Teacher Preparation: Instructional Effectiveness Overview
Teacher Preparation: Instructional Effectiveness
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2021). Teacher Preparation: Instructional Effectiveness. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/pre-service-teacher-instructional-effectiveness.
Teachers play a central role in student success (Hattie, 2009; Nye et al., 2004). The experiences that teacher candidates have while in teacher preparation programs shape their future students’ success (Bacharach et al., 2010). To best prepare teachers, teacher preparation programs must use instructional methods that effectively contribute to teacher candidates learning and mastering important skills.
The purpose of this overview is to provide information about how university teacher preparation programs train teachers, or their instructional effectiveness. Teaching methods are approaches to teaching and learning that translate concepts and abstractions into applied ideas and strategies (Burden & Byrd, 2010).
This overview does not focus on what content teachers should teach or what teachers should know (see Curriculum Content for Teacher Training Overview) or on experience (see Student Teaching Overview).
Important questions about instructional effectiveness include:
- What methods of instruction are most effective for training teachers?
- How well do teacher preparation programs align with most effective practices?
- Can performance assessment exams serve as instructional experiences for teacher candidates?
History of Teacher Preparation Programs
In the 19th century, teacher education occurred in a variety of settings including normal schools that were specifically dedicated to training teachers. In the 20th century, teacher training moved to state colleges and regional universities. Through these transformations, teacher education broadened beyond simply teaching technical routines and information to encompass a liberal arts education (Larabee, 2008) as well as including instruction in how to teach more diverse groups of students (Darling-Hammond, 2016). This shift in focus to student learning necessitated a change in how teacher preparation programs approached teacher education.
In 1964, Nate Gage, an early advocate of research on teaching, argued for more research on how to teach teachers. He called for studies with stronger methodologies that connected teaching behaviors to student outcomes. Gage was convinced that research on teaching methods could be applied to better prepare teachers. He argued that what teachers need to learn to be effective is not intuitive, but specific skills that must be taught and reinforced (Darling-Hammond, 2016).
Since the middle of the 20th century, research on how teachers teach has increased and expanded into new methodologies and more nuanced research questions (Darling-Hammond, 2016). In the 1980s, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards launched professional standards to strengthen teacher education and certification. In the subsequent decade, educational researcher Linda Darling-Hammond (1996) argued that the next century would be about the advancement of teaching and would focus on developing teachers who could support strategic, complex learning.
The current context for teacher education is a challenging one. In 2016, the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) surveyed university presidents, provosts, and education deans. It found that:
- The teaching profession is being asked to do more with less, particularly growing expectations, declining teacher autonomy, low pay, constrained budgets, and ongoing teacher shortages.
- University-based teacher education programs are facing declining enrollment and increasing costs.
- Educators must deal with increased federal and state accountability burdens and demands.
- The U.S. student population is growing in size and diversity, increasing the demand for teachers, which makes the other challenges more acute.
In response to these challenges, teacher preparation programs are working to improve practices and policies, increase partnerships with schools, increase robust assessment protocols, and pursue clinical experiences for teachers.
What Do Teacher Preparation Programs Need to Prepare Teachers to Do?
The scope of what teacher candidates need to learn is broad. Research has identified four key skill areas that teachers need to master: formative assessment, classroom management, teaching strategies, and instruction in writing, math, science, and reading (Hattie, 2009). In short, teachers need to manage classrooms effectively, including deploying research-based strategies to teach and manage behaviors across a school day (Greenberg et al., 2014). Teachers must also be able to collect and manage large amounts of formative assessment data, and use the data to advance student achievement (Everston & Weinstein, 2013). In addition to technical competencies, teachers need soft skills, and teacher preparation programs should incorporate such skills as relationship building and collaboration (States et al., 2018; Tang et al., 2015). Finally, diversity in classrooms is increasing and teachers must be prepared to teach students from linguistically diverse backgrounds (Mitchell, 2020) and students with disabilities (National Center for Education Statistics, 2020; Rahman et al., 2010).
Given all that teacher candidates need to master, how can teacher preparation programs teach them most effectively?
