3), 256-267.
Trends in College Pricing provides information on changes over time in undergraduate tuition and fees, room and board, and other estimated expenses related to attending colleges and universities. The report, which includes data through 2018-19 from the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges, reveals the wide variation in prices charged by institutions of different types and in different parts of the country.
Baum, S., & Ma, J. (2014). Trends in higher education series: Trends in college pricing.
This meta-analysis examines the effectiveness of school voucher programs for improving student achievement. The research is of special interest for three important reasons; (1) it examines an important policy issue relevant to educators and the public, (2) it is an example of a study designed to replicate previous research on an important topic, and (3) it highlights the importance of examining the cost effectiveness associated with implementing practices in real world settings.
Bennett, M., Banerjee, H. L., Doan, L. N., Geib, T., and Burley, A. (2018). The Effect of Voucher Programs on Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis. AERA Conference New York, NY. 10.302/1302823
Educational policies and leadership practice has evolved to support efforts for inclusive education for students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders support and develop inclusive practices for students with disability through engaging institutional norms and inertia; developing inclusive practice as a planned organization-wide reform; making meaning and developing purpose; aligning structures with purpose; supporting a culture of learning as an organizational feature; planning for teacher capacity and professional development; and sustaining commitment to risk, innovation, and learning.
Black, W. R., & Simon, M. D. (2014). Leadership for all students: Planning for more inclusive school practices. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 9(2), 153-172.
This research aim to find a strong connection between standards-based reform and student outcomes by studied the most recent NAEP data. Their findings believe that states should remain dedicated to standards-based reform. The Common Core is the most recent major policy initiative to advance the broader standards-based reform approach and states should continue their commitment to the Common Core’s full implementation and aligned assessments.
Boser, U., & Brown, C. (2016). Lessons from State Performance on NAEP: Why Some High-Poverty Students Score Better than Others. Center for American Progress.
This article describes the characteristics of school mental health and social services in the United States, including state‐ and district‐level policies and school practices.
Brener, N. D., Martindale, J., & Weist, M. D. (2001). Mental health and social services: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000. Journal of School Health, 71(7), 305-312.
During recent decades, the notion of team leadership has emerged as a central theme in the international discourse on systemic education reform. This issue of Research in Educational Administration and Leadership not only captures a collective sense of commitment to education as means for advancing national social, economic, and political wellbeing but also reflects a changing nature of leadership across a wide spectrum of educational organizations and contexts.
Browne-Ferrigno, T., & Björk, L. G. (2018). Reflections on education reform and team leadership. Research in Educational Administration and Leadership, 3(2), 339-347.
Using detailed expenditure data for school districts in California, this paper exploits variation in charter school enrollment across time and between districts to evaluate how district spending and overall financial health change as nearby charter sectors expand. Differences between results found in this analysis and those from similar analyses in other states may be explicable in terms of California’s economic and policy context, providing lessons for policymakers.
Bruno, P. (2017). Charter competition and district finances: Evidence from California. Working Paper.
This paper review the main (four) critiques that have been made of international tests, as well as the rationales and education policy analyses accompanying these critiques. This brief also discusses a set of (four) critiques around the underlying social meaning and educational policy value of international test comparisons. These comparisons indicate how students in various countries score on a particular test, but do they carry a larger meaning? This paper also have some recommendations based on their critiques.
Carnoy, M. (2015). International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques. National Education Policy Center.
Thorough and comprehensive, this book offers essential information about how to form leadership teams, identify high stakes problems, build commitment, create a school-wide vision and establish school-wide goals, handle setbacks, maintain the vision and sustain change, evaluate and assess comprehensive school change.
Chenoweth, T. G., & Everhart, R. B. (2002). Navigating comprehensive school change: A guide for the perplexed. Eye on Education.
Class size is one variable in American education that research confirms has a positive influence student learning and was then taken to scale across the nation. Unfortunately, the results when applied at scale have not achieved the results expected in the initial studies.
Chingos, M. M., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2011). Class size: what research says and what it means for state policy. Brookings Institute. May, 11.
The most recent incarnation of ESEA, signed into law in January of 2002 by President George W. Bush, is the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). We’re now 13 years into NCLB, so reauthorization is long overdue. It is not just the long delay that argues for congressional action, but the extent to which the Obama administration has replaced the provisions of the bill with its own set of priorities implemented through Race to the Top and state waivers.
Chingos, M. M., Dynarski, M., Whitehurst, G., & West, M. (2015, January 8). The case for annual testing. Brookings Institution
This is the first comprehensive national report to scrutinize the impact of strict Zero Tolerance approach in the America public school. This report illustrate that Zero Tolerance is unfair, is contrary to developmental needs of children, denies children educational opportunities, and often results in the criminalization of children.
Civil Rights Project. (2000). Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies.
Education researchers and policy makers agree that teachers differ in terms of quality and that quality matters for student achievement. Despite prodigious amounts of research, however, debate still persists about the causal relationship between specific teacher credentials and student achievement.
Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2007a). How and why do credentials matter for student achievement? Working Paper No. 12828. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research
Using information on teaching spells in North Carolina, the authors examine the potential for using salary differentials to overcome this pattern. They conclude that salary differentials are a far less effective tool for retaining teachers with strong pre‐service qualifications than for retaining other teachers in schools with high proportions of minority students.
Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., Vigdor, J. L. (2011). Teacher mobility, school segregation, and pay-based policies to level the playing field. Education Finance and Policy, 6(3), 399-438.
This commentary details three factors that contribute to school climate reform being more of an idealized goal than an actual school improvement practice today: (i) confusion about what constitutes an effective school climate improvement process in general; (ii) confusion about how school climate reform is similar and/or different from PBIS; and, (iii) educational policies and accountability systems that actually discourage principals and superintendents from actively supporting school climate improvement efforts.
Cohen, J. (2014). School climate policy and practice trends: A paradox. Teachers College Record, 1-5. Retrieved from https://www.schoolclimate.org/themes/schoolclimate/assets/pdf/policy/SCPolicy&PracticeTrends-CommentaryTCRecord2-28-14.pdf
In this article, we summarize and review the research on teams and groups in organization settings published from January 1990 to April 1996. The article focuses on studies in which the dependent variables are concerned with various dimensions of effectiveness. A heuristic framework illustrating recent trends in the literature depicts team effectiveness as a function of task, group, and organization design factors, environmental factors, internal processes, external processes, and group psychosocial traits.
Cohen, S. G., & Bailey, D. E. (1997). What makes teams work: Group effectiveness research from the shop floor to the executive suite. Journal of management, 23(3), 239-290.
This study examines the theoretical and practical implications of ranking teachers with a one-dimensional value-added metric when teacher effectiveness varies across subjects or student types.
Condie, S., Lefgren, L., & Sims, D. (2014). Teacher heterogeneity, value-added and education policy. Economics of Education Review, 40, 76-92.
In this report, the author aim to provide an accessible introduction to these new measures of teaching quality and put them into the broader context of concerns over school quality and achievement gaps.
Corcoran, S. P. (2010). Can Teachers Be Evaluated by Their Students' Test Scores? Should They Be? The Use of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Effectiveness in Policy and Practice. Education Policy for Action Series. Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University (NJ1).
The authors study the mal-distribution of teachers and examine its causes then describe examples of both states and local school districts that have fashioned successful strategies for strengthening their teaching forces.
Darling-Hammond, L., and Sykes, G. (2003). Wanted: A national teacher supply policy for education: The right way to meet the “highly qualified teacher” challenge. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(33), 1–55.
This article presents the legal requirements of the IDEA amendments regarding ISPs, FBAs, and BIPs for special education students with problem behavior, (b) describe the initial policy letters, and (c) discuss the implications of the law for school psychologists and other members of IEP teams.
Drasgow, E., & Yell, M. L. (2001). Legal Requirements and Challenges. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 239-251.
James M. Kauffman’s new volume, The Tragicomedy of Public Education, is a thoughtful and highly readable commentary on American schools that digs deeply into the core system of what is wrong and what is right about educational policy and practice in our country.
Ellens, J. H. (2010). The Tragicomedy of Public Education, Laughing and Crying, Thinking and Fixing. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 29(4), 366.
The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) returns decision making for our nation’s education back where it belongs – in the hands of local educators, families, and communities – while keeping the focus on students most in need.
Fennell, M. (2016). What educators need to know about ESSA. Educational Leadership, 73, 62–65.
The average public school building was built around 1968 — more than 50 years ago — and the National Center for Education Statistics reports that half of all public schools in the United States need at least one major facility repair. This text explains how poorly maintained school buildings have a negative effect on both student and teacher performance and health.
Filardo, M., Vincent, J. M., & Sullivan, K. J. (2019). How crumbling school facilities perpetuate inequality. Phi Delta Kappan, 100 (8), 27–31.
Fine, M. (1986). Why urban adolescents drop into and out of public high school. Teachers College Record, 87(3), 393-409.
The publication of this report marks the 65th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case declaring racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional. This report shows that the growth of racial and economic segregation that began then has now continued unchecked for nearly three decades, placing the promise of Brown at grave risk. Research shows that segregation has strong, negative relationships with the achievement, college success, long-term employment and income of students of color.
Frankenberg, E., Ee, J., Ayscue, J. B., & Orfield, G. (2019). Harming our Common Future: America's Segregated Schools 65 Years after Brown.
Whole system reform is just that – 100 per cent of the system – a whole state, province, region or entire country. This paper examines those drivers typically chosen by leaders to accomplish reform, critiques their inadequacy, and offers an alternative set of drivers that have been proven to be more effective at accomplishing the desired goal.
Fullan, M. (2011). Choosing the wrong drivers for whole system reform (pp. 3-4). Melbourne: Centre for Strategic Education.
This article discuss recent state legislation that passed to put additional restriction to the charter school.It is the author's opinion that this legislation will not fix the underlying problems.
Garth, A. (2015). Teacher Unions and School Districts Won't be Able to Blame Charter Schools Much Longer. Orange County Register. Retrieved from https://www.ocregister.com/2019/04/15/teachers-and-school-districts-wont-be-able-to-blame-charter-schools-much-longer/
Combining insights from multicultural education theory with real-life classroom stories, this book demonstrates that all students will perform better on multiple measures of achievement when teaching is filtered through students’ own cultural experiences. This perennial bestseller continues to be the go-to resource for teacher professional learning and preservice courses.
