Best Available Evidence Overview
Best Available Evidence PDF
Citation: Guinness, K., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2021). Best Available Evidence. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/evidence-based-decision-making-evidence.
Educators strive to make evidence-based decisions about educational practices. As educational research always continues to evolve, these decisions must be based on the best evidence available at the time of the decision. Evidence exists along a continuum; sometimes the best available evidence is not very strong, but basing a decision on less than perfect evidence is better than basing it on no evidence.
Slocum et al. (2012) outlined the criteria for judging evidence:
- High relevance to the challenge at hand. We seek evidence that aligns with the current situation with regard to student characteristics (e.g., age, skill level); teacher or implementer characteristics (e.g., training level, professional role); setting characteristics (e.g., location, class size, available resources); and the skill or behavior of interest (e.g., social skills, math skills, classroom behavior). If any of these factors in the evidence being evaluated and the current situation differ, an inferential leap is required and uncertainty increases.
- Strength. Evaluating the scientific rigor of published studies is key in judging the strength of evidence. (See “Scientific Rigor” below.)
- Availability. Some practices may not be widely studied. The strongest, most relevant research may not be available for the current situation, yet “the reliance on best available evidence is rooted in the assumption that basing decisions on evidence, even if it is imperfect, is more effective than the alternatives” (Slocum et al., 2012, p. 154). As new research is published, the best available evidence will change.
One critical factor in determining the strength of the best available evidence is the quality of the published research. Experimental research involves evaluating the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable. An independent variable is something the researcher changes; in education research it is usually an intervention or instructional technique (e.g., positive behavioral supports, check-in/check-out, repeated reading). A dependent variableis something the researcher measures; in education research it is usually an outcome measure (e.g., test scores, rates of expulsion). Experimental research can be broadly classified into two categories: group designs and single-case designs.
Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-experimental designs (QED) are two types of group designs commonly used in educational research (Portney & Watkins, 2009). RCTs are considered the gold standard of experimental designs. Participants (which could be individuals, classrooms, or schools) are randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group receives the intervention, the control group does not, and then outcomes are compared. For example, Flannery et al. (2020) evaluated the effects of “Freshman Success,” a Tier 1 intervention within a multitiered system of supports (MTSS), on student engagement, attendance, and academic performance. Four high school were recruited to participate. Two of these schools were randomly assigned to receive the intervention, while the other two schools did not receive the intervention and served as the control group.
QEDs are not as rigorous as RCTs because there is no random assignment. However, they serve as a helpful alternative when random assignment is impossible or impractical. For example, Gage et al. (2019) evaluated the effects of schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) on discipline in Florida schools. Several discipline outcomes, such as in-school and out-of-school suspensions, corporal punishment, and expulsion, were compared across 593 schools that had implemented SWPBIS and 593 schools that had not implemented SWPBIS. Because these schools were not randomly assigned to implement or not implement SWPBIS, other factors may be responsible for any differences observed between the groups. For example, the researchers noted that schools implementing SWPBIS tended to be larger in size and have more White students than schools that did not implement SWPBIS.
Two additional factors can affect the quality of group design experiments (What Works Clearinghouse [WWC], 2020) and must be taken into account when determining the strength of evidence.
- Attrition. How many participants dropped out of the study before it was completed? Minimal attrition is best; disproportional attrition in either the experimental or control group weakens the conclusions that can be drawn from the study. For example, in a hypothetical study of an intensive after-school math tutoring intervention, 50% of participants in the experimental group dropped out of the study compared with 5% of participants in the control group. The most common reason cited for dropping out of the experimental group was the prohibitive time commitment. Therefore, although the intervention was effective, it was effective only for participants who could dedicate the time to take part.
- Equivalence of groups at baseline. To increase confidence that outcome differences between the experimental and control groups are due to the intervention and not some other factor, ensuring there are no significant differences between the groups before introducing the intervention is important. For example, in a hypothetical study of a computerized writing intervention with high school students, the researchers randomly assigned students to the control and experimental groups. Prior to implementing the intervention, they collected demographic data and, by chance, found that the students in the control group had lower GPAs than the students in the experimental group. It would be unclear if any differences observed between the groups post-intervention were due to the intervention or to the students in the experimental group having higher GPAs.
The purpose of a single-case design (SCD) is to demonstrate a causal relation between an independent variable and a dependent variable with a single participant. An SCD is an experiment in which a baseline or no-intervention condition is compared with an intervention condition, and the dependent variable is measured repeatedly over time.
Experimental control, or a cause-and-effect relation, can be demonstrated in several ways:
- Introducing and withdrawing the independent variable (withdrawal design)
- Staggering the introduction of the independent variable across time, behaviors, or settings (multiple baseline design)
- Repeated manipulation of the independent variable across observations (alternating treatments design or multielement design)
- Implementing the independent variable at a set level of behavior and systematically changing that level (changing criterion design)
For example, Goodnight et al. (2021) evaluated the effects of response cards on class participation with fourth grade students. The data from five participants were reported, but the participants’ data were analyzed individually. For five consecutive school days, the teacher instructed participants to raise their hands to answer questions during lessons, and frequency of class participation was measured. For the next five days, participants were given preprinted response cards and instructed to use them to answer questions. On the following five days, the response cards were removed and participants were again instructed to raise their hands. Lastly, the response card condition was repeated. By withdrawing and then reinstating the response cards, the authors demonstrated experimental control when the participants’ behavior change corresponded to the change in the intervention.
As with group designs, the following factors can affect the quality of SCDs (WWC, 2020):
- Raw data must be presented in table or graph form. The primary mode of analysis for SCDs is visual inspection, or examining a data display to see how a measure changes over time in relation to the introduction and withdrawal of the intervention. It must be clear when the intervention was introduced. On a line graph, this is indicated with a condition change line and corresponding condition labels. Therefore, it is clear to the viewer for which sessions or days the intervention was applied.
- Interassessor or interobserver agreement must be included. For at least 20% of the observations in each phase of the study (e.g., baseline, treatment), a second observer must independently collect data and compare findings with the primary observer to assess the reliability of data collection. For example, Researcher A and Researcher B both observe a student during a 30-minute math lesson and record the frequency of hand raising. Researcher A records 6 hand raises and Researcher B records 7 hand raises. Their agreement is calculated as the smaller frequency divided by the larger frequency and multiplied by 100, or 6 ÷ 7 = 0.857 × 100 = 86%. A minimum of 80% agreement must be achieved; higher correspondence between observers increases confidence in the data.
Synthesizing Evidence Across Studies
Although it is valuable for education professionals to consult the empirical literature and evaluate primary sources of evidence, this is a time-consuming endeavor. Further, to determine recommendations for best practices, the results of many studies must be assessed and synthesized into practical recommendations.
Detrich et al. (2013) described three classes of evidence: (1) empirically supported intervention reviews, (2) alternative sources of evidence, and (3) smaller units of analysis.
Empirically Supported Intervention Reviews
An empirically supported intervention review, or ESIR, is a peer-reviewed publication and the strongest form of evidence when synthesizing results across multiple studies. It involves specifying criteria for searching the literature, screening studies for relevance, evaluating the quality of each study, and summarizing the outcomes of each study. An ESIR can then assess the overall strength of the evidence for an intervention based on the number and quality of studies reviewed.
For example, Wolfe et al. (2016) conducted a systematic review of the evidence for check-in/check-out. The authors specified keywords for three academic search engines, then screened search results by reviewing titles and abstracts for these keywords. Next, they evaluated the methodological rigor and study outcomes using established standards (Horner et al., 2005). Ultimately, the authors concluded that check-in/check-out could be classified as an evidence-based procedure for students who exhibited challenging behavior maintained by attention, and discussed several considerations for implementation.
There are additional considerations when summarizing findings across SCDs. A finding is stronger when it is replicated across multiple SCDs conducted by a variety of researchers in different locations. What Works Clearinghouse (2017) described the following thresholds for combining results across SCDs:
- At least five SCDs meet WWC standards.
- Studies were conducted across at least three different research teams (i.e., no overlapping authorship) at three different institutions or geographical locations.
- At least 20 total cases (participants or classrooms) were combined across studies.
Further, evaluating the quality of an ESIR is another vital facet of examining best available evidence (Wilczynski, 2012).
- Examine the credentials of the experts conducting the review. Are all relevant areas of expertise represented?
- Assess the methods of the systematic review. Consider the following:
- Article inclusion and exclusion criteria
- Search engines used
- Interobserver agreement
- Look at the determinants of scientific rigor. Are they aligned with established standards?
- Study the description of treatment outcomes. Are they described in a manner consistent with what is currently taught in graduate programs?
Alternative Sources of Evidence
If an educational practice is relatively new and research on it is limited, producing a meaningful ESIR may not be possible. In the absence of an ESIR, consumers may reference alternative sources of evidence. A narrative reviewexamines the literature without defining and reporting procedures for searching and screening. A best practice committee is a panel of experts who provide recommendations that are based, in part, on the best available evidence; this type of committee may comprise experts from a wider variety of fields than those involved in conducting an ESIR and therefore can present a broader perspective.
An empirically supported practice guide is based on a systematic review and best practice committee; the strength of the evidence can be classified as strong, moderate, or minimal. In a review of 14 practice guides published by the Institute for Education Sciences, Slocum et al. (2012) found that of 78 recommendations, 45% had minimal evidence, 33% had moderate evidence, and 22% had strong evidence. It is also possible that even when a practice guide finds no empirically supported treatments for the problem at this time, the experts may still recommend a practice. This highlights the nature of the continuum of evidence—sometimes the best available evidence is not strong, but still better than no evidence.
Smaller Units of Analysis
Practice elements are intervention components commonly found in effective interventions. For example, Lawson et al. (2019) assessed 14 manualized social-emotional learning programs and identified common intervention components such as social skills, identifying one’s own and others’ feelings, and behavioral coping skills. A manualized intervention follows a series of predefined steps, while a modular treatment approach allows for the practitioner to individualize the intervention, choosing which elements to include or exclude, based on the presenting problem. Examining practice elements allows for this modular versus manualized treatment approach, which can lead to more positive outcomes (Weisz et al., 2012).
Kernels are specific variables that affect behavior, and they are distinguished from practice elements in that they must be experimentally evaluated (Embry & Biglan, 2008). Evidence-based kernels allow for flexibility in developing and implementing interventions across settings and populations. There are four broad categories of kernels:
- Consequences of behavior (e.g., praise, error correction)
- Instructions (e.g., rules, self-monitoring)
- Motivation (e.g., motivational interviewing, public commitment)
- Biological functions (e.g., progressive muscle relaxation)
Lastly, principles are derived from research in highly controlled settings; these are the mechanisms through which multicomponent interventions are effective. For example, the principle of reinforcement is derived from experiments in highly controlled laboratory settings and has been extended to multiple applied settings. It is one of the underlying mechanisms for the Good Behavior Game or check-in/check-out (see Supporting Appropriate Behavior).
These smaller units of analysis have the highest degree of uncertainty. “[T]hey are not ready-to-implement techniques... the practitioner must do the critical job of arranging these components into an effective intervention package” (Detrich et al., 2013, pp. 39).