Research on Instructional Effectiveness
We can draw from research on general institutional practices used in higher education as well as strategies specifically used in teacher preparation to understand the potential strengths of various methods of training.
What Methods of Instruction Are Most Effective for Training Teachers?
Of the instructional methods used in higher education, perhaps the most familiar are lecture and discussion. Also important are application experiences, in which teacher candidates apply and receive feedback on teaching practices. Application experiences encompass brief assignments as well as longer student teaching experiences.
A popular teaching method, lecture consists of delivering information, presenting a topic, or explaining content (Eison, 2010; Ganyaupfu, 2013). Although often criticized as a teaching method, lecture is still common (Paul, 2015). One critique of lecture is that students tend to lose interest, particularly in the middle (Bligh, 2000; Richards & Rogers, 2014). Lecture is also less participatory; although students may be called on, there is no exchange and development of ideas (Abdulbaki et al., 2018).
Freeman et al. (2014) conducted a meta-analysis of 225 studies that examined test scores or failure rates to compare student performance in undergraduate STEM courses using traditional lecturing versus active learning. Active learning practices included group problem solving, the use of personal response systems, and workshop courses. Average student test scores improved 6% with active learning and students were more than 1.5 times more likely to fail in classes with traditional lecturing. While this review did not look at teacher education courses, it does raise questions about how lecturing should be used in teacher preparation programs.
Another common practice in university classrooms, discussion engages students in the sharing and critique of ideas, and through this conversation, they reach a greater understanding of the topic and appreciation of other viewpoints (Brookfield & Preskill, 2005; McKeachie & Svinicki, 2006). Group discussion may produce greater participation, self-confidence, and student performance outcomes (Perkins & Sardis, 2001; Yoder & Hochevar, 2005). Discussion is also an opportunity to develop students’ critical thinking skills as they present their ideas (Silverthorn, 2006). Finally, it provides a way to monitor students’ understanding (Craven & Hogan, 2001).
Discussion is limited in that some students may dominate discussion while others are more passive (Brookfield & Preskill, 2005), or it may go on a tangent or get off track (Howard & Weimer, 2015).
Class size is another potential limitation to discussion—the effectiveness of discussion is more difficult to monitor in a large introductory class than in a smaller class. Wright et al. (2017) examined the effect of a change to smaller class size on professors’ use of active learning strategies (writing activities, and small and large group discussion) in world language courses. Professors were interviewed before and after class size was reduced from 25 to 18 students. With a smaller class size, professors were able to implement more active learning strategies and create more classroom collaboration. More research into how professors in education courses engage students in active learning, including discussion, and how this translates to teacher proficiency would help us understand how this method of teaching impacts teacher candidates.
Abdulbaki et al. (2018) surveyed students in the English department of a university using a qualitative survey (Likert scale) with the goal of understanding students’ perceptions of the value and importance of discussion. A majority of respondents indicated that discussion was a good opportunity to interact and share knowledge. On the whole, students indicated that discussion was a good use of time and that they were not concerned about one person dominating the conversation. This study indicates that discussion could encourage students’ active participation. Further, discussion could help students develop their cognitive, language, and linguistic abilities. It is important to note that the students surveyed were in the English department; future research on how teacher candidates incorporate learning from discussion should be considered.
In the field of education, Mutrofin et al. (2017) used a quasi-experimental design to examine the difference between discussion alone and a combination of lecture and discussion on 168 teacher candidates in Indonesia. Results indicated that group discussion significantly affected student learning outcomes and was more effective than a combination of lecture and discussion. This study has limitations that may not extend to the American university context. Further research could explore how lecture and discussion combinations impact teaching candidates in the U.S. context. Also, additional research into how learning through discussion translates into classroom actions would be helpful.
- Application Experiences
Teacher candidates need to have the opportunity to apply what they are learning (Ingersoll et al., 2014). These application experiences could be within courses (e.g., an application assignment) as well as within the student teaching experience.