Gay, G. (2018). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Teachers College Press.
The author explains in this paper that policies from on high often work against campuses being more productive. This paper ends with definite recommendations about how new governance arrangements can promote productivity.
George W. Bush Institute. (2014). Governing Schools for Productivity. The Productivity for Results Series No. 4. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED560216.pdf
This meta-analysis examines 23 studies for student access to curriculum by assessing the gap in reading achievement between general education peers and students with disabilities (SWD). The study finds that SWDs performed more than three years below peers. The study looks at the implications for changing this pictures and why current policies and practices are not achieving the desired results.
Gilmour, A. F., Fuchs, D., & Wehby, J. H. (2018). Are students with disabilities accessing the curriculum? A meta-analysis of the reading achievement gap between students with and without disabilities. Exceptional Children. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1177/0014402918795830
The authors describe the policy and administrative-practice implications of implementing evidence-based services, particularly in public-sector settings. They review the observations of the contributors to the evidence-based practices series published throughout 2001 in Psychiatric Services.
Goldman, H. H., Ganju, V., Drake, R. E., Gorman, P., Hogan, M., Hyde, P. S., & Morgan, O. (2001). Policy implications for implementing evidence-based practices. Psychiatric Services, 52(12), 1591-1597.
This policy proposal I suggest (1) reforms to ensure that the Title I formula gets enough resources to the neediest areas, and (2) improvements in federal guidance and fiscal compliance outreach efforts so that local districts understand the flexibility they have to spend effectively. These are first-order issues for improving high-poverty schools, but so deeply mired in technical and bureaucratic detail that they have received little public attention in the re-authorization process.
Gordon, N. (2016). Increasing targeting, flexibility, and transparency in Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act to help disadvantaged students. Policy Proposal, 1.
Is dismissing poorly performing teachers truly feasible in America today? After all the political capital (and real capital) spent on reforming teacher evaluation, can districts actually terminate ineffective teachers who have tenure or have achieved veteran status?
Griffith, D., & McDougald, V. (2016). Undue process: Why bad teachers in twenty-five diverse districts rarely get fired. Washington DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute. Retrieved from http://edex. s3-us-west-2. amazonaws. com/publication/pdfs, 2812, 29.
Discusses educational changes from a system perspective. Sets forth a series of assertions based on eight years of experience with special-education reform initiatives in Iowa. Presents generalizations from an experiential base regarding critical components and characteristics of change process. Gives specific recommendations for persons contemplating educational innovative initiatives.
Grimes, J., & Tilly III, W. D. (1996). Policy and Process: Means to Lasting Educational Change. School Psychology Review, 25(4), 465-76.
This paper investigate the most commonly used exam, the School Leaders Licensure Assessment (SLLA), using 10 years of data on Tennessee test takers. This paper found that although candidates with higher scores are more likely to be hired as principals, we find little evidence that SLLA scores predict measures of principal job performance, including supervisors’ evaluation ratings or teachers’ assessments of school leadership from a statewide survey.
Grissom, J. A., Mitani, H., & Blissett, R. S. (2017). Principal licensure exams and future job performance: Evidence from the School Leaders Licensure Assessment. Educational evaluation and policy analysis, 39(2), 248-280.
This article examine the concept of behavioral contingency and describes NCLB as a set of contingencies to promote the use of effective educational practices. Then they describe their design of an alternate assessment, including the components designed to capitalize on the contingencies of NCLB to promote positive educational outcomes.
Hager, K. D., Slocum, T. A., & Detrich, R. (2007). No Child Left Behind, Contingencies, and Utah’s Alternate Assessment. JEBPS Vol 8-N1, 63.
In this chapter, the authors synthesize the results of a series of analyses of empirical data on distributed leadership and school improvement. The studies centered on the impact of new state policies that sought to create broader and deeper leadership capacity in schools as a vehicle for stimulating and sustaining school improvement.
Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (2009). Distributed leadership in schools: Does system policy make a difference? In A. Harris (Ed.), Distributed leadership: Studies in educational leadership (pp. 101–117). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
This paper reports on the analysis of state statutes and department of education regulations in fifty states for changes in teacher evaluation in use since the passage of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
Hazi, H. M., & Rucinski, D. A. (2009). Teacher evaluation as a policy target for improved student learning: A fifty-state review of statute and regulatory action since NCLB. education policy analysis archives, 17, 5.
This study examined the relationships between poverty and a school's academic performance (both student achievement and growth).
Hegedus, A. (2018). Evaluating the Relationships between Poverty and School Performance. NWEA Research. NWEA.
Noting that the evidence of families' influence on their children's school achievement is consistent, positive, and convincing, this report examines research on parent and community involvement and its impact on student achievement.
Henderson, A. T., & Mapp, K. L. (2002). A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement. Annual Synthesis, 2002.
In contrast to prior federally mandated school reforms, the Every Student Succeeds Act
(ESSA) allows states more discretion in reforming their lowest performing schools, removes
requirements to disrupt the status quo, and does not allocate substantial additional funds.