Integrating Evidence for Decision Making
When it comes time to decide which intervention to implement, integrating information from multiple sources of evidence can facilitate optimal decision making. For example, a high school teacher experiencing high levels of disruptive behavior in the classroom is considering implementing a group contingency. Maggin et al. (2017) conducted a meta-analysis of school-based group contingency interventions, and the studies included in the review met the WWC criteria for an evidence-based intervention. However, the authors noted that the majority of studies were conducted with late elementary and early middle school students. Therefore, while this evidence is strong, it may not be the most relevant to the high school teacher’s situation and requires an inferential leap to assume it would be effective in a high school setting.
Next, the high school teacher locates a study conducted by Lum et al. (2019) on using a randomized independent group contingency with high school students. The description of the participants and setting aligns closely with the high school teacher’s students and setting, and the results of the study are promising. This evidence is more relevant to the current situation, but the results of a single study are not as strong as those synthesized across multiple studies.
Integrating these sources of evidence may help the high school teacher come to the best decision. The findings of the meta-analysis are strong but not highly relevant to the high school teacher’s situation. Preliminary research on using group contingencies with high school students (e.g., Lum et al., 2019) suggests the intervention can be effective with this population, aiding in making the inferential leap between research and practice.
Conclusions and Implications
Making decisions based on the best available evidence involves evaluating the quality, relevance, and amount of empirical research currently available on the issue of interest. The scientific rigor of an individual study is determined by its experimental design. RCTs are considered the gold standard and the strongest form of evidence. QEDs do not include random assignment of participants, allowing for the possibility of other factors influencing outcome measures and weakening the conclusions to be drawn. Yet a QED is a practical alternative when an RCT is impossible. An SCD is an experiment in which a cause-and-effect relation is demonstrated with a single participant. Results of SCDs can be summarized together when they reach rigorous thresholds.
Making informed decisions about educational practices is rooted in integrating multiple sources of evidence, identifying the best available evidence that is most relevant to the current situation. When synthesizing evidence across multiple studies, educators may turn to empirically supported intervention reviews, narrative reviews, best practice committees, and practice guides. When limited empirical evidence is available, principles may serve as a form of evidence, although they carry the highest degree of uncertainty. Ultimately, the best available evidence will constantly evolve as new research is published.
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Changing cultural practices: A contextualist framework for intervention research.
This book is a very serious effort to apply behavioral psychology to culture change. The book begins with a technical discussion of the principles of reinforcement and then moves on to a discussion of how one changes cultural practices.
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The scientist-practitioner: Research and accountability in the age of managed care
In this book, the authors point to the opportunities that exist for scientist-practitioners and attempt to prepare students to succeed in the era of managed care. The purpose is to describe in some detail methods of developing, administering, evaluating, and training in the delivery of behavioral health care and education services that will epitomize the role of the scientist-practitioner.
Hayes, S. C., Barlow, D. H., & Nelson-Gray, R. O. (1999). The scientist practitioner: Research and accountability in the age of managed care (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA, US: Allyn & Bacon.
Toward a Model of Reading Fluency.
The author defines fluency and suggests what teachers can do to assess students to determine if they are fluent. The author also provides a historical backdrop for understanding fluency and will respond to the National Reading Panel report (NICHD, 2000), which states that the panel could find no experimental evidence either for or against the value of independent reading.
Samuels, S. J. (2006). Toward a Model of Reading Fluency. In S. J. Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about fluency instruction (p. 24–46). International Reading Association.
Handbook of research in emotional and behavioral disorders
This book brings together 70 top researchers and scholars in the field to address the major foundational, assessment, characteristics, intervention, and methodological issues facing the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) of children and adolescents
Rutherford, R. B., Quinn, M. M., & Mathur, S. R. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of research in emotional and behavioral disorders. New York: Guilford Press.
Evaluation in clinical practice: Clinically sensitive and systematic methods of treatment delivery
The present paper makes the case for systematic assessment and evaluation in clinical practice. The purpose of systematic evaluation is to enhance client care and to improve the basis for drawing inferences about treatment and therapeutic change.
Kazdin, A. E. (1993). Evaluation in clinical practice: Clinically sensitive and systematic methods of treatment delivery. Behavior Therapy, 24(1), 11-45.
Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for general causal inference.
This book represents updates in the field over the last two decades. The book covers four major topics in field experimentation.
Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference.
What Can Implementation Science Offer During Covid-19?
The Covid-19 outbreak has highlighted the significance and value of implementation knowledge and implementation capacity. To assist you during this difficult time, GIS has gathered some potential resources to help schools weather these challenging times.
Effects of Candy and Social Reinforcement, Instructions, and Reinforcement Schedule Leaning on the Modification and Maintenance of Smiling.
Two retarded boys exhibited abnormally low rates of smiling. In Exp. I, the frequency of a boy's smiling was first increased with candy reinforcement, but the frequency of the response did not decrease when candy reinforcement was terminated.
The use of the discussion method at university: Enhancement of teaching and learning
This paper attempts to examine the various aspects of the discussion method of teaching at university and its role in enhancing students’ linguistic and academic skills as well as its shortcomings. In Oman, research on English language teaching at universities and colleges show that a considerable number of students who move from secondary schools and join higher education institutions would confront difficulties in using the English language to meet their personal, social, academic, and career needs efficiently and appropriately.
Abdulbaki, K., Suhaimi, M., Alsaqqaf, A., & Jawad, W. (2018). The Use of the Discussion Method at University: Enhancement of Teaching and Learning. International Journal of Higher Education, 7(6), 118-128.
A National Survey of Practicing Psychologists' Attitudes Toward
Psychotherapy Treatment Manuals
The purpose of the present study was to survey a large national sample of practitioners regarding their attitudes and beliefs about the role of psychotherapy treatment manuals in clinical practice.
Addis, M. E., & Krasnow, A. D. (2000). A national survey of practicing psychologists' attitudes toward psychotherapy treatment manuals. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 68(2), 331.
Inequality and Economic Growth: The Perspective of the New Growth Theories
We analyze the relationship between inequality and economic growth from two directions. The first part of the survey examines the effect of inequality on growth. The second part analyzes several mechanisms whereby growth may increase wage inequality, both across and within education cohorts.
Aghion, P., Caroli, E., & Garcia-Penalosa, C. (1999). Inequality and economic growth: The perspective of the new growth theories. Journal of Economic literature, 37(4), 1615-1660.
Extrinsic Reinforcement in the Classroom: Bribery or Best Practice
The debate over the effects of the use of extrinsic reinforcement in classrooms, businesses, and societal settings has been occurring for over 30 years. This article examines the debate with an emphasis on data-based findings. The extrinsic/intrinsic dichotomy is explored along with seminal studies in both the cognitive and behavioral literature.
Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practice. School Psychology Review, 33(3), 344-362.
Introduction to measurement theory
The authors effectively cover the construction of psychological tests and the interpretation of test scores and scales; critically examine classical true-score theory; and explain theoretical assumptions and modern measurement models, controversies, and developments.
Allen, M. J., & Yen, W. M. (2001). Introduction to measurement theory. Waveland Press.
Calculating effect sizes for meta-analysis: The case of the single case
This paper reviews methods for deriving measures of effect for interrupted time-series (single case) designs.
Allison, D. B., & Gorman, B. S. (1993). Calculating effect sizes for meta-analysis: The case of the single case∗. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31(6), 621-631.
Standards for educational and psychological testing
The “Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing” were approved as APA policy by the APA Council of Representatives in August 2013.
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Functional behavior assessment in schools: Current status and future directions
Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings.
Anderson, C. M., Rodriguez, B. J., & Campbell, A. (2015). Functional behavior assessment in schools: Current status and future directions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 24(3), 338-371.
Randomized Trials and Quasi-Experiments in Education Research
This paper examines the benefits and challenges inherent in using randomized clinical trials and quasi-experimental designs in the field of education research.
Angrist, J. D. (2003). Randomized trials and quasi-experiments in education research. NBER Reporter Online, (Summer 2003), 11-14.
Client satisfaction, clinical significance, and meaningful change in psychotherapy.
Evaluated the use of the N. S. Jacobson et al (see record 1985-00073-001) criteria for clinical significance in psychotherapy data analysis.
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Treatment alternatives for Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Objective: To review alternative treatments (Tx) of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)those other than psychoactive medication and behavioral/psychosocial Tx-for the November, 1998 National Institute of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference on ADHD.
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Teacher churning: Reassignment rates and implications for student achievement.
The authors use panel data from New York City to compare four ways in which teachers are new to assignment: new to teaching, new to district, new to school, or new to subject/grade.
Atteberry, A., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2017). Teacher churning: Reassignment rates and implications for student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 39(1), 3-30.
The condition of education 2012
The Condition of Education. This year’s report presents 49 indicators of important developments and trends in U.S. education.
Aud, S., Hussar, W., Johnson, F., Kena, G., Roth, E., Manning, E., ... & Zhang, J. (2012). The Condition of Education 2012. NCES 2012-045. National Center for Education Statistics.
The condition of education 2011
The Condition of Education. This year's report presents 50 indicators of important developments and trends in U.S. education.
Aud, S., Hussar, W., Kena, G., Bianco, K., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., & Tahan, K. (2011). The Condition of Education 2011. NCES 2011-033. National Center for Education Statistics.
Knowledge Utilization: The Third Wave
The Knowledge Utilization Society provides a home for researchers, scholars, and others who examine the processes of knowledge utilization and develop and test strategies for planned change in public and private institutions.
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Synthesis of behavioral science learnings about technology transfer
This chapter reviews a set of behavioral science findings derived from the November 1993 NIDA Technical Review, “Reviewing the Behavioral Science Knowledge Base on Technology Transfer.” This is not intended to be a complete recapitulation of the arguments and conclusions drawn by the authors of the 14 papers presented in this monograph.
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The Future of Behavior Analysis in Educational Settings
In 1980, a national conference (Ysseldyke & Weinberg, 1981) acknowledged a growing crisis of morale and mission in the discipline of school psychology. As part of that conference, Baer and Bushell (1981) described the accomplishments of behavior-analytic approaches to public education.
Baer, D. M. (1988). The Future of Behavior Analysis in Educational Settings. In Handbook of Behavior Therapy in Education (pp. 823-828). Springer, Boston, MA.
Some Current Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis
Analytic behavioral application is the process of applying sometimes tentative principles of behavior to the improvement2 of specific behaviors, and simultaneously evaluating whether or not any changes noted are indeed attributable to the process of application-and if so, to what parts of that process.
Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis 1. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(1), 91-97.
Research Methods in Applied Behavior Analysis
This book is a practical text that provides the beginning researcher with a clear description of how behavior analysts conduct applied research and submit it for publication. In a sequence of ten logical steps, the text covers the elements of single-case research design and the practices involved in organizing, implementing, and evaluating research studies.
Bailey, J. S., & Burch, M. R. (2017). Research methods in applied behavior analysis. Routledge.
Understanding the implications of online learning for educational productivity
The report provides foundational knowledge needed to examine and understand the potential contributions of online learning to educational productivity, including a conceptual framework for understanding the necessary components of rigorous productivity analyses, drawing in particular on cost-effectiveness analysis as an accessible method in education.