Simulation activities. Activities that provide a simple, accurate, and dynamic version of a situation are one way for teachers to gain application experiences within the bounds of the university classroom (Girod & Girod, 2008). In particular, simulations can provide teacher candidates with the opportunity to practice the same scenario in a safe setting (Badiee & Kaufman, 2015). In simulations, teacher candidates can take actions, reflect, and try another course of action without directly impacting students (Badiee & Kaufman, 2015; Dieker et al., 2014). In addition, simulations can provide teacher candidates with the opportunity to practice situations that are difficult to produce regularly in the real world, such as high-stress environments or specific groupings of students (e.g., a class with a high percentage of students with emotional disabilities), so that teacher candidates can prepare to approach these situations before they encounter them in real life (Dieker et al., 2007, 2014).
A recent development involves online classroom simulation that provides teacher candidates with practice in different teaching skills. In the simulation, teacher candidates can make decisions in the virtual classroom setting and receive feedback about their teaching actions and choices.
Badiee and Kaufman (2015) studied one online simulation (simSchool) in which 22 teacher candidates in western Canada used the simulation across three sessions. Teacher candidates then rated their experience. In general, ratings varied and were moderate. The most positive aspects were the realistic classroom challenges, profiles and learning characteristics, and academic performance outcomes. Participants noted that the user interface and range and realism of the teacher-student interactions could be improved.
Badiee and Kaufman (2014) also tested the effectiveness of the simSchool simulation as a way to prepare teachers for their work in the classroom. Teacher candidates (n = 22) used the software across two sessions. Scores for simulated learning improved between practice and actual simulation sessions with one student. Learning scores decreased as complexity increased from one student to five students. Overall, the participants indicated that they found the simulations helpful, although they expressed concerns about the interface.
Additional research on how engaging with online simulation translates into teacher efficacy and eventual teaching practice and student outcomes will be important as these tools become more developed.
Student teaching. A key application experience is student teaching, also called clinical in-service. Student teaching occurs when teacher candidates work with a cooperating teacher, typically for 10 weeks or one semester. Student teaching is a nearly ubiquitous experience for teacher candidates, with the vast majority of higher education institutions requiring some sort of student teaching (Cleaver et al., 2020; Greenberg et al., 2011).
Overall, student teaching provides teacher candidates with an opportunity to apply what they have learned in class to working with students, including classroom management, supervision of daily routines, assessment, and instructional strategies (Cleaver et al., 2020; Greenberg et al., 2011; Wentz, 2001).
The National Council on Teacher Quality (Greenberg et al, 2011) set standards for high-quality student teaching:
- Student teaching occurs for at least 10 weeks.
- The university program has a role in selecting high-quality teachers as cooperating teachers.
- A university supervisor provides observation and feedback at least four times during the semester.
Strong student teaching programs can be expected to produce teachers who enter the classroom with better skills (Pomerance & Walsh, 2020) and have higher self-efficacy or a belief in their own competence to plan, organize, and carry out activities to reach a goal (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2010). However, research on how student teaching impacts specific teaching practices and student outcomes is lacking (Cleaver et al., 2020).
Coaching. A combination of observation, feedback, and reflection, coaching is an established professional development practice that has been shown to change teacher practice and can be used in teacher preparation programs (Kraft et al., 2018; Kretlow & Bartolomew, 2010; Raney & Robbins, 1989; Wesley & Buysse, 2006; Wood et al., 2016).
In particular, coaching can be a useful practice for teachers when they are developing and practicing a new skill (Kretlow et al., 2011). Side-by-side coaching, in which teachers are provided with in-the-moment feedback around their implementation of a focus skill, is an effective way for teachers to learn and practice new skills (Kretlow & Bartolomew, 2010; Kretlow et al., 2011).
Performance feedback. Feedback, or information on how a teacher candidate executes a specific teaching skill, is an important way for teachers to understand what they are doing well and what they need to improve. Quality feedback may be given during a post-teaching conference, when a teacher candidate and supervising teacher can can evaluate and interpret data from a teaching observation, discuss strengths and weaknesses, and make suggestions to act on (Acheson & Gall, 2003). In this way, feedback allows teacher candidates to collect and use data on their own teaching, including for reflection over time (Wilkins-Canter, 1997). Quality feedback also helps teachers address what Darling-Hammond (2006) described as a need for the integration of clinical work with course work and for theory to link with practice.