Using a regression discontinuity design, we evaluate a state turnaround initiative aligned
with ESSA requirements.
Henry, G. T., & Harbatkin, E. (2020). The Next Generation of State Reforms to Improve their Lowest Performing Schools: An Evaluation of North Carolina’s School Transformation Intervention. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 13(4), 702-730.
The Percentage of Proficient Students (PPS) has become a ubiquitous statistic under the No Child Left Behind Act. The author demonstrates that the PPS metric offers only limited and unrepresentative depictions of large-scale test score trends, gaps, and gap trends. The author shows how the statistical shortcomings of these depictions extend to shortcomings of policy, from exclusively encouraging score gains near the proficiency cut score to shortsighted comparisons of state and national testing results. The author proposes alternatives for large-scale score reporting and argues that a distribution-wide perspective on results is required for any serious analysis of test score data, including “growth”-related results under the recent Growth Model Pilot Program.
Ho, A. D. (2008). The problem with “proficiency”: Limitations of statistics and policy under No Child Left Behind. Educational researcher, 37(6), 351-360.
Total public and private elementary and secondary school enrollment was 55 million in fall
2011, representing a 5 percent increase since fall 1997 (table 1). Between fall 2011, the last
year of actual public school data, and fall 2022, a further increase of 6 percent is expected.
Hussar, W. J., & Bailey, T. M. (2014). Projections of Education Statistics to 2022. NCES 2014-051. National Center for Education Statistics.
This study examines longitudinal from nine high schools nominated as leading practitioners of Continuous Improvement (CI) practices. The researchers compared continuous improvement best practices to teachers actual use of data in making decisions. The study found teachers to be receptive, but also found that significant obstacles were interfering with the effective use of data that resulted in changes in instruction.
Ingram, D., Louis, K. S., & Schroeder, R. G. (2004). Accountability policies and teacher decision making: Barriers to the use of data to improve practice. Teachers College Record, 106(6), 1258-1287.
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has been languishing for years, and Congress may now end up rewriting the law to fix its many flaws. However, it's now been discredited to the point that almost all states now receive waivers that allow them to miss key elements of the law without any punishments.
Jackson, A. (3). big ways No Child Left Behind failed. Business Insider, 25.
This study examines the impact of The Whole School Restorative Justice Program (WSRJ). WSRJ utilizes a multi-tiered strategy. Tier 1 is regular classroom circles, Tier 2 is repair harm/conflict circles, and Tier 3 includes mediation, family group conferencing, and welcome/re-entry circles to initiate successful re-integration of students being released from juvenile detention centers.The key findings of this report show decreased problem behavior, improved school climate, and improved student achievement.
Jain, S., Bassey, H., Brown, M. A., & Kalra, P. (2014). Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.rjtica.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/OUSD-RJ-Report-full.pdf
This article reports on a longitudinal study designed to explore these questions. In 1999, researchers from The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers selected and interviewed a diverse group of 50 new teachers in the Massachusetts public schools.
Johnson, S. M., & Birkeland, S. E. (2003). Pursuing a “sense of success”: New teachers explain their career decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 581-617.
This policy brief summarizes the available evidence on the policy relevant factors that affect teacher turnover.
Katz, V. (2018). Teacher retention: Evidence to inform policy. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia. Retrieved from https://curry.virginia.edu/sites/default/files/uploads/epw/Teacher%20Retention%20Policy%20Brief.pdf
This study present some of first evidence on the implementation and subsequent effect of discretionary layoff policies, by studying the 18th largest public school district in the nation, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools (CMS).
Kraft, M. A. (2013). Teacher Layoffs, Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: The Implementation and Consequences of a Discretionary Reduction-in-Force Policy. Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness.
The inauguration of the ESI section of School Psychology Quarterly represents a new era in research for our profession that we hope will usher in advancements for both the science and practice of school psychology.
Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2000). Empirically supported interventions: Announcing a new standing section of School Psychology Quarterly. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(1), 69.
This report recommend thirteen specific steps the federal government can take to develop new methods to define and measure such outcomes, use federal resources to build and apply evidence of what works, and help colleges and universities invest in student outcomes.
Kvaal, J., Bridgeland, J. (2018). Moneyball for Higher Education: How Federal Leaders Can Use Data and Evidence to Improve Student Outcomes. Retrieved from https://results4america.org/tools/moneyball-higher-education-federal-leaders-can-use-data-evidence-improve-student-outcomes/
During the past two decades, performance-based accountability systems (PBASs), which link financial or other incentives to measured performance as a means of improving services, have gained popularity among policymakers
Leuschner, K. J. (2010). Are Performance-Based Accountability Systems Effective? Evidence from Five Sectors. Research Brief. RAND Corporation.
This article provides a summary of measuring the fiscal impact of practices in education
Levin, H. M., & McEwan, P. J. (2002). Cost-effectiveness and educational policy. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
Dear Colleagues Letter: Resource Comparability is a letter written by United States Department of Education. This letter was meant to call people attention to disparities that persist in access to educational resources, and to help address those disparities and comply with the legal obligation to provide students with equal access to these resources without regard to race, color, or national origin (This letter addresses legal obligations under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VI). This letter builds on the prior work shared by the U.S. Department of Education on this critical topic.