Bakia, M., Shear, L., Toyama, Y., & Lasseter, A. (2012). Understanding the implications of online learning for educational productivity. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. https://tech.ed.gov/files/2013/10/implications-online-learning.pdf
Ending the Science Wars
This book has been raging for decades, raising many questions about the power of science. The book not only helps resolve many current debates about science, but it is also a major contribution to explaining science in terms of a powerful philosophical system.
Baldwin, J. D. (2015). Ending the science wars. Routledge.
Psychological Interventions in the Era of Managed Competition
This article reviews evidence suggesting that psychological interventions from a variety of theoretical perspectives have demonstrated effectiveness for a wide range of disorders—either alone or, in some cases, in combination with medications.
Barlow, D. H. (1994). Psychological interventions in the era of managed competition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 1(2), 109-122.
Single case experimental designs: strategies for studying behavior for change
The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive sourcebook on single case experimental designs with practical guidelines for their use in a range of research and clinical settings.
Barlow, D. H., Nock, M., & Hersen, M. (2009). Single case experimental designs: Strategies for studying behavior for change (No. Sirsi) i9780205474554).
Decision Reliability and Validity: Contributions and Limitations of Alternative Assessment Strategies
In this paper, the concepts of decision reliability and validity, extensions of reliability and validity theory that encompass decision outcomes, are used to frame a general analysis of three alternative assessment strategies: multiple gating, template matching, and time-series methods.
Barnett, D. W., & Macmann, G. M. (1992). Decision reliability and validity: Contributions and limitations of alternative assessment strategies. The Journal of Special Education, 25(4), 431-452.
Identifying and Implementing Education Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide.
This Guide seeks to provide assistance to educational practitioners in evaluating whether an educational intervention is backed by rigorous evidence of effectiveness, and in implementing evidence-based interventions in their schools or classrooms.
Baron, J. (2004). Identifying and Implementing Education Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide. Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 26, 40-54.
The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations.
In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(6), 1173.
The Right To Effective Education
The purpose of this Web Site is to disseminate information about behavioral fluency; and to connect people interested in building fluent behavior of all kinds and for all types of people.
Barrett, B. H., Beck, R., Binder, C., Cook, D. A., Engelmann, S., Greer, R. D., ... & Watkins, C. L. (1991). The right to effective education. The Behavior Analyst, 14(1), 79.
A Cost Analysis of the Innovation–Decision Process of an Evidence-Based Practice in Schools
This study presents a framework for integrating the diffusion of innovation theory into an economic evaluation utilizing a societal perspective, which affords the capturing of costs of all phases from adoption through implementation of EBPs for all stakeholders
Barrett, C. A., Pas, E. T., & Johnson, S. L. (2020). A Cost Analysis of the Innovation–Decision Process of an Evidence-Based Practice in Schools. School Mental Health, 12(3), 638-649.
Establishing Specificity in Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis of Structural Equivalence of Placebo Controls
s. In this study, the authors used meta-analytic procedures to test one possible factor contributing to the attenuation of effects: structural inequalities between placebo and active treatments.
Baskin, T. W., Tierney, S. C., Minami, T., & Wampold, B. E. (2003). Establishing specificity in psychotherapy: a meta-analysis of structural equivalence of placebo controls. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 71(6), 973.
Beall’s List of Predatory Journals and Publishers
This web site reviews, assesses, and provides guidelines on how to decide which are trustworthy, whether you want to submit articles, serve as an editor, or serve on an editorial board. The web site provides a list that mostly consists of open access journals, although, a few non-open access publishers whose practices match those of predatory publishers have been added to the list.
Beall, J. (2012). Predatory publishers are corrupting open access. Nature, 489(7415), 179.
Creating coherence in the teacher shortage debate: What policy leaders should know and do
The Education Policy Center at American Institutes for Research (AIR) provides rigorous
research-and evidence-based perspectives on education issues spanning prekindergarten
to careers, including reports, briefs, legislative guides, and our InformED blog—all written by
Behrstock-Sherratt, E. (2016). Creating Coherence in the Teacher Shortage Debate: What Policy Leaders Should Know and Do. Education Policy Center at American Institutes for Research.
Returning to School Toolkit for Principals.
This toolkit is designed to help structure principal’s thinking about the return to school, in whatever form that takes. The toolkits is structured to point and direct administrators to where to find help. The guidelines offer context for the use of the tools and tip sheets, and suggestions for actions you might consider.
Benton, K., Butterfield, K., Manian, N., Molina, M., Richel, M. (2020). Returning to School Toolkit for Principals. Rockville, MD: National Comprehensive Center at Westat. https://www.compcenternetwork.org/sites/default/files/local/5704/Returning%20to%20School%20Toolkit%20for%20Principals%20(07-16-2020).pdf
Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments: What If We Didn't?
The conclusion of the Division 12 Task Force's report on empirically supported treatments raises 3 questions. It is concluded that the Task Force's selection of criteria, particularly as modified by D. L. Chambless and S. D. Hollon (1998), was a reasonable response to these pressures.
Beutler, L. E. (1998). Identifying empirically supported treatments: What if we didn't?. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 66(1), 113.
A continuum of care: More is not always better.
This article describes an $80-million project designed to test whether a continuum of mental health and substance abuse services for children and adolescents is more cost-effective than services delivered in the more typical fragmented system.
Bickman, L. (1996). A continuum of care: More is not always better. American Psychologist, 51(7), 689.
Practice makes perfect and other myths about mental health services.
After reviewing relevant scientific literature, the author concludes that these are myths with little or no evidence to support them. The author suggests 4 ways to improve the quality and effectiveness of services.
Bickman, L. (1999). Practice makes perfect and other myths about mental health services. American Psychologist, 54(11), 965.
The Fort Bragg continuum of care for children and adolescents: Mental health outcomes over 5 years.
The present study considered outcomes at 5-year follow-up to examine long-term effects from the continuum of care.
Bickman, L., Lambert, E. W., Andrade, A. R., & Penaloza, R. V. (2000). The Fort Bragg continuum of care for children and adolescents: mental health outcomes over 5 years. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 68(4), 710.
choosing a paradigm to guide prevention research and practice
This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of the three main paradigms that guide prevention research: organicism, mechanism, and contextualism
Biglan, A. (1995). Choosing a paradigm to guide prevention research and practice. Drugs & Society, 8(3-4), 149-160.
Should the behavioral sciences become more pragmatic? The case for functional contextualism in research on human behavior
The authors propose a version of contextualism as an alternative paradigm for the behavioral sciences. According to this paradigm, theories and research are evaluated in terms of their contribution to the prediction and influence of behavior.
Biglan, A., & Hayes, S. C. (1996). Should the behavioral sciences become more pragmatic? The case for functional contextualism in research on human behavior. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 5(1), 47-57.
mobilizing positive reinforcement in communities to reduce youth access to tobacco
the objective of this research is to evaluate a community intervention to mobilise positive reinforcement for not selling tobacco to young people.
Biglan, A., Henderson, J., Humphrey, D., Yasui, M., Whisman, R., Black, C., & James, L. (1995). Mobilising positive reinforcement to reduce youth access to tobacco. Tobacco Control, 4(1), 42.
The Integration of Research and Practice in the Prevention of Youth Problem Behaviors
This article describe recent developments in the integration of research-based practices into the prevention of youth problem behaviors.
Biglan, A., Mrazek, P. J., Carnine, D., & Flay, B. R. (2003). The integration of research and practice in the prevention of youth problem behaviors. American Psychologist, 58(6-7), 433.
What Psychology Has to Offer Education—Now
The author discusses what he believes to be the promise of this approach, its influence on the role of the school psychologist, and what educators can do if they choose to pursue the leads offered by this group.
Bijou, S. W. (1970). What psychology has to offer education—now. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3(1), 65.
A Method to Integrate descriptive and Experimental Field Studies at The Level of Data and Empirical Concept.
It is the thesis of this paper that data from descriptive and experimental field studies can be interrelated at the level of data and empirical concepts if both sets are derived from frequency-of-occurrence measures.
Bijou, S. W., Peterson, R. F., & Ault, M. H. (1968). A METHOD TO INTEGRATE DESCRIPTIVE AND EXPERIMENTAL FIELD STUDIES AT THE LEVEL OF DATA AND EMPIRICAL CONCEPTS 1. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(2), 175-191.
Reducing severe aggressive and self-injurious behaviors with functional communication training.
Functional communication training incorporates a comprehensive assessment of the communicative functions of maladaptive behavior with procedures to teach alternative and incompatible responses.
Bird, F., Dores, P. A., Moniz, D., & Robinson, J. (1989). Reducing severe aggressive and self-injurious behaviors with functional communication training. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 94(1), 37-48.
External validity and experimental investigation of individual behavior
In the present article, it is argued that rules and conventions for generalizing in group-statistical research are different from those applying to single-subject research.
Birnbrauer, J. S. (1981). External validity and experimental investigation of individual behaviour. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 1(2), 117-132.
Human Variable Ratio Performance
The generality of the mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR) was tested with humans.
Bizo, L. A., Remington, B., D’Souza, L. S., Heighway, S. K., & Baston, C. (2002). Human variable ratio performance. Learning and motivation, 33(4), 411-432.
Evidence-Based Programs and Cultural Competence
This was a historic meeting among developers of evidence-based programs, leaders of various cultural, racial, and ethnic professional associations, and representatives of family associations. Evidence-based program implementation and cultural competence in human services have had parallel paths with limited intersection and dialogue.
Blase, K. A., & Fixsen, D. L. (2003). Evidence-based programs and cultural competence. Tampa, FL: National Implementation Research Network, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida.
What’s the use of lectures?
In one of the highest selling books on higher/further education to date, Bligh begins by arguing that lectures are most suitable for teaching information, not promoting thought or inspiring changes in attitudes. He goes on to detail the factors that affect the learning of information. The text is formed around a thorough consideration of the techniques of lecturing, including organization, how to make a point, use handouts, and obtain feedback, but it moves beyond lecturing to discuss alternatives when they are appropriate.
Bligh, D. A. (1998). What's the Use of Lectures?. Intellect books.
Mega-analysis of meta-analyses: What works in special education and related services.
Explains how meta-analysis can be used to estimate the effectiveness of various teaching strategies in special education and related services.
Blum lM, F. S. K. K., & Lloyd, J. W. (1997). Megaanalysis of meta-analysis: what works in special education. Teaching Exceptional Children, 29(6), 4-9.
Intervention-based school psychology services: Training for child-level accountability; preparing for program-level accountability
This research evaluated the outcomes of a school psychology training practicum by replicating intervention-based service delivery procedures established in prior research.
Bonner, M., & Barnett, D. W. (2004). Intervention-based school psychology services: Training for child-level accountability; preparing for program-level accountability. Journal of School Psychology, 42(1), 23-43.
Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain
Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning.
Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 30(8), 3–15.
A Quasi-Experimental Study of the Impacts of the Kids Read Now Summer Reading Program
Drawing on administrative data and reading achievement data
provided by two Midwestern school districts for three participating
Kids Read Now schools, the current study provides the first opportunity to study the reading outcomes of Kids Read Now students.