Feedback has been shown to increase the use of specific skills. For example, Sayeski et al. (2017) examined the role of practice and feedback on teacher candidates’ knowledge of a specific practice (providing students with opportunities to respond [OTR]). The study randomly assigned 48 teacher candidates in an undergraduate special education course to receive instruction using feedback or business as usual. Teacher candidates in the feedback condition outperformed candidates who did not receive feedback on a measure of knowledge and a performance measure for OTR delivery. However, there was no difference between the groups in the rate of OTR delivery; teacher candidates who received feedback demonstrated more knowledge and ability to execute OTR, while both groups used OTR procedures.
Capizzi et al. (2010) studied the efficacy of video analysis and feedback with self-evaluation on teacher candidates’ instructional delivery. A single-case multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate lesson components, rate of praise statements, and OTR rate. Teacher candidates video recorded their instruction and met with a consultant to evaluate their lesson and receive feedback. The teacher candidates increased the number of lesson components and amount of behavior-specific praises given during instruction. Effects varied for OTR. Future research on how this practice translates to teacher effectiveness in the classroom and student outcomes is needed.
Peer feedback (reciprocal teaching) is another way that teacher candidates can receive feedback (Shin et al., 2006; Wynn & Kromrey, 2000). In their study of peer feedback, Wilkins, et al. (2009) paired 64 elementary education teacher candidates to help one another as they learned and applied new teaching skills across two clinical teaching experiences. The teacher candidates indicated that:
- They valued the peer feedback and had increased confidence and a better understanding of children through the feedback experience.
- They learned more about themselves and about teaching as benefits of reflection.
- They considered peer feedback less intimidating than supervisor feedback.
- They learned from observing and giving feedback to their peers as well as receiving feedback.
However, a significant subset (18%) of teacher candidates said they did not see feedback as a way to improve their teaching.
There is more to learn about how feedback can be used in teacher preparation programs.
Additional research on how feedback is used in teacher preparation programs and what is most effective for various teaching tasks (e.g., behavior management) is necessary.
Reflection. In practice, teachers are often asked to reflect on teaching and learning (Greenberg et al., 2014). Reflection involves ascribing meaning through a disciplined thinking process that moves the learner forward (Dewey, 1910). This requires community and an attitude that values personal and intellectual growth (Dewey, 1910; Rodgers, 2002). The American Educational Research Association (AERA) Panel on Research and Teacher Education (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005) recommended that teacher candidates learn how to study their own practice. The idea is that teacher candidates must be able to reflect on their own practice to improve it. This aligns with how professional development often occurs in schools.
Nagro et al. (2016) conducted a quasi-experimental study to understand the effects of guiding teacher candidates through video-recording and self-reflection activities during student teaching internships to understand if these activities improved teacher candidates’ reflective abilities and instructional skills. Thirty-six teacher candidates participated; two groups participated in semester-long internships, recorded their instruction four times and wrote four reflections. Teacher candidates in the treatment group (n = 17) also received guidance and feedback to supplement their video analysis. Groups self-reported improvements in teaching ability. The treatment group demonstrated growth in reflective ability and instructional skills over time.
Slade et al. (2019) studied how writing reflections enhanced teacher candidates’ understanding of developmental sciences in the context of poverty. One-third of teacher candidates referenced course topics in their reflections, and they demonstrated a positive change in their perception of subject matter, in this case teaching and learning in the context of poverty. Slade et al. (2019) hypothesized that reflection could generate self-awareness, which might result in confidence and patience in working through real-world problems, and in changes in personal beliefs and world views.
How Well Do Teacher Preparation Programs Align With Most Effective Practices?
Certain features of teacher preparation are associated with stronger teaching results (Boyd & Bloxham, 2007):
- Opportunities to learn academic content and content-specific teaching methods
- Opportunities to apply specific classroom practices
- Carefully designed student teaching experiences
- Opportunities to study and develop curriculum
- Performance assessments that evaluate teachers’ work with students
We do not know how many teacher preparation programs include these features or to what extent teacher preparation programs are using lecture, discussion, application, and other methods.