Lhamon, C. E. (2014). Dear colleague letter: Resource comparability. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. Retrieved from http://www2. ed. gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-resourcecomp-201410. pdf.
The United States has committed to improving the lives of students with disabilities for over 40 years. Since the advent of Federal Law PL 94-142 in 1975 that mandated a free and appropriate education for all students regardless of ability and six reauthorizations of legislation, the federal government has emphasized the need to prepare students with disabilities for post-secondary education, careers, and independent living. The federal investment in funding special education services exceeds $15 Billion annually. It is reasonable to ask, are student with disabilities substantially benefiting from these efforts? The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) provides the most recent data on youth with disabilities and efforts to address their needs. The study used surveys in 2012 and 2013 on a nationally representative set of nearly 13,000 students. The student included were mostly those with an individualized education program (IEP) and expected to receive special education services. The data reveal participation in key transition activities by youth with an IEP and their parents have declined, although they are just as likely to have gone to an IEP meeting. The findings from this report suggest a closer examination of current practices is warranted with a focus on achieving the stated outcomes the laws were designed to remedy.
Lipscomb, S., Hamison, J., Liu Albert, Y., Burghardt, J., Johnson, D. R., & Thurlow, M. (2018). Preparing for Life after High School: The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 2: Comparisons across Disability Groups. Full Report. NCEE 2017-4018. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
The College board was recently released SAT scores for the high school graduating class of 2015. Both math and reading scores declined from 2014, continuing a steady downward trend that has been in place for the past decade. Pundits of contrasting political stripes seized on the scores to bolster their political agendas. Petrilli argued that falling SAT scores show that high schools needs more reform. For Burris, the declining scores were evidence of the failure of policies her organization opposes. This articles pointing out that SAT was never meant to measure national achievement and provide detail explanation.
Loveless, T. (2015). No, the sky is not falling: Interpreting the latest SAT scores. Brown Center Chalkboard. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2015/10/01/no-the-sky-is-not-falling-interpreting-the-latest-sat-scores/
This article elaborate on a topic "What to expect in Common Core immediate political future". Here, they discuss four key challenges that CCSS will face between now and the end of the year. Common Core is now several years into implementation. Supporters have had a difficult time persuading skeptics that any positive results have occurred. The best evidence has been mixed on that question. The political challenges that Common Core faces the remainder of this year may determine whether it survives.
Loveless, T. (2016). Common Core’s Major Political Challenges for the Remainder of 2016. Brookings Institute. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2016/03/30/common-cores-major-political-challenges-for-the-remainder-of-2016/
This study examined the policies and practices of a representative sample of high schools to identify how they structure their credit recovery programs.
Malkus, N. (2019). Practice Outpacing Policy? Credit Recovery in American School Districts. American Enterprise Institute.
This research summary focuses on aspects of the study’s results that are likely to be most useful for policymakers and school leaders as they strive to maintain and manage an effective teacher workforce.
Marinell, W. H., & Coca, V. M. (2013). " Who Stays and Who Leaves?" Findings from a Three-Part Study of Teacher Turnover in NYC Middle Schools. Online Submission.
In December 2016, Bellwether Education Partners and The Thomas B. Fordham Institute independently released two reports centered on teacher evaluation and its consequences. Both reports offer a glimpse into ongoing challenges and opportunities with teacher evaluation reform, but they have very different analyses.
McDougald, V., Griffith, D., Pennington, K., & Mead, S. (2016). What is the purpose of teacher evaluation today? A conversation between Bellwether and Fordham. Retrieved from https://edexcellence.net/articles/what-is-the-purpose-of-teacher-evaluation-today-a-conversation-between-bellwether-and
This report offers recommendations for the implementation of standards-based reform and outlines possible consequences for policy changes. It summarizes both the vision and intentions of standards-based reform and the arguments of its critics.
McLaughlin, M. W., & Shepard, L. A. (1995). Improving Education through Standards-Based Reform. A Report by the National Academy of Education Panel on Standards-Based Education Reform. National Academy of Education, Stanford University, CERAS Building, Room 108, Stanford, CA 94305-3084..
The Workgroup reviewed the NIMH research portfolio that extends from academic research settings to large, State-wide service systems, to the moving target of “front-line” clinical care. The review made vividly clear the need for mutually enriching interaction between research and both practice and service systems.
National Institute of Mental Health. (1999). Bridging science and service: A report by the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Clinical Treatment and Services Research Workgroup.
The authors examined the literature on functional behavioral assessment according to external validity and assessment with regard to its cost-benefits (i.e., its effectiveness relative to other approaches, time, and effort).
Nelson, J. R., Roberts, M. L., Mathur, S. R., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1999). Has public policy exceeded our knowledge base? A review of the functional behavioral assessment literature. Behavioral Disorders, 24(2), 169-179.
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ESEA Reauthorization
No child left behind act of 2001. Publ. L, 107-110. (2002)
This paper enters debate about how U.S. schools might address long-standing disparities in educational and economic opportunities while improving the educational outcomes for all students. with a vision and an argument for realizing that vision, based on lessons learned from 60 years of education research and reform efforts. The central points covered draw on a much more extensive treatment of these issues published in 2015. The aim is to spark fruitful discussion among educators, policymakers, and researchers.