Borman, G.D., Yang, H., Xie, X. (2019). A Quasi-Experimental Study of the Impacts of the Kids Read Now Summer Reading Program. University of Wisconsin—Madison
Randomized Experiments for Planning and Evaluation: A Practical Guide
Robert F Boruch's book untangles the complexities of randomized field experiments to enable researchers to evaluate better the impact of new programs.
Boruch, R. F. (1997). Randomized experiments for planning and evaluation: A practical guide (Vol. 44). Sage.
Toward an evolving conceptualization of instructional leadership as leadership for learning: Meta-narrative review of 109 quantitative studies across 25 years.
The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of 25 years of quantitative instructional leadership research, up through 2013, using a nationally generalizable data set.
Boyce, J., & Bowers, A. J. (2018). Toward an evolving conceptualization of instructional leadership as leadership for learning: Meta-narrative review of 109 quantitative studies across 25 years. Journal of Educational Administration, 56(2), 161–182.
Single Case Experimental Designs: Strategies for Studying Behavior Change
The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive sourcebook on single case experimental designs with practical guidelines for their use in a range of research and clinical settings.
Boyle, M. E. (1983). Single Case Experimental Designs: Strategies for Studying Behavior Change.
Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice
The OSEP conference brought together people with different perspectives on LD (parents, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers) and resulted in this book, which examines the research on nine key issues concerning the identification of children with learning disabilities.
Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Hallahan, D. P. (2002). Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice. Routledge.
Qualitative Studies in Special Education
An overview of the many types of studies that fall into the qualitative design genre is provided. Strategies that qualitative researchers use to establish the authors’ studies as credible and trustworthy are listed and defined
Brantlinger, E., Jimenez, R., Klingner, J., Pugach, M., & Richardson, V. (2005). Qualitative studies in special education. Exceptional children, 71(2), 195-207.
Further investigation of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior without extinction for escape-maintained destructive behavior
Previous research indicates that manipulating dimensions of reinforcement during differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) for situations in which extinction cannot be implemented is a potential approach for treating destructive behavior.
Briggs, A. M., Dozier, C. L., Lessor, A. N., Kamana, B. U., & Jess, R. L. (2019). Further investigation of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior without extinction for escape‐maintained destructive behavior. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 52(4), 956-973.
Motivating Students to Learn.
This book offers principles and strategies to use in motivating students to learn.
Brophy, J. (2013). Motivating students to learn. Routledge.
Evaluating the Effects of Functional Communication Training in the Presence and Absence of Establishing Operations
The authors conducted functional analyses of aberrant behavior with 4 children with developmental disabilities, then implemented functional communication training (FCT) by using different mands across two contexts.
Brown, K. A., Wacker, D. P., Derby, K. M., Peck, S. M., Richman, D. M., Sasso, G. M., ... & Harding, J. W. (2000). Evaluating the effects of functional communication training in the presence and absence of establishing operations. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(1), 53-71.
Generalizability and decision studies: An example using conversational language samples
Observational data collected in ecologically valid measurement contexts are likely to be influenced by contextual factors irrelevant to the research question. Using multiple sessions and raters often improves the stability of scores for variables from such contexts.
Bruckner, C. T., Yoder, P. J., & McWilliam, R. A. (2006). Generalizability and decision studies: An example using conversational language samples. Journal of Early Intervention, 28(2), 139-153.
Dramatic Cures for Juvenile Crime: An Evaluation of a Prisoner-Run Delinquency Prevention Program
This article describes an evaluation of a prisoner-run delinquency prevention program at Hawaii's major prison.
Buckner, J. C., & Chesney-Lind, M. (1983). Dramatic cures for juvenile crime: An evaluation of a prisoner-run delinquency prevention program. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 10(2), 227-247.
Children's Mental Health Service Use Across Service Sectors
This DataWatch explores the roles of human service sectors (mental health, education, health, child welfare, and juvenile justice) in providing mental health services for children.
Burns, B. J., Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Tweed, D., Stangl, D., Farmer, E. M., & Erkanli, A. (1995). Children's mental health service use across service sectors. Health affairs, 14(3), 147-159.
Effective Treatment for Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents
As pressure increases for the demonstration of effective treatment for children with mental disorders, it is essential that the field has an understanding of the evidence base. To address this aim, the authors searched the published literature for effective interventions for children and adolescents and organized this review
Burns, B. J., Hoagwood, K., & Mrazek, P. J. (1999). Effective treatment for mental disorders in children and adolescents. Clinical child and family psychology review, 2(4), 199-254.
A Meta-analysis of Prereferral Intervention Teams: Student and Systemic Outcomes
Although prereferral intervention teams (PIT) are common in public schools, there is little and conflicting research to support them. The current article conducted an empirical meta-analysis of research on PITs by reviewing 72 articles.
Burns, M. K., & Symington, T. (2002). A meta-analysis of prereferral intervention teams: Student and systemic outcomes. Journal of School Psychology, 40(5), 437-447.
Single-case research design and analysis : new directions for psychology and education
This book has three main goals: to take stock of progress in the development of data-analysis procedures for single-subject research; to clearly explain errors of application and consider them within the context of new theoretical and empirical information of the time; and to closely examine new developments in the analysis of data from single-subject or small n experiments.
Busk, P. L., Serlin, R. C., Kratochwill, T. R., & Levin, J. R. (1992). Single-case research design and analysis: New directions for psychology and education.
Evidence-Based Practice: How Did It Emerge and What Does It Mean for the Early Childhood Field?.
The authors discuss the emergence of the evidence-based practice movement and the challenges of integrating what we know from scientific research into daily practice with children and families.
Buysse, V., & Wesley, P. W. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice: How Did It Emerge and What Does It Mean for the Early Childhood Field?. Zero to Three (J), 27(2), 50-55.
Reform as Experiments
Many of the difficulties lie in the intransigence of the research setting and in the presence of recurrent seductive pitfalls of interpretation. The bulk of this article will be devoted to these problems.
Campbell, D. T. (1969). Reforms as experiments. American psychologist, 24(4), 409.
Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research
This paper examines the validity of 16 experimental designs against 12 common threats to valid inference. By experiment, we refer to that portion of research in which variables are manipulated and their effects upon other variables observed.
Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (2015). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Ravenio Books.
Why Education Experts Resist Effective Practices (And What It Would Take To Make Education More Like Medicine
The first section of this essay provides examples from reading and mathematics curricula that show experts dispensing unproven methods and flitting from one fad to another. The middle section describes how experts, for ideological reasons, have shunned some solutions that do display robust evidence of efficacy. The following sections show how public impatience has forced other professions to "grow up" and accept accountability and scientific evidence. The paper concludes with a plea to develop education into a mature profession.
Carnine, D. (2000). Why Education Experts Resist Effective Practices (And What It Would Take To Make Education More Like Medicine).
Why education experts resist effective practice: Report of the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation
This essay provides examples from reading and math curricula, describes how experts have, for ideological reasons, shunned some solutions that do display robust evidence of efficacy, then examines how public impatience has forced other professions to “grow up” and accept accountability and scientific evidence.
Carnine, D. (2000). Why education experts resist effective practices (Report of the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation). Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation.
Reducing Behavior Problem Through Functional Communication
It is generally agreed that serious misbehavior in children should be replaced with socially appropriate behaviors, but few guidelines exist with respect to choosing replacement behaviors. The authors address this issue in two experiments.
Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 18(2), 111-126.
Team up for 21st century teaching and learning: What research and practice reveal about professional learning. Condensed excerpts
This document includes the excerpts of five articles that provide a substantial evidence-based argument for the power of collaborative communities to improve teaching and learning.
Carroll, T., Fulton, K., & Doerr, H. (Eds.) (2010). Team up for 21st century teaching and learning: What research and practice reveal about professional learning. Condensed excerpts. Washington, DC: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED512177
Comparison of Two Community Alternatives to Incarceration for Chronic Juvenile Offenders.
The relative effectiveness of group care (GC) and multidimensional treatment foster care (MTFC) was compared in terms of their impact on criminal offending, incarceration rates, and program completion outcomes for 79 male adolescents who had histories of chronic and serious juvenile delinquency.
Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1998). Comparison of two community alternatives to incarceration for chronic juvenile offenders. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 66(4), 624.
Empirically Supported Psychological Interventions: Controversies and Evidence
The work of several such task forces and other groups reviewing empirically supported treatments (ESTs) in the United States, United Kingdom, and elsewhere is summarized here, along with the lists of treatments that have been identified as ESTs
Chambless, D. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (2001). Empirically supported psychological interventions: Controversies and evidence. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 685-716.
Update on Empirically Validated Therapies, II
This report provides the second update on our progress in developing a list of empirically supported psychological treatments for specific target populations.
Chambless, D. L., Baker, M. J., Baucom, D. H., Beutler, L. E., Calhoun, K. S., Crits-Christoph, P., ... & Johnson, S. B. (1998). Update on empirically validated therapies, II. The clinical psychologist, 51(1), 3-16.
How Methodological Features Affect Effect Sizes in Education
The purpose of this article is to examine how methodological features such as types of publication, sample sizes, and research designs affect effect sizes in experiments.
Cheung, A., & Slavin, R. E. (2015). How methodological features affect effect sizes in education. Best Evidence Encyclopedia, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
Treatment Manuals for the Real World: Where Do We Build Them?
Carroll and Nuro (this issue) outline a model for development of psychotherapy manuals that parallels the recently articulated stage model of psychotherapy research. The authors outline excellent considerations for treatment manuals in early, middle, and late stages of development.
Chorpita, B. F. (2002). Treatment manuals for the real world: Where do we build them?. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(4), 431-433.
The Frontier of Evidence-Based Practice
These guidelines emphasized the dimensions of 1) efficacy and 2) effectiveness. A model is provided that proposes how evidence--however defined--will ultimately connect with practice.
Chorpita, B. F. (2003). The frontier of evidence-based practice.
Toward Large-Scale Implementation of Empirically Supported Treatments for Children: A Review and Observations by the Hawaii Empirical Basis to Services Task Force
This article details the context and findings of a review conducted by a state-established panel established to examine the efficacy and effectiveness of child treatments for Anxiety Disorders, Depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct and Oppositional Disorders, and Autistic Disorder
Chorpita, B. F., Yim, L. M., Donkervoet, J. C., Arensdorf, A., Amundsen, M. J., McGee, C., ... & Morelli, P. (2002). Toward large‐scale implementation of empirically supported treatments for children: A review and observations by the Hawaii Empirical Basis to Services Task Force. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(2), 165-190.
Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: Opportunities, challenges, and cautions.
This paper describes opportunities, challenges, and cautions in response to T. R. Kratochwill and K. C. Stoiber's vision and other critical issues for the evidence-based intervention (EBI) movement in school psychology.
Christenson, S. L., Carlson, C., & Valdez, C. R. (2002). Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: Opportunities, challenges, and cautions. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(4), 466.
Treatments that work with children: Empirically supported strategies for managing childhood problems.