A look at student teaching programs can give some insight into how university education departments tackle the important application experience. A review by the National Center on Teacher Quality (Greenberg et al., 2011) found that the majority of teacher preparation programs structured student teaching well, with at least 10 weeks of experience aligned with school calendars, and requirements that engaged student teachers in teaching responsibilities. Other elements, however, were left unstructured. A significant number of student teachers were not supervised by the university, and criteria for cooperating teachers were unclear or lacking. A 2017 review of undergraduate secondary programs found that only 6% incorporated two important elements: providing frequent feedback and evaluating the quality of cooperating teachers (National Council on Teacher Quality, 2017).
Another important element of teacher preparation programs is classroom management. Greenberg et al. (2014) identified five research-based approaches to behavior management that all teachers should master: rules, routines, praise, addressing misbehavior, and engagement. Many teacher education programs did not teach these skills consistently or did not provide explicit instruction in these skills. In many cases, teachers were introduced to behavior management models and through class discussion (e.g., discussion of assertive discipline or cooperative discipline). Of the programs surveyed, one-third provided some application of classroom management strategies. A smaller percentage (10%) explicitly taught and provided practice and feedback in classroom management strategies (Greenberg et al., 2014)
Can Performance Assessment Exams Serve as Instructional Experiences for Teacher Candidates?
Performance assessments that require teachers to document, record, and reflect on their lessons are relatively new. These assessments include the edTPA (Teacher Performance Assessment), and the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT), among others.
Are performance assessments effective teaching tools for teacher candidates? Lin (2015) investigated whether edTPA provided a way to learn about a teaching preparation program. edTPA does provide opportunities for candidates to develop their teaching practice through the assessment experience, although it is incumbent upon the individual candidate to take the opportunity. To that end, teacher perception of these assessments may impact how effective they are as a teaching tool. Meuwissen et al. (2015) surveyed 104 teacher candidates in New York and Washington states about experiences and perceptions of edTPA. A majority (85%) of teacher candidates perceived edTPA to be unfair and 80% said the goals were unclear. When edTPA is a high-stakes assessment, it is onerous and potentially impacts teacher candidates’ ability to learn from the process, which includes coursework and clinical experiences. On the other hand, there was also evidence that performance assessments helped beginning teachers improve their practice, a process that continued beyond the assessment experience (Darling-Hammond et al., 2013).
This research points to a potential social validity concern with performance assessments, or a concern with the acceptability of the assessment that could impact how much teacher candidates perceive them as useful for learning. More time and experience with performance assessments are necessary to understand their impact on teacher learning and experience in the classroom.
The demand for public school teachers will continue, and teacher preparation programs will need to prepare teachers to work effectively in diverse and evolving classrooms. As the AASCU teacher preparation report (2016) noted: “We need preparation programs that produce educators who not only understand and are able to address the diverse needs of today’s school population but also can deliver and assess the skills and content that 21st century students need to learn” (p. 20).
Research is clear on what teacher candidates should know and be able to do (e.g., classroom management), and teacher candidates should explicitly be taught research-based strategies and how to implement them (Greenberg et al., 2014). To prepare teachers, university programs should include a variety of instructional methods, including traditional lecture and discussion as well as application and reflection experiences.
Lecture and Discussion
Lecture is a frequently used instructional method that has its limitations (Bligh, 2000; Richards & Rogers, 2014). Discussion should be incorporated into lecture to increase engagement and help teacher candidates gain a deeper appreciation of the topic as well as build critical thinking (Abdulbaki et al., 2018; Brookfield & Preskill, 2005; Perkins & Sardis, 2001; Silverthorn, 2006; Yoder & Hochevar, 2005).
Application experiences are important for teacher candidates to apply what they are learning through lecture and discussion (Ingersoll et al., 2014). They could include simulations (Girod & Girod, 2008) or student teaching that is implemented with strong practices (Cleaver et al., 2020; Greenberg et al., 2011). We know that clinical experiences (e.g., student teaching) are powerful and effective ways to train teachers; these aspects of teacher preparation programs should be strengthened (AASCU, 2016; Cleaver et al., 2020).