O'Day, J. A., & Smith, M. S. (2016). Equality and Quality in US Education: Systemic Problems, Systemic Solutions. Policy Brief. Education Policy Center at American Institutes for Research.
Good news coming from the Ohio Department of Education that the long-awaited Charter School program (CSP) grant funds will be soon available. However, the bad news is based on the announced criteria, hardly anyone will qualify for the money.
O'Leary, J. D. (2017). Will anyone even qualify for the much-debated federal charter school program grant?. Fordham Institute. Retrieved from https://fordhaminstitute.org/national/commentary/will-anyone-even-qualify-much-debated-federal-charter-school-program-grant
This paper examines school costs in relationship to student outcomes.
Odden. A. (2008). CPRE’s School Finance Research: Fifteen Years of Findings. Consortium for Policy Research in Education.
Over the past decade, the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment, PISA, has become the world’s premier yardstick for evaluating the quality, equity and efficiency of school systems. This special issue of the PISA in Focus series highlights the results of the first two volumes of the PISA 2015 initial report: Excellence and Equity in Education; and Policies and Practices for Successful Schools.
OECD Publishing (2016). PISA 2015 Results in Focus. PISA in Focus,67. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1787/aa9237e6-en.
US President Obama has launched one of the world’s most ambitious education reform agendas. Under the heading “Race to the Top”, this agenda encourages US states to adopt internationally benchmarked standards and assessments that prepare students for success in college and the workplace: recruit, develop, reward, and retain effective teachers and principals.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2011). Lessons from PISA for the United States–Strong performers and successful reformers in education. OECD Publishing. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264096660-en
This guide for parents outlines what they need to know about the legislation.
Paige, R. (2002). What to know and where to go parent’s guide to no child left behind a new era in education. Washington, DC: US Dept. of Education, Office of the Secretary.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of historical trends in the funding of special education programs, to discuss current issues, and to consider alternative directions for the future
Parrish, T. B. (1996). Special Education Finance: Past, Present, and Future. Policy Paper Number 8.
The Standardized Testing Primer provides non-specialists with a thorough overview of this
controversial and complicated topic. It eschews the statistical details of scaling, scoring, and
measurement that are widely available in textbooks and at testing organization Web sites,
and instead describes standardized testing's social and political roles and its practical uses-
who tests, when, where, and why.
Phelps, R. P. (2007). Standardized testing primer (Vol. 21). Peter Lang.
NCES activities are designed to address high-priority education data needs; provide
consistent, reliable, complete, and accurate indicators of education status and trends; and
report timely, useful, and high-quality data to the US Department of Education, the Congress,
the states, other education policymakers, practitioners, data users, and the general public.
Provasnik, S., KewalRamani, A., Coleman, M. M., Gilbertson, L., Herring, W., & Xie, Q. (2007). Status of education in rural America. US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences.
This articles suggest policymakers to focus less on the international test and more on how states compare to each other when trying to improve schools. This article also shows how it's not worthwhile to compare school in countries where the conditions are different.
Rabinovitz, j. (2015, October). Report urges educators to avoid using international tests to make policy. Standford Graduate School of Education. Retrieved from https://ed.stanford.edu/news/national-test-superior-international-ones-assessing-us-schools-says-report
Former Assistant Secretary of Education Diane Ravitch was once an early advocate of No Child Left Behind, school vouchers and charter schools. No Child Left Behind required schools to administer yearly state standardized tests. Student progress on those tests was measured to see if the schools met their Adequate Yearly Progress goals. or AYP. Schools missing those goals for several years in a row could be restructured, replaced or shut down.
Ravitch, D. (2011). Standardized testing undermines teaching. National Public Radio.
This study examines the evidence and concludes that U.S. education system is producing ample supplies of students to respond to STEM labor market demand. As analyzed in this paper, the preponderance of evidence suggests that the U.S. education system has produced ample supplies of students to respond to STEM labor market demand. The “pipeline” of STEM-potential students is similarly strong and expanding.
Salzman, H., & Benderly, B. L. (2019). STEM Performance and Supply: Assessing the Evidence for Education Policy. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 28(1), 9-25.
First published in 1971, the book challenged many major assumptions about institutional change and examined efforts to implement Public Law 94-142 (Education for All Handicapped Children) into public schools. The book argued that federal efforts to restructure education were generally a failure.
Sarason, S. B. (1996). Revisiting" The culture of the school and the problem of change". Teachers College Press.
Is it time to kill annual testing? An Education Week article.
Sawchuk, S. (2019). Is it time to kill annual testing. Education Week, 8.
Our focus throughout this study will be to see what impact, if any, school voucher programs, in the United States and throughout the world, have had on student test scores. If the findings are mixed, we shall try to determine unique patterns that are driven either by geography or relevant program design components. We will also compare overall outcomes for reading and math scores for programs within the US vs. outside the US and publically funded vs. privately funded programs. This can be helpful for policymakers designing future private school voucher programs. Reading assessments will only be included if they were in English, regardless of the language of the country in which they were administered. We do this to ensure commonality in the international reading assessments and also because the international voucher evaluations in the meta-analysis come from developing countries where English language skills are highly valued.