Eight comprehensive chapters cover the common problems of disruptive behavior, anxiety, sleep disorders, nocturnal enuresis, encopresis, habit disorders (such as tics and thumbsucking), the treatment of pain and, finally, helping children adhere to medical regimens. The book describes diagnosis and treatment, with an emphasis on practicality.
Christophersen, E. R., & Mortweet, S. L. (2001). Treatments that work with children: Empirically supported strategies for managing childhood problems. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
Teaching Secondary Students to Write Effectively
This practice guide released by What Works Clearinghouse presents three recommendations for helping students in grades 6 to 12 develop effective writing skills along with the strength of evidence to support the recommendations.
- Explicitly teach appropriate writing strategies using a model-practice-reflect instructional cycle. Strong Evidence
- Integrate writing and reading to emphasize key writing features. Moderate Evidence
- Use assessments of student writing to inform instruction and feedback. Minimal evidence
Each recommendation includes specific actionable guidance for educators on implementing these practices in the classroom. It is geared toward administrators and teachers in all disciplines who want to help improve their students’ writing.
CLEARINGHOUSE, W.W. Teaching Secondary Students to Write Effectively.
Outcomes and Incomes: How to Evaluate, Improve, and Market Your Psychotherapy Practice by Measuring Outcomes
This guide presents the tools therapists need to incorporate outcomes measurement effectively and meaningfully into everyday clinical work.
Clement, P. W. (1999). Outcomes and incomes: How to evaluate, improve, and market your psychotherapy practice by measuring outcomes. Guilford Press.
Identifying and Implementing Educational Practices Supported By Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide
This Guide is intended to serve as a user-friendly resource that the education practitioner can use to identify and implement evidence-based interventions, so as to improve educational and life outcomes for the children they serve.
Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy. (2003). Identifying and implementing educational practices supported by rigorous evidence: A user-friendly guide. US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences
In 1962, I published a survey of the articles in a volume of the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology from the perspective of their power to detect operationally defined small, medium, and large effect sizes. This edition has the same approach and organization as its predecessors but has some major changes from the Revised Edition.
Cohen, J. (2013). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Routledge.
On evaluating curricular effectiveness: Judging the quality of K–12 mathematics evaluations
This book reviews the evaluation research literature that has accumulated around 19 K-12 mathematics curricula and breaks new ground in framing an ambitious and rigorous approach to curriculum evaluation that has relevance beyond mathematics.
Confrey, J., & Stohl, V. (2004). On Evaluating Curricular Effectiveness: Judging the Quality of K-12 Mathematics Evaluations. National Academies Press.
Promoting Open Science to Increase the Trustworthiness of Evidence in Special Education.
The past two decades has seen an explosion of research to guide special educators improve the lives for individuals with disabilities. At the same time society is wrestling with the challenges posed by a post-truth age in which the public is having difficulty discerning what to believe and what to consider as untrustworthy. In this environment it becomes ever more important that researchers find ways to increase special educator’s confidence in the available knowledge base of practices that will reliably produce positive outcomes. This paper offers methods to increase confidence through transparency, openness, and reproducibility of the research made available to special educators. To accomplish this the authors propose that researchers in special education adopt emerging open science reforms such as preprints, data and materials sharing, preregistration of studies and analysis plans, and Registered Reports.
Cook, B. G., Lloyd, J. W., Mellor, D., Nosek, B. A., & Therrien, W. (2018). Promoting Open Science to Increase the Trustworthiness of Evidence in Special Education.
Quasi-experimentation: design and analysis issues for field settings.
This book explicate four kinds of validity then describe and critically examine some quasi-experimental designs from the perspective of these four kinds of validity, especially internal validity.
Cook, T. D., Campbell, D. T., & Peracchio, L. (1990). Quasi experimentation.
The Handbook of Research Synthesis
This handbook is a comprehensive treatment of literature synthesis and provides practical advice for anyone deep in the throes of, just teetering on the brink of, or attempting to decipher a meta-analysis
Cooper, H., & Hedges, L. V. (Eds.). (1993). The handbook of research synthesis. Russell Sage Foundation.
Using Parents as a Therapist to Evaluate Appropriate Behavior of Their Children: Application to a Tertiary Diagnostic Clinic
The authors conducted a preliminary analysis of maintaining variables for children with conduct disorders in an outpatient clinic. The assessment focused on appropriate child behavior and was conducted to formulate hypotheses regarding maintaining contingencies.
Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D. P., Sasso, G. M., Reimers, T. M., & Donn, L. K. (1990). Using parents as therapists to evaluate appropriate behavior of their children: Application to a tertiary diagnostic clinic. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(3), 285-296.
The two disciplines of scientific psychology.
Cronbach discuss the past and future place within psychology of two historic streams of method, thought, and affiliation which run through the last century of our science. One stream is experimental psychology; the other, correlational psychology.
Cronbach, L. J. (1957). The two disciplines of scientific psychology. American psychologist, 12(11), 671.
Metatheory in Social Science: Pluralisms and Subjectivities
This book offers many provocative arguments and analyses of basic conceptual frameworks for the study of human behavior.
Cronbach, L. J. (1986). Social inquiry by and for earthlings. Metatheory in social science: Pluralisms and subjectivities, 83-107.
Interrupted time-series analysis with brief single-subject data
Describes problems of assessing change with short time-series data: unreliability of visual inference and fact that current statistical procedures cannot control Type I error because they underestimate positive autocorrelation.
Crosbie, J. (1993). Interrupted time-series analysis with brief single-subject data. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(6), 966.
Disproportionality reduction in exclusionary school discipline: A best-evidence synthesis
A full canon of empirical literature shows that students who are African American, Latinx, or American Indian/Alaskan Native, and students who are male, diagnosed with disabilities, or from low socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to experience exclusionary discipline practices in U.S. schools. Though there is a growing commitment to mitigating discipline disparities through alternative programming, it is clear that disproportionality in the application of harmful discipline practices persists.
Cruz, R. A., Firestone, A. R., & Rodl, J. E. (2021). Disproportionality reduction in exclusionary school discipline: A best-evidence synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 91(3), 397-431.
Engaging Multiproblem Families in Treatment: Lessons Learned Throughout the Development of Multisystemic Therapy
This article provides an overview of the nonspecific/universal engagement strategies used by MST therapists, frequently observed barriers to achieving therapist‐family engagement, and specific strategies to overcome a sampling of these barriers.
Cunningham, P. B., & Henggeler, S. W. (1999). Engaging multiproblem families in treatment: Lessons learned throughout the development of multisystemic therapy. Family Process, 38(3), 265-281.
Research on teaching and teacher education and its influences on policy and practice
Using five AERA presidential addresses over the past half century as landmarks, this essay traces the evolution of research on teaching and teacher education as well as some critical impacts the research has had on policy and practice related to teacher education and teacher evaluation in the United States. The discussion shows how these addresses both reflected the progress and challenges of research on teaching and teacher education at the times they were delivered and identified paths that the education research community could take to address the challenges.
Darling-Hammond, L. (2016). Research on teaching and teacher education and its influences on policy and practice. Educational Researcher, 45(2), 83-91.
Teachers See the Power of Data – But Don’t Have Enough Time to Use It
The Data Quality Campaign’s first teacher poll – commissioned in 2018 – uncovered this important finding and allows for a better understanding of educators’ opinions of data.
Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning
The Handbook of Research on K-12 Online and Blended Learning is an edited collection of chapters that sets out to present the current state of research in K-12 online and blended learning.
Dawson, K., & Dana, N. F. (2018a). Mentoring for online teachers. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 261–272). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf
Examining dimensions of treatment intensity and treatment fidelity in mathematics intervention research for students at risk
To prevent academic failure and promote long-term success, response-to-intervention (RtI) is designed to systematically increase the intensity of delivering research-based interventions. Interventions within an RtI framework must not only be effective but also be implemented with treatment fidelity and delivered with the appropriate level of treatment intensity to improve student mathematics achievement.
DeFouw, E. R., Codding, R. S., Collier-Meek, M. A., & Gould, K. M. (2019). Examining dimensions of treatment intensity and treatment fidelity in mathematics intervention research for students at risk. Remedial and Special Education, 40(5), 298-312.
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Performance Standards State of Hawaii
The General Performance Standards are requirements for all Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division (CAMHD) services, and apply to each of the specific services. They are set forth to guide effective practices in the delivery of behavioral health supports and services for eligible youth in the State of Hawai’i.
Department of Health Child & Adolescent Mental Health Division (2012). Child and Adolescent Mental Health Performance Standards. Hawaii: Clinical Service Office and Performance Manage Office, Department of Health State of Hawaii
How does cognitive therapy work? Cognitive change and symptom change in cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression.
The effects of changes in depression-relevant cognition were examined in relation to subsequent change in depressive symptoms for outpatients with major depressive disorder randomly assigned to cognitive therapy (COT; n = 32) vs those assigned to pharmacotherapy only (NoCT; n = 32).
DeRubeis, R. J., Evans, M. D., Hollon, S. D., Garvey, M. J., Grove, W. M., & Tuason, V. B. (1990). How does cognitive therapy work? Cognitive change and symptom change in cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58(6), 862-869.
Best Practices in Teachers’ Professional Development in the United States
This paper discusses best practices in teachers’ professional development (PD) in the United States (U.S.).
Desimone, L. M., & Garet, M. S. (2015).Best Practices in Teachers’ Professional Development in the United States. Psychology, Society, and Education, 7(3), 252-263. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/31ff/d06b4df5bb399f782d3985f17311d2bc44ae.pdf
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: A Component of Evidence-Based Education
Including cost-effectiveness data in the evaluation of programs is the next step in the evolution of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based practice is grounded in three complementary elements: best available evidence, professional judgment, and client values and context. In this article, I discuss some of the considerations that have to be addressed in the decision-making process and implications of including cost-effectiveness analyses in data-based decision making.
Detrich, R. (2020). Cost-effectiveness analysis: A component of evidence-based education. School Psychology Review, 1-8.
When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behavior.
This article explored developmental and intervention evidence relevant to iatrogenic effects in peer-group interventions. Longitudinal research revealed that "deviancy training" within adolescent friendships predicts increases in delinquency, substance use, violence, and adult maladjustment.
Dishion, T. J., McCord, J., & Poulin, F. (1999). When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behavior. American psychologist, 54(9), 755.
Avoiding type III error in program evaluation: Results from a field experiment
A common, yet questionable assumption underlying many evaluations of service intervention programs is that program clients uniformly receive the services purportedly available. The authors draw upon the experience of a randomized field experiment to point out the hazards of that assumption.
Dobson, D., & Cook, T. J. (1980). Avoiding type III error in program evaluation: Results from a field experiment. Evaluation and Program Planning, 3(4), 269-276.
Stephen's guide to the logical fallacies
This paper examines common logical fallacies
Downes, S. (1995). Stephen’s guide to the logical fallacies. Electronic document.
Evidence-based mental health practice: A textbook.
This comprehensive textbook is an essential primer for all practitioners and students who are grappling with the new age of evidence-based practice. The contributors explore some of the complex challenges in implementing EBPs, and highlight the meaningful opportunities that are inherent in this paradigm shift.