Teacher candidates benefit from engaging in a variety of application experiences, including simulation (Badiee & Kaufman, 2014) and coaching that incorporates observation and feedback (Raney & Robbins, 1989; Wesley & Buysse, 2006; Wood et al., 2016).
Application experiences should include feedback to encourage the incorporation of specific skills (Sayeski et al., 2017). Feedback could be achieved through video-recorded lessons with self-evaluation (Capizzi et al., 2010; Nagro et al., 2016) or reciprocal teaching with peer feedback (Wilkins et al., 2009).
Teacher candidates should receive systematic and objective feedback so that they can develop the ability to reflect on their performance in the classroom and take steps to become more effective (Acheson & Gall, 2003; Dever et al., 2003; Morehead et al., 2003). To be beneficial, both written and verbal feedback must be frequent and delivered at an appropriate time, when the teacher can make changes (Lowenhaupt & Stephanik, 1999; Wilkins-Canter, 1997).
Reflective practice can provide the opportunity for application of knowledge and skills, and self-awareness in thinking through real-world problems (Slade et al., 2019).
Teacher preparation programs need to accomplish a lot in a short amount of time to prepare teachers for the classroom. To do that, university instructors must use the most impactful teaching methods, from lecture and discussion to application and reflection. Building teacher preparation programs that provide a variety of learning and application experiences will provide teacher candidates with the opportunity to learn, practice, and refine their skills before they enter the classroom.
Abdulbaki, K., Suhaimi, M., Alsaqqaf, A., & Jawad, W. (2018). The use of the discussion method at university: Enhancement of teaching and learning. International Journal of Higher Education, 7(6), 118–128. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1200403.pdf
Acheson, K. A., & Gall, M. D. (2003). Techniques in the clinical supervision of teachers (5th ed.). Longman.
American Association of State Colleges and Universities (ASSCU). (2016). Preparing teachers in today’s challenging context: Key issues, policy directions and implications for leaders of AASCU universities.https://www.aascu.org/AcademicAffairs/TeacherEdReport.pdf
Bacharach, N. L., Heck, T. W., & Dahlberg, K. (2010). Changing the face of student teaching through co-teaching. Teacher Development Publications, 1. https://repository.stcloudstate.edu/ed_facpubs/1
Badiee, F., & Kaufman, D. (2014). Effectiveness of an online simulation for teacher education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 22(2), 167–186.
Badiee, F., & Kaufman, D. (2015). Design evaluation of a simulation for teacher education. SAGE Open, 5(2), 1–10. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244015592454
Bligh, D. A. (2000). What’s the use of lectures? (1st U.S. ed.). Jossey-Bass.
Boyd, P., & Bloxham, S. (2007). Developing effective assessment in higher education: A practical guide. Open University Press. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263088354_Developing_Effective_Assessment_in_Higher_Education_a_practical_guide
Brookfield, S. D., & Preskill, S. (2005). Discussion as a way of teaching: Tools and techniques for democratic classrooms. Jossey-Bass.
Burden, P. R., & Byrd, D. M. (2010). Methods for effective teaching: Meeting the needs of all students. Pearson.
Capizzi, A. M., Wehby, J. H., & Sandmel, K. N. (2010). Enhancing mentoring of teacher candidates through consultative feedback and self-evaluation of instructional delivery. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(3), 191–212. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0888406409360012
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of student teaching. The Wing Institute. www.winginstitute.org/pre-service-student
Cochran-Smith, M., & Zeichner, K. M. (Eds.). (2005). Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education. Lawrence Erlbaum; American Educational Research Association.
Craven, III, J., & Hogan, T. (2001). Assessing student’s participation in the classroom. Science Scope, 25(1), 36–40.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1996). The right to learn and the advancement of teaching: Research, policy, and practice for democratic education. Educational Researcher, 25(6), 5–17.
Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st-century teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 300–314.