Shakeel, M., Anderson, K., & Wolf, P. (2016). The participant effects of private school vouchers across the globe: A meta-analytic and systematic review.
School board members and their attitudes do matter—so it’s important to take seriously who gets elected and how. Even as we strive to bring about structural reforms and governance innovations in the education system, we should also be working to get better results from the structures in place in most communities today.
Shober, A. F., & Hartney, M. T. (2014). Does School Board Leadership Matter?. Thomas B. Fordham Institute.
This article define what constitutes a research to practice study and differentiate the terms research to practice and evidence-based practice.
Shriver, M. D., & Watson, T. S. (2005). Bridging the great divide: Linking research to practice in scholarly publications. Journal of Evidence Based Practices for Schools, 6, 5-18.
n the before-times, one of the hallmarks of spring for parents, students and teachers was the ramp-up toward federally mandated standardized tests. COVID-19 had something to say about that last school year, and in mid-March, the U.S. Department of Education granted states a blanket exemption from standardized testing.
Silver, D. & Polikoff, M. (2020, November 16). Getting testy about testing: K–12 parents support canceling standardized testing this spring. That might not be a good idea. The 74.
This annual publication is thedefinitive compendium of data on virtually every aspects of education from pre-kindergarten through graduate school. Its chapters include: All Levels of Education, Elementary and Secondary Education, Postsecondary Education, Federal Funds for Education and Related Activities, Outcomes of Education, International Comparisons of Education, and Libraries and Use of Technology.
Snyder, T.D., de Brey, C., and Dillow, S.A. (2019). Digest of Education Statistics 2017 (NCES 2018-070). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
Despite New York’s wrong turn, the $6 billion for Reading First has more generally been one of the best investments ever in federal education spending. It has already brought some remarkable reading breakthroughs in many parts of the country and among at-risk students.
Stern, S. (2007). This Bush education reform really works. City Journal, 100-107.
America has been obsessed with student standardized tests for nearly 20 years. Now it looks like the country is at the beginning of the end of our high-stakes testing mania — both for K-12 “accountability” purposes and in college admissions.
Strauss, V. (2020). It looks like the beginning of the end of America’s obsession with student standardized tests. The Washington Post.
What you need to know about standardized testing.
Strauss, V. (2021, February 1). What you need to know about standardized testing. The Washington Post.
This report provides state and district policymakers in Texas with updated information on trends in teacher mobility and on correlates of mobility in the teaching workforce, offering a systematic baseline for monitoring and planning.
Sullivan, K., Barkowski, E., Lindsay, J., Lazarev, V., Nguyen, T., Newman, D., & Lin, L. (2017). Trends in teacher mobility in Texas and associations with teacher, student, and school characteristics. REL 2018–283.
Test-based accountability systems — the use of tests to hold individuals or institutions responsible for performance and to reward achievement — have become the cornerstone of U.S. federal education policy, and the past decade has witnessed a widespread adoption of test-based accountability systems in the U.S. Consider just one material manifestation of this burgeoning trend: test sales have grown from from approximately $260 million annually in 1997 to approximately $700 million today — nearly a threefold increase.
Supowitz, J. (2021) Is high-stakes testing working? University of Pennsylvania, Graduate School of Education.
The continuing COVID-19 pandemic has forced school districts across the nation to quickly adapt their approach to teaching and learning, with widespread variation in the response. With a new school year now underway, several states require that schools provide some degree of in-person instruction, while other states have left such decisions up to local education and public health officials.
Therriault, S. B. (2020). Back-to-school metrics: How to assess conditions for teaching and learning and to measure student progress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Regional Education Laboratory Program (REL).
This article summarize changes and challenges that school personnel will face in order to implement The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA).
This paper of American United States school finances finds evidence to support the importance of providing equitable funding across school districts. These results have important policy implications and suggest areas for future research.
This paper of American United States school finances finds evidence to support the importance of providing equitable funding across school districts. These results have important policy implications and suggest areas for future research.
A child shall qualify as an individual with exceptional needs, pursuant to Education Code section 56026, if the results of the assessment as required by Education Code section 56320 demonstrate that the degree of the child's impairment as described in subdivisions (b)(1) through (b)(13) requires special education in one or more of the program options authorized by Education Code section 56361.
Title 5 California Code of Regulations § 3030. Eligibility criteria. (2014).
The Statistical Abstract of the United States is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). Abstract of the United States: 2012 (131st Edition). [Table 232]. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2011/compendia/statab/131ed.html
This article provide charts, graphs, maps, and visualizations of all feature data that Education Week released in 2017 and convey some big takeaways about U.S. schools, students, and teachers in 2017.
U.S. Education in 2017 in 10 Charts. Education Week, December. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/section/multimedia/us-education-in-2017-in-10-charts.html
The Commission identified the six goals as the foundation for transforming mental health care in America. This report discusses each goal in-depth, showcasing model programs to illustrate the goal in practice and providing specific recommendations needed to transform the mental health system in America.
United States. President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the promise: transforming mental health care in America: final report. President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health.