Drake, R. E., Merrens, M. R., & Lynde, D. W. (Eds.). (2005). A Norton professional book. Evidence-based mental health practice: A textbook. New York, NY, US: W W Norton & Co.
Indicators for Sustainable Communities: A Strategy Building on Complexity Theory and Distributed Intelligence
This article reviews the research and practice of indicator development and use, summarizing several key lessons from this review.
E. Innes, J., & Booher, D. E. (2000). Indicators for sustainable communities: a strategy building on complexity theory and distributed intelligence. Planning theory & practice, 1(2), 173-186.
This is a book about single-subject experiments. The goal is to detail the underlying rationale and logic of single-case designs and to present major design options.
Edgington, E. (1983). Response-guided experimentation. Psyccritiques, 28(1), 64-65.
Can Randomized Trials Answer the Question of What Works?
This article discusses the use of randomized controlled trials as required by the Department of Education in evaluating the effectiveness of educational practices.
EDUC, A. R. O. (2005). Can randomized trials answer the question of what works?.
Developing evidence-based practice: The role of case-based research.
The authors argue that important evidence about best practice comes from case-based research, which builds knowledge in a clinically useful manner and complements what is achieved by multivariate research methods.
Edwards, D. J., Dattilio, F. M., & Bromley, D. B. (2004). Developing evidence-based practice: The role of case-based research. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(6), 589.
The Report of the Surgeon General: Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People
This year's surgeon general's report on smoking and health is the first such report to focus on young people. From extensive data that indicate that tobacco use is a pediatric epidemic, the report reached six major conclusions.
Elders, M. J., Perry, C. L., Eriksen, M. P., & Giovino, G. A. (1994). The report of the Surgeon General: preventing tobacco use among young people. American journal of public health, 84(4), 543-547.
Applied Econometric Time Series
The author research focuses on the development and application of time-series models to areas in economics and finance.
Enders, W. (2008). Applied econometric time series. John Wiley & Sons.
The Impact of Coaching on Teacher-Delivered Behavior-Specific Praise in Pre-K-12 Settings: A Systematic Review
In this systematic literature review, we examined the effects of coaching teachers and other educators to increase their use of behavior-specific praise, a low-intensity teacher-delivered strategy previously determined to be a potentially evidence-based practice based on Council for Exceptional Children’s (CEC) Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. Research has shown that traditional lecture-style short-duration professional development does not typically lead to lasting change in teacher behavior, but follow-up observations with continued support are much more likely to produce desired outcomes.
Ennis, R. P., Royer, D. J., Lane, K. L., & Dunlap, K. D. (2020). The impact of coaching on teacher-delivered behavior-specific praise in pre-K–12 settings: A systematic review. Behavioral Disorders, 45(3), 148-166.
Cover-copy-compare and spelling: One versus three repetitions
Cover, copy, compare (CCC) has been used with success to improve spelling skills. This study adds to existing research by completing an analysis of the rewriting component of the intervention. The impact of varying the number of times a subject copied a word following an error was examined with four elementary age students.
Erion, J., Davenport, C., Rodax, N., Scholl, B., & Hardy, J. (2009). Cover-copy-compare and spelling: One versus three repetitions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 18(4), 319-330.
The effects of psychotherapy: an evaluation.
A survey was made of reports on the improvement of neurotic patients after psychotherapy, and the results compared with the best available estimates of recovery without benefit of such therapy.
Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The effects of psychotherapy: an evaluation. Journal of consulting psychology, 16(5), 319.
Criteria for evaluating the significance of developmental research in the twenty-first century:
The purpose of this paper is to identify the forces that influence how developmental research is prioritized and evaluated and how these influences are changing as we enter the new millennium.
Fabes, R. A., Martin, C. L., Hanish, L. D., & Updegraff, K. A. (2000). Criteria for evaluating the significance of developmental research in the twenty‐first century: Force and counterforce. Child development, 71(1), 212-221.
Meta-analysis of Single-Case Research
This chapter of Design and Analysis of Single-Case Research book describes Meta-analysis as a collection of methods designed to quantitatively summarize the results of separate studies.
Faith, A. (2014). Meta-analysis of single-case research. In Design and analysis of single-case research (pp. 267-300). Psychology Press.
Applied behavior analysis for educators: Teacher centered and classroom based
The purpose of this commentary is to consider the crisis in education and the complex role teachers play in our society; to examine critically major aspects of the traditional modus operandi of behavior analysis that are counterproductive to teacher use; and to identify practices related to promoting greater teacher use and thereby enhancing the relevance of behavioral technology in education.
Fantuzzo, J., & Atkins, M. (1992). Applied behavior analysis for educators: Teacher centered and classroom based. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 37.
Promoting Health Through Community Development
Articulated in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, this strategy emphasizes the importance of environmental influences on the behaviors associated with health promotion and injury prevention.
Fawcet, S. B., Paine, A. L., Francisco, V. T., & Vliet, M. (1993). Promoting Health Trough Community Development.
The St. Louis conundrum: The effective treatment of antisocial youths
This book analyzes the findings of a treatment program which integrated antisocial and delinquent youths into prosocial peer groups in a suburban community center in St. Louis.
Feldman, R. A., Caplinger, T. E., & Wodarski, J. S. (1983). The St. Louis conundrum: The effective treatment of antisocial youths. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Psychotherapy Research Is Not Psychotherapy Practice
The relationship between the clinical psychologist and the clinical researcher is often presented as an integrated model in which the researcher conceives and the clinician executes. We argue that this is an unworkable model because these are independent fields, each with its own problems and its own styles of thinking.
Fensterheim, H., & Raw, S. D. (1996). Psychotherapy research is not psychotherapy practice. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3(2), 168-171.
Scientific culture and educational research.
In this article, which draws on a recently released National Research Council report, the authors argue that the primary emphasis should be on nurturing and reinforcing a scientific culture of educational research.
Feuer, M. J., Towne, L., & Shavelson, R. J. (2002). Scientific culture and educational research. Educational researcher, 31(8), 4-14.
Visual aids and structured criteria for improving visual inspection and interpretation of single‐case designs
The current investigation is part of an ongoing line of research designed to identify critical instructional components for training new staff members in the implementation of behavior-analytic procedures, with the goal of approximating the efficiency of
indirect instructional methods while retaining the effectiveness of more direct methods.
Fisher, W. W., Kelley, M. E., & Lomas, J. E. (2003). Visual aids and structured criteria for improving visual inspection and interpretation of single‐case designs. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 36(3), 387-406.
Creating new realities: Program development and dissemination
In this paper we will review some of the examples from industrial innovation and dissemination, provide some data on replications of the Achievement Place/Teaching-Family Model over 20 years, and try to share some of the philosophical, practical, and technological guidelines we have come to accept.
Fixsen, D. L., & Blase, K. A. (1993). Creating new realities: Program development and dissemination. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(4), 597-615.
Implementation of evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents: Research findings and their implications for the future.
A growing number of evidence-based psychotherapies hold the promise of substantial benefits for children, families, and society. For the benefits of evidence-based programs to be realized on a scale sufficient to be useful to individuals and society, evidence-based psychotherapies need to be put into practice outside of controlled clinical trials.
Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Duda, M. A., Naoom, S. F., & Van Dyke, M. (2010). Implementation of evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents: Research findings and their implications for the future.
Implementation Research: A synthesis of literature
Over the past decade, the science related to developing and identifying “evidence-based practices and programs” has improved—however the science related to implementing these programs with ﬁdelity and good outcomes for consumers lags far behind. As a ﬁeld, we have discovered that all the paper in ﬁle cabinets plus all the manuals on the shelves do not equal real-world transformation of human service systems through innovative practice.
Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., Friedman, R. M., Wallace, F., Burns, B., ... & Shern, D. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature.
Implementation Science: Fidelity Predictions and Outcomes
Predictions are made in the form of if-then statements. If reliable predictions define science and testing predictions is the work of scientists, then implementation science is a science to the extent that 1) predictions are made and 2) those predictions are tested in practice.
Fixsen, D. L., Van Dyke, M., & Blase, K. A. (2019). Implementation science: Fidelity predictions and outcomes. Retrieved from Chapel Hill, NC: Active Implementation Research Network: www. activeimplementation. org/resources.
Standards of evidence: Criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination
Ever-increasing demands for accountability, together with the proliferation of lists of evidence-based prevention programs and policies, led the Society for Prevention Research to charge a committee with establishing standards for identifying effective prevention programs and policies.
Flay, B. R., Biglan, A., Boruch, R. F., Castro, F. G., Gottfredson, D., Kellam, S., ... & Ji, P. (2005). Standards of evidence: Criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Prevention science, 6(3), 151-175.
What works for whom?: a critical review of treatments for children and adolescents
The standard reference in the field, this acclaimed work synthesizes findings from hundreds of carefully selected studies of mental health treatments for children and adolescents.
Fonagy, P., Cottrell, D., Phillips, J., Bevington, D., Glaser, D., & Allison, E. (2014). What works for whom?: a critical review of treatments for children and adolescents. Guilford Publications.
The Effects of Community Policies to Reduce Youth Access to Tobacco
This paper reports the effects of the intervention on ordinances in TPOP communities, on cigarette purchase success by youth, and on adolescents' perceptions of availability and self-reported smoking behavior.
Forster, J. L., Murray, D. M., Wolfson, M., Blaine, T. M., Wagenaar, A. C., & Hennrikus, D. J. (1998). The effects of community policies to reduce youth access to tobacco. American Journal of Public Health, 88(8), 1193-1198.
Design and Analysis of Single-Case Research
This book focuses on one important aspect of psychological research -- the intensive study of people measured one or more at a time.
Franklin, R. D., Allison, D. B., & Gorman, B. S. (Eds.). (2014). Design and analysis of single-case research. Psychology Press.
The Three Stories of Education Reform
The main enemies of large-scale reform are overload and extreme
fragmentation, Mr. Fullan points out. The three stories he outlines here serve
to lend coherence to an otherwise disjointed system.
Fullan, M. (2000). The three stories of education reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(8), 581-584.
The Meaning of Educational Change
This book is written for individuals at all levels of the educational system. All key players will find a chapter on their own roles, as well as chapters on other roles and agencies with whom they must interact.
Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change. Routledge.
Contextualism: A world view for modern psychology.
G. A. Kelly's personal construct theory of personality is examined. The status of the psychology of personality is reviewed by means of a contextual framework using the metaphors of formism, mechanism, contextualism, and organicism.
G. A. Kelly's personal construct theory of personality is examined. The status of the psychology of personality is reviewed by means of a contextual framework using the metaphors of formism, mechanism, contextualism, and organicism.
An Evidence-Based Review and Meta-Analysis of Active Supervision.
This paper synthesizes and evaluates 12 studies to calculate the effect size on Active Supervision and student conduct.
Gage, N. A., Haydon, T., MacSuga-Gage, A. S., Flowers, E., & Erdy, L. (2020). An Evidence-Based Review and Meta-Analysis of Active Supervision. Behavioral Disorders, 0198742919851021.
Educational research: An introduction
This text provides a comprehensive introduction to educational research. This textbook has been revised to reflect a balance of both quantitative and qualitative research methods
Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction. Longman Publishing.