Darling-Hammond, L. (2016). Research on teaching and teacher education and its influences on policy and practice. Educational Researcher, 45(2), 83–91. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.3102/0013189X16639597
Darling-Hammond, L., Newton, S. P., & Chung Wei, R. (2013). Developing and assessing beginning teacher effectiveness: The potential of performance assessments. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 25(3), 179–204.
Dever, M. T., Hager, K. D., & Klein, K. (2003). Building the university/public school partnership: A workshop for mentor teachers. Teacher Educator, 38(4), 245–255.
Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. D. C. Heath and Co.
Dieker, L. A., Hynes, M., Stapleton, C. & Hughes, C. (2007). Virtual classrooms: STAR simulator building virtual environments for teacher training in effective classroom management. New Learning Technology SALT, 4, 1–22.
Dieker, L. A., Rodriguez, J. A., Lignugaris/Kraft, B., Hynes, M. C., & Hughes, C. E. (2014). The potential of simulated environments in teacher education: Current and future possibilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 37(1), 21–33.
Eison, J. (2010). Using active learning instructional strategies to create excitement and enhance learning. Center for Teaching Excellence, Cornell University.
Everston, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (Eds.) (2013). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Routledge.
Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M., Okoroafor, H. J., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(23), 8410–8415. https://www.pnas.org/content/111/23/8410
Ganyaupfu, E. M. (2013). Teaching methods and students’ academic performance. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Invention, 2(9), 29–35.
Girod, M., & Girod, G. R. (2008). Simulation and the need for practice in teacher preparation. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16(3), 307–337. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/24469
Greenberg, J., Pomerance, L., & Walsh, K. (2011). Student teaching in the United States. National Council on Teacher Quality. https://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Student_Teaching_United_States_NCTQ_Report
Greenberg, J., Putman, H., & Walsh, K. (2014). Training our future teachers: Classroom management. National Center on Teacher Quality. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED556312.pdf
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement. Routledge.
Howard, J. R.., & Weimer, M. (2015). Discussion in the college classroom: Getting your students engaged and participating in person and online. Jossey-Bass.
Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L., & May, H. (2014). What are the effects of teacher education and preparation on beginning teacher attrition? Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania. https://repository.upenn.edu/cpre_researchreports/78
Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the casual evidence. Review of Educational Research, 88(4), 547–588.
Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of practices. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(4), 279–299.
Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. Journal of Special Education, 44(4), 234–246.
Larabee, D. F. (2008). An uneasy relationship: The history of teacher education in the university. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, D. McIntyre, & K. Demers (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring issues in changing contexts (3rd ed., pp. 290–306). Routledge.
Lin, S. (2015). Learning through action: Teacher candidates and performance assessments [Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington]. ResearchWorks Archive. https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/33753
Lowenhaupt, M. A., & Stephanik, C. E. (1999). Making student teaching work: Creating a partnership. Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
McKeachie, W. J., & Svinicki, M. (2006). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers. Houghton-Mifflin.
Meuwissen, K., Choppin, J., Shang-Butler, H., & Cloonan, K. (2015). Teaching candidates’ perceptions of the experience with early implementation of the edTPA licensure examination in New York and Washington states.Warner School of Education, University of Rochester. https://www.warner.rochester.edu/files/research/files/edTPAreport.pdf
Mitchell, C. (2020, February 18). The nation’s English-learner population has surged: 3 things to know. Education Week. https://www.edweek.org/leadership/the-nations-english-learner-population-has-surged-3-things-to-know/2020/02
Morehead, M.A., Lyman, L., & Foyle, H. C. (2003). Working with student teachers: Getting and giving the best. Scarecrow Press.
Mutrofin, Degeng, N. S., Ardhana, W., & Setyosari, P. (2017). The effect of instructional methods (lecture-discussion versus group discussion) and teaching talent on teacher trainees student learning outcomes. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(9), 203–209. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1138824.pdf
Nagro, S. A., deBettencourt, L. U., Rosenberg, M. S., Carran, D. T., & Weiss, M. P. (2016). The effects of guided video analysis on teacher candidates’ reflective ability and instructional skills. Teacher Education and Special Education, 40(1), 725. https://doi.org/10.1177/0888406416680469
National Center for Education Statistics. (2020). Indicator: Students with disabilities. U.S. Department of Education. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgg.asp
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2017). A closer look at student teaching: Undergraduate secondary programs.https://www.nctq.org/dmsView/US_2017_ST_Findings
Nye, N., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational evaluation and policy analysis, 26(3), 237–257.