The authors recommend a shift in focus for TFA from a program of mixed impact to one that makes measureable changes in the quality of education in America. Recommendations for policymakers and districts are provided.
Vasquez Heilig, J., & Jez, S. J. (2014). Teach For America: A return to the evidence.
This article discusses the effects of minimum drinking age on alcohol use, effects of minimum drinking age on traffic crashes, effect of minimum drinking age on other health and social problems. In the end, the author calls for research needs on youth alcohol availability.
Wagenaar, A. C. (1993). Minimum drinking age and alcohol availability to youth: Issues and research needs. Economics and the Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 175-200.
Effects on motor vehicle crash involvement of raising the legal drinking age in Texas from 18 to 19 were examined, using an interrupted time-series design. It is clear that the l-year increase in legal age in Texas had a significant effect on youth crash involvement.
Wagenaar, A. C., & Maybee, R. G. (1986). The legal minimum drinking age in Texas: Effects of an increase from 18 to 19. Journal of safety research, 17(4), 165-178.
Effects of Michigan's law requiring all young children to be restrained when traveling in automobiles were assessed. Data on all reported residents of the state who were involved in crashes from 1978 through 1983 were examined using times-series analysis methods.
Wagenaar, A. C., & Webster, D. W. (1986). Preventing injuries to children through compulsory automobile safety seat use. Pediatrics, 78(4), 662-672.
Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol (CMCA) was a randomized 15-community trial of a community organizing intervention designed to reduce the accessibility of alcoholic beverages to youths under the legal drinking age
Wagenaar, A. C., Murray, D. M., Gehan, J. P., Wolfson, M. F. J. L., Forster, J. L., Toomey, T. L., ... & Jones-Webb, R. (2000). Communities mobilizing for change on alcohol: outcomes from a randomized community trial. Journal of studies on alcohol, 61(1), 85-94.
Describes the evaluation design of the CMCA (Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol) project. The effects of the intervention on youth alcohol access, alcohol use, and related problems were determined using a combination of a randomized community trial and a time-series design.
Wagenaar, A. C., Murray, D. M., Wolfson, M., & Forster, J. L. (1994). Communities mobilizing for change on alcohol: Design of a randomized community trial. Journal of Community Psychology.
This article discuss how policymakers continued to search way through several approach to improve academic outcomes and life chances for low-income students.
Wax, A. L. (2019). Educating the Disadvantaged. National Affairs, no.40. Retrieved from https://www.nationalaffairs.com/publications/detail/educating-the-disadvantaged
The chapters in this book deal with areas of expertise that most students will need. For example, self-determination skills, functional academics, transportation, home and community living, as well as work preparation and socialization.
Wehman, P., & Kregel, J. (2004). Functional curriculum for elementary, middle, and secondary age students with special needs. PRO-ED, Inc. 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd, Austin, TX 78757.
This paper contrasts the strengths and limitations of clinical trials and effectiveness studies for addressing policy and clinical decisions. These research approaches are assessed in terms of outcomes, treatments, service delivery context, implementation conventions, and validity.
Wells, K. B. (1999). Treatment research at the crossroads: the scientific interface of clinical trials and effectiveness research. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(1), 5-10.
We are at the beginning of the transformation of education into an evidence-based field. By evidence-based, I mean an endeavor in which decision makers routinely seek out the best available research and data before adopting programs or practices that will affect significant numbers of students.
Whitehurst, G. J. R. (2004). IPR distinguished public policy lecture series 2003-04—Making education evidence-based: Premises, principles, pragmatics, and politics.
In this book, Grant P. Wiggins clarifies the limits of testing in an assessment system. Beginning with the premise that student assessment should improve performance, not just audit it, Wiggins analyzes some time-honored but morally and intellectually problematic practices in test design, such as the use of secrecy, distracters, scoring on a curve, and formats that allow for no explanation by students of their answers.
Wiggins, G. P. (1993). Assessing student performance: Exploring the purpose and limits of testing. Jossey-Bass.
The paper questions whether the simple randomized controlled trial (RCT) paradigm as applied in clinical trials can be used ‘off the rack’ to evaluate socially complex service (SCS) interventions
Wolff, N. (2000). Using randomized controlled trials to evaluate socially complex services: problems, challenges and recommendations. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 3(2), 97-109.
This article compares the relative cost-effectiveness of the five policies, using best-evidence estimates drawn from available data regarding the effectiveness and costs of rapid assessment, increased spending, voucher programs, charter schools, and accountability, using a conservative methodology for calculating the relative effectiveness of the rapid assessment.
Yeh, S. S. (2007). The cost-effectiveness of five policies for improving student achievement. American Journal of Evaluation, 28(4), 416-436.
The Annenberg Institute for School Reform is a national policy-research and reform support organization that promotes quality education for all children, especially in urban communities.
The organization promotes well-informed decision making by preparing, maintaining and disseminating systematic reviews in education, crime and justice, social welfare and international development.
CRRE is a research center who’s major goal is to improve the quality of education through high-quality research and evaluation studies and the dissemination of evidence-based research.
The Council’s mission is to promote the cause of urban schools and to advocate for inner-city students through legislation, research and media relations.
This federal education site provides access to a large number of data sets covering all levels of education.