Paul, A. M. (2015, September 12). Are college lectures unfair? Sunday Review. The New York Times.
Perkins, D. V. & Saris, R. N. (2001). A “jigsaw classroom” technique for undergraduate statistics courses. Teaching of Psychology, 28(2), 111–113 https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328023TOP2802_09
Pomerance, L., & Walsh, K. (2020). 2020 teacher prep review: Clinical practice and classroom management. National Council on Teacher Quality. https://www.nctq.org/review/docs/NCTQ%202020%20Teacher%20Prep%20Review_Clinical%20Practice%20and%20Classroom%20Management_Final_10.19.pdf
Rahman, F. A., Scaife, J. Yahya, N. A. & Jalil, H. A. (2010). Knowledge of diverse learners: Implications for the practice of teaching. International Journal of Instruction, 3(2), 83–96. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED522935
Raney, P. & Robbins, P. (1989). Professional growth and support through peer coaching. Educational Leadership, 35(6), 35–38.
Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge University Press.
Rodgers, C. (2002). Defining reflection: Another look at John Dewey and reflective thinking. Teacher’s College Record, 104(4), 842–866.
Sayeski, K. L., Hamilton-Jones, B., Cutler, G., Earle, G. A., & Husney, L. (2017). The role of practice and feedback for developing teacher candidate’s opportunities to respond expertise. Teacher Education and Special Education, 42(1), 18–35. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0888406417735876
Shin, E., Wilkins, E., & Ainsworth, J. (2006). The nature and effectiveness of peer feedback during an early clinical experience in an elementary education program. Action in Teacher Education, 28(4), 40–52.
Silverthorn, D. U. (2006). Teaching and learning in the interactive classroom. Advances in Physiology Education, 30(4), 135-140. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00087.2006
Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2010). Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout: A study of relations. Teaching and Teacher Education 26(4), 1059–1069.
Slade, M. L., Burnham, T. J., Catalana, S. M., & Waters, T. (2019). The impact of reflective practice on teacher candidates’ learning. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(2), 1–8. https://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1821&context=ij-sotl
States, J., Detrich, R., & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of teacher soft skills. The Wing Institute. www.winginstitute.org/teacher-compentencies-soft-skills[SL1] [RD2]
Tang, K. N., Haskim, N. H., & Yumus, H. M. (2015). Novice teacher perceptions of the soft skills needed in today’s workplace. Social and Behavioral Science, 177, 284–288.
Wentz, P. (2001). The student teaching experience: Cases from the classroom. Prentice Hall.
Wesley, P. W., & Buysse, V. (2006). Making the case for evidence-based policy. In V. Buysse & P. W. Wesley (Eds.) Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp. 117–159). Zero to Three.
Wilkins, E. A., Shin, E., & Ainsworth, J. (2009). The effects of peer feedback practices with elementary education teacher candidates. Teacher Education Quarterly, 36(2), 79–93. www.jstor.org/stable/23479253
Wilkins-Canter, E. A. (1997). The nature and effectiveness of feedback given by cooperating teachers to student teachers. Teacher Educator, 32(4), 235–250.
Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., & Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14(2), 159–170.
Wright, M. C., Bergom, I., & Bartholomew, T. (2017). Decreased class size, increased active learning? Intended and enacted teaching strategies in smaller classrooms. Active Learning in Higher Education, 20(1), 51–62.
Wynn, M., & Kromrey, J. (2000). Paired peer placement with peer coaching to enhance prospective teachers’ professional growth in early field experience. Action in Teacher Education, 22(2A), 73–83.
Yoder, J., & Hochevar, C. (2005). Encouraging active learning can improve students’ performance on examinations. Teaching of Psychology, 32(2), 91–95. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328023top3202_2