A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. An open letter to the American people
This report: (1) investigates the declining state of the educational system in America, as measured by high school student performance in the United States and other countries; (2) identifies specific problem areas; and (3) offers multiple recommendations for improvement
Gardner, D. P. (1983). A Nation At Risk: The Imperative For Educational Reform. An Open Letter to the American People. A Report to the Nation and the Secretary of Education.
Some Problems Associated With “Validated” Forms of Psychotherapy
This article is a response to the report of the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (1995).
Garfield, S. L. (1996). Some problems associated with “validated” forms of psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3(3), 218-229.
Sorting Out the Roles of Research in the Improvement of Practice
This paper discusses the effectiveness of research‐based educational approaches on
Gersten, R. (2001). Sorting out the roles of research in the improvement of practice. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(1), 45-50.
Designing high quality research in special education
This article discusses critical issues related to conducting high-quality intervention research using experimental and quasi-experimental group designs.
Gersten, R., Baker, S., & Lloyd, J. W. (2000). Designing high-quality research in special education: Group experimental design. The Journal of Special Education, 34(1), 2-18.
Factors enhancing sustained use of research-based instructional practices
This article reviews key findings from school-reform studies of the 1980s and explains their relevance to special education. It also highlights significant findings from more recent studies that help elucidate and flesh out the earlier findings.
Gersten, R., Chard, D., & Baker, S. (2000). Factors enhancing sustained use of research-based instructional practices. Journal of learning disabilities, 33(5), 445-456.
Contemporary special education research: Syntheses of the
knowledge base on critical instructional issues.
These papers provide up-to-date, informative summaries of current knowledge and a base from which further venture into the critical area of instructional intervention in special education can occur.
Gersten, R., Schiller, E. P., & Vaughn, S. R. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary special education research: Syntheses of the knowledge base on critical instructional issues. Routledge.
Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments
Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments develops a comprehensive set of models and methods for drawing causal inferences from time series.
Glass. G. V., Willson. V. L., & Grottman, J. M. (1975). Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments. Boulder: University of Colorado Press
The Effects of Organizational Climate and Interorganizational Coordination on the Quality and Outcomes of Children’s Service Systems
This study examines the effects of organizational characteristics, including organizational climate and interorganizational coordination, on the quality and outcomes of children’s service systems.
Glisson, C., & Hemmelgarn, A. (1998). The effects of organizational climate and interorganizational coordination on the quality and outcomes of children’s service systems. Child abuse & neglect, 22(5), 401-421.
Community intervention trial for smoking cessation (COMMIT): I. Cohort results from a four-year community intervention
The primary hypothesis of COMMIT (Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation) was that a community-level, multi-channel, 4-year intervention would increase quit rates among cigarette smokers, with heavy smokers (≥25 cigarettes per day) of priority.
Glynn, T. J., Shopland, D. R., Manley, M., Lynn, W. R., Freedman, L. S., Green, S. B., ... & Chapelsky, D. A. (1995). Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT): I. Cohort results from a four-year community intervention. American journal of public health, 85(2), 183-192.
Community intervention trial for smoking cessation (COMMIT): II. Changes in adult cigarette smoking prevalence
COMMIT (Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation) investigated whether a community-level multichannel intervention would decrease the prevalence of adult cigarette smoking and increase quitting with heavy smokers (≥25 cigarettes per day) receiving the highest priority.
Glynn, T. J., Shopland, D. R., Manley, M., Lynn, W. R., Freedman, L. S., Green, S. B., ... & Chapelsky, D. A. (1995). Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT): II. Changes in adult cigarette smoking prevalence. American Journal of Public Health, 85(2), 193-200.
Policy Implications for Implementing Evidence-Based Practices
The authors describe the policy and administrative-practice implications of implementing evidence-based services, particularly in public-sector settings. They review the observations of the contributors to the evidence-based practices series published throughout 2001 in Psychiatric Services.
Goldman, H. H., Ganju, V., Drake, R. E., Gorman, P., Hogan, M., Hyde, P. S., & Morgan, O. (2001). Policy implications for implementing evidence-based practices. Psychiatric Services, 52(12), 1591-1597.
The skills Americans say kids need to succeed in life.
Pew Research Center recently asked a national sample of adults to select among a list of 10 skills: “Regardless of whether or not you think these skills are good to have, which ones do you think are most important for children to get ahead in the world today?”
Goo, S. A. R. A. (2015). The skills Americans say kids need to succeed in life. Pew Research Center.
Forecasting accuracy of slope estimates for reading curriculum-based measurement: Empirical evidence.
Examined the forecasting accuracy of 2 slope estimation procedures (ordinary-least-squares regression and split-middle trend lines) for reading curriculum-based measurement (CBM), a behavioral approach to the assessment of academic skills that emphasizes the direct measurement of academic behaviors.
Good, R. H., & Shinn, M. R. (1990). Forecasting accuracy of slope estimates for reading curriculum-based measurement: Empirical evidence. Behavioral Assessment.
Time-series analysis: a comprehensive introduction for social scientists
This book is a comprehensive introduction to all the major time-series techniques, both time-domain and frequency-domain. It includes work on linear models that simplify the solution of univariate and multivariate problems.
Gottman, J. M. (1981). Time-series analysisa comprehensive introduction for social scientists (No. 519.55 G6).
Why marriages succeed or fail.
This breakthrough book guides you through a series of self-tests designed to help you determine what kind of marriage you have, where your strengths and weaknesses are, and what specific actions you can take to help your marriage.
Gottman, J., Gottman, J. M., & Silver, N. (1995). Why marriages succeed or fail: And how you can make yours last. Simon and Schuster.
Full house: The spread of excellence from Plato to Darwin.
This book shows why a more accurate way of understanding our world (and the history of life) is to look at a given subject within its own context.
Gould, S. J. (1998). Full house: the spread of excellence from Plato to Darwin. Senior Managing Editor, 5(2), 68.
The Mismeasure Man
In this edition, Dr. Gould has written a substantial new introduction telling how and why he wrote the book and tracing the subsequent history of the controversy on innateness right through The Bell Curve.
Gould, S. J., & Gold, S. J. (1996). The mismeasure of man. WW Norton & Company.
Time-series Analysis Without Model Identification
The present paper explores employing s general transformation to avoid the model identification step. This approach permits the employments of time series analysis in a wider variety of situations as a result of relacing the requirement of a large number of points for model identification.
Grant, C. A. Time Series Analysis Without Model ldentification.
Training our future teachers: Classroom management. National Council on Teacher Quality.
In this new report from the National Council on Teacher Quality, we investigate the extent to which America’s traditional teacher preparation programs offer research-based strategies to their teacher candidates to help them better manage their classrooms from the start.
Greenberg, J., Putman, H., & Walsh, K. (2014). Training our future teachers: Classroom management. National council on teacher quality.
A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships.
The purpose of the current study was to test theoretically derived hypotheses regarding the relationships between team efficacy, potency, and performance and to examine the moderating effects of level of analysis and interdependence on observed relationships.
Gully, S. M., Incalcaterra, K. A., Joshi, A., & Beaubien, J. M. (2002). A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships. Journal of applied psychology, 87(5), 819.
Empirically supported interventions: Initiating a new standing section in School Psychology Quarterly.
In this issue you will find both a brief introduction to the new Empirically Supported Interventions Section and the first of a two-part substantive discussion of vital issues pertaining to this topic. A companion piece further extending this analysis will follow shortly in a subsequent issue.
Gutkin, T. B. (2000). Empirically supported interventions: Initiating a new standing section in School Psychology Quarterly. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(1), 1.
The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right
The author puts forth the case that using simple checklists prior to medical and surgical procedures can substantially improve outcomes.
Guwande, A. (2010). The checklist manifesto. New York: Picadur.
Introduction to the special section on stepped care models in psychotherapy.
This article introduces a special section addressing these resource allocation issues in the context of prevalent disorders
Haaga, D. A. F. (2000). Introduction to the special section on stepped care models in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 547-548.
A review of three decades of doctoral studies using the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale: A lens on methodological progress in educational leadership
The study finds that interest in instructional leadership among scholars and practitioners remained strong throughout the period of the review, the PIMRS has proven a reliable and valid data collection tool, and the use of research methodology has improved in several specific areas. Nonetheless, the results also suggest that the conceptual frameworks and methodologies used by these doctoral students were, on the whole, inadequate for the task of contributing to either the theoretical or the practical knowledge base in this field.
Hallinger, P. (2011). A review of three decades of doctoral studies using the principal instructional management rating scale: A lens on methodological progress in educational leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(2), 271-306.
Relative distribution methods in the social sciences.
The relative distribution provides a general integrated framework for analysis.
Handcock, M. S., & Morris, M. (2006). Relative distribution methods in the social sciences. Springer Science & Business Media.
At a loss for words: How a flawed idea is teaching millions of kids to be poor readers.
For decades, schools have taught children the strategies of struggling readers, using a theory about reading that cognitive scientists have repeatedly debunked. And many teachers and parents don't know there's anything wrong with it.
Hanford, E. (2019). At a loss for words: How a flawed idea is teaching millions of kids to be poor readers. APM Reports. https://www.apmreports.org/story/2019/08/22/whats-wrong-how-schools-teach-reading
College Graduation Statistics
The number of college graduates has steadily increased in the past decade, especially among those earning bachelor’s degrees. Graduation rates have also increased overall, especially at public, 4-year institutions; college graduation statistics suggest greater student success at these institutions.
Hanson, M. (2021). College Graduation Statistics. Educationdata.org.
Distributed leadership in practice: Evidence, misconceptions and possibilities.
This article takes a contemporary look at distributed leadership in practice by drawing upon empirical evidence from a large-scale project in the USA. Initially, it considers the existing knowledge base on distributed leadership and questions some of the assertions and assumptions in recent accounts of the literature.
Harris, A., & DeFlaminis, J. (2016). Distributed leadership in practice: Evidence, misconceptions and possibilities. Management in Education, 30(4), 141–146.
A Comparison of Alternative Approaches to the Analysis of Interrupted Time-Series
Computer generated data representative of 26 ARIMA models was used to compare the results of interrupted time-series analysis using: (1) the known model identification, (2) an assumed (1, 0, 0) model, and (3) an assumed (3, 0, 0) model as an approximation to the General Transformation approach.
Harrop, J. W., & Velicer, W. F. (1985). A comparison of alternative approaches to the analysis of interrupted time-series. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 20(1), 27-44.
The Rise of Universities
The Rise of Universities goes far beyond its central subject to offer a broad description of the social conditions in which universities took root and flourished.
Haskins, C. H. (2017). The rise of universities. Routledge.
Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement
Hattie’s book is designed as a meta-meta-study that collects, compares and analyses the findings of many previous studies in education. Hattie focuses on schools in the English-speaking world but most aspects of the underlying story should be transferable to other countries and school systems as well. Visible Learning is nothing less than a synthesis of more than 50.000 studies covering more than 80 million pupils. Hattie uses the statistical measure effect size to compare the impact of many influences on students’ achievement, e.g. class size, holidays, feedback, and learning strategies.
Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.
Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement.
This unique and ground-breaking book is the result of 15 years research and synthesises over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. It builds a story about the power of teachers, feedback, and a model of learning and understanding.
Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. routledge.
Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement
Although the current evidence based fad has turned into a debate about test scores, this book is about using evidence to build and defend a model of teaching and learning. A major contribution is a fascinating benchmark/dashboard for comparing many innovations in teaching and schools.
Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge.
Visible learning: 250+ influences on student achievement
The Visible Learning research synthesizes findings from 1,400 meta-analyses of 80,000 studies involving 300 million students, into what works best in education.
Hattie, J. (2017). Visible learning: 250+ influences on student achievement. https://visible-learning.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/VLPLUS-252-Influences-Hattie-ranking-DEC-2017.pdf
Single Subject Research: Applications in Educational and Clinical Settings
This book aim to provide the reader, who is presumably not yet an expert on single-subject research, with the information necessary to understand the literature and develop a single-subject research study in general.
Hawkins, C. (2001). Single Subject Research: Applications in Educational and Clinical Settings. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 14(2), 155-157.
Analytic goals and the varieties of scientific contextualism
Contextualism is being looked to as a framework within which psychology may advance, stripped of needless mechanism and needless philosophical inconsistencies.
Hayes, S. C. (2015). Analytic goals and the varieties of scientific contextualism. In The Act in Context (pp. 126-142). Routledge.
Evidence-based medicine: how to practice & teach EBM
This book explains the philosophy of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and demonstrating its application.
Haynes, R. B., Sackett, D. L., Richardson, W. S., Rosenberg, W., & Langley, G. R. (1997). Evidence-based medicine: How to practice & teach EBM. Canadian Medical Association. Journal, 157(6), 788.
Challenges in building usable knowledge in education
The scientific rigor of education research has improved dramatically since the year 2000. Much of the credit for this improvement is deserved by Institute of Education Sciences (IES) policies that helped create a demand for rigorous research; increased human capital capacity to carry out such work; provided funding for the work itself; and collected, evaluated, and made available the results of that work through the What Works Clearinghouse.
Hedges, L. V. (2018). Challenges in building usable knowledge in education. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 11(1), 1-21.
The Work of Leadership
Companies today face adaptive challenges. Changes in societies, markets, customers, competition, and technology around the globe are forcing organizations to clarify their values, develop new strategies, and learn new ways of operating.
Heifetz, R. A., & Laurie, D. L. (1997). The work of leadership. Harvard business review, 75, 124-134.
Pitfalls of Data Analysis (or How to Avoid Lies and Damned Lies)
This paper examines things that people often overlook in their data analysis, and ways people sometimes "bend the rules" of statistics to support their viewpoint. It discusses ways you can make sure your own statistics are clear and accurate.
Helberg, C., (1995). Pitfalls of Data Analysis (or How to Avoid Lies and Damned Lies). Third International Applied Statistics in Industry Conference in Dallas, TX, June 5-7, 1995.
What do we know about time management? A review of the literature and a psychometric critique of instruments assessing time management.
The purpose of this chapter is to examine the existing time management literature.
Hellsten, L. M. (2012). What do we know about time management. A review of the literature and a psychometric critique of instruments assessing time management. Rijeka, Croatia: Intech, 21-22.
Amid Pandemic, Support Soars for Online Learning, Parent Poll Shows:
The survey was conducted in May 2020. While this was early in the Covid-19 pandemic, unemployment was already 14.7%, the economy in recession, and the schools were shutdown. This survey provides one of the first opportunities to evaluate the public’s views on education in this context.
Henderson, M. B., Houston, D. M., Peterson, P. E., West, M. R. & Shakeel, M. D. (2020). Amid Pandemic, Support Soars for Online Learning, Parent Poll Shows Results from the 2020 Education Next Survey of Public Opinion. Education Next, 20(13), 8-19.
Peer Review, Publication in Top Journals, Scientific Consensus, and So Forth
Many writers who are not scientists themselves are trading on the prestige of science and the authority of scientists. Reference to “peer-reviewed research” and to an alleged “scientific consensus” are regarded as veritable knock-out blows by many commentators.
Higgs, R. (2007). Peer review, publication in top journals, scientific consensus, and so forth. The Independent Institute, 7.
Effects of Maine's 1981 and Massachusetts' 1982 Driving-Under-the-Influence Legislation
In 1981, Maine passed a drunk driving law with mandatory penalties and a new civil charge to increase the conviction rate. One year later, Massachusetts increased drunk driving penalties, particularly for repeat offenders and intoxicated drivers involved in fatal crashes.
Hingson, R., Heeren, T., Kovenock, D., Mangione, T., Meyers, A., Morelock, S., Lederman, R., Scotch, N.A.. (1987). Effects of Maine's 1981 and Massachusetts' 1982 Driving-Under-the-Influence Legislation. American journal of public health. American Journal of Public Health. 77, 593-597.
A New Definition
NSDC opens the door to professional learning that ensures great teaching for every student every day
Hirsh, S. (2009). A new definition. Journal of Staff Development, 30(4), 10–16.
Community Treatment for Youth: Evidence-Based Interventions for Severe Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
This outstanding textbook presents innovative interventions for youth with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Community Treatment for Youth is designed to fill a gap between the knowledge base and clinical practice through its presentation of theory, practice parameters, training requirements, and research evidence.
Hoagwood, K. I. M. B. E. R. L. Y., Burns, B. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). A profitable conjunction: From science to service in children’s mental health. Community treatment for youth: Evidence-based interventions for severe emotional and behavioral disorders, 327-338.
Two Measures of Change in the Gaps Between the CDFs of Test-Score Distributions
Two ways of measuring the gap between two cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) are examined—vertical and horizontal distance.
Holland, P. W. (2002). Two measures of change in the gaps between the CDFs of test-score distributions. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 27(1), 3-17.
Nurse-assisted Counseling for Smokers in Primary Care
This research evaluated three nurse-assisted interventions designed to minimize physician burden and increase counseling in primary care settings
Hollis, J. F., Lichtenstein, E., Vogt, T. M., Stevens, V. J., & Biglan, A. (1993). Nurse-assisted counseling for smokers in primary care. Annals of internal medicine, 118(7), 521-525.
Criteria for Evaluating Treatment Guidelines
This document presents a set of criteria to be used in evaluating treatment guidelines that have been promulgated by health care organizations, government agencies, professional associations, or other entities.1 The purpose of treatment guidelines is to educate health care professionals2 and health care systems about the most effective treatments available
Hollon, D., Miller, I. J., & Robinson, E. (2002). Criteria for evaluating treatment guidelines. American Psychologist, 57(12), 1052-1059.
Statistical Strategies for Small Sample Research
This book provides encouragement and strategies for researchers who routinely address research questions using data from small samples.
Hoyle, R. H. (Ed.). (1999). Statistical strategies for small sample research. Sage.
Quasi-experimentation: Design & Analysis Issues for Field Settings
A statistics textbook appropriate for graduate students and researchers conducting quasi-experimental design and analysis.
Hyman, R. (1982). Quasi-experimentation: design and analysis issues for field settings (book). Journal of Personality Assessment, 46(1), 96-97.
Why Most Published Research Findings Are False
This essay discusses issues and concerns that too many research findings may be false. The paper examines reasons a study may prove inaccurate including: the study power and bias, the number of other studies on the same question, and the ratio of true to no relationships. Finally, it considers the implications these problems create for conducting and interpreting research.
Ioannidis, J. P. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLoS medicine, 2(8), e124.
Virtual Learning Leadership Alliance and Quality Matters.
The purpose of the National Standards for Quality (NSQ) revision initiative is to provide the K-12 online and blended learning community with an updated set of openly licensed standards to help evaluate and improve online courses, online teaching and online programs.
irtual Learning Leadership Alliance and Quality Matters. (2019). National standards for quality online teaching (3rd ed.). https://www.nsqol.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/National-Standards-for-Quality-Online-Teaching.pdf
Linking Teacher Preparation Program Design and Implementation to Outcomes for Teachers and Students.
Improving the use of evidence in teacher preparation is one of the greatest challenges and
opportunities for our field. The chapters in this volume explore how data availability, quality,
and use within and across preparation programs shed light on the structures, policies, and
practices associated with high-quality teacher preparation.
Jackson, C., Carinci, J. E., & Meyer, S. J. (2020). SUPPORTING THE USE OF EVIDENCE IN TEACHER PREPARATION. Linking Teacher Preparation Program Design and Implementation to Outcomes for Teachers and Students, 237.
Feedback types in programmed instruction: A systematic review
Research about the effectiveness of different types of feedback in programmed instruction was investigated. Knowledge of results had the least data to support its efficacy. Knowledge of correct responding (KCR) has been shown to be effective in several studies.
Jaehnig, W., & Miller, M. L. (2007). Feedback types in programmed instruction: A systematic review. The psychological record, 57(2), 219-232.
Effectiveness and implementation of evidence-based practices in residential care settings
Evidence-based psychosocial interventions and respective outcome studies, published from 1990 to 2012, were identified through a multi-phase search process, involving the review of four major clearinghouse websites and relevant electronic databases. To be included, effectiveness had to have been previously established through a comparison group design regardless of the setting, and interventions tested subsequently with youth in RCS.
James, S., Alemi, Q., & Zepeda, V. (2013). Effectiveness and implementation of evidence-based practices in residential care settings. Children and Youth Services Review, 35(4), 642-656.
Recent advances in applied research on DRO procedures.
Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) has been applied to reduce problem behavior in various forms across different populations. We review DRO research from the last 5 years, with a focus on studies that enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DRO.
Jessel, J., & Ingvarsson, E. T. (2016). Recent advances in applied research on DRO procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49(4), 991-995.
Branding educational data use through professional learning: Findings from a study in three school districts
In order to learn more about how school districts support educator data use, we examined the intersection of data use and professional learning in three school districts. We found that a chasm exists in how educators frame―data use, with some framing data use as a student-oriented improvement process, and others framing it as a mere exercise in the accountability of teacher programs.
Jimerson, J. B., & Wayman, J. C. (2012, April). Branding educational data use through professional learning: Findings from a study in three school districts. In Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, British Columbia.
Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, & mixed approaches
A comprehensive, easily digestible introduction to research methods for undergraduate and graduate students. Readers will develop an understanding of the multiple research methods and strategies used in education and related fields, including how to read and critically evaluate published research and how to write a proposal, construct a questionnaire, and conduct an empirical research.
Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (2019). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Sage publications.
A meta-analytic review of the cover-copy-compare and variations of this self-management procedure.
Studies that examined copy-cover-compare (CCC) and variations of this procedure were reviewed and analyzed. This review revealed a substantial number of studies that validated the use of CCC across spelling and math skills and across students with and without disabilities.
Joseph, L. M., Konrad, M., Cates, G., Vajcner, T., Eveleigh, E., & Fishley, K. M. (2012). A meta‐analytic review of the cover‐copy‐compare and variations of this self‐management procedure. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 122-136.
The National Center for Special Education Research (NCSER) in IES
This powerpoint presentation provides an overview of the National Center for Education Research (NCSER)
Kame’enui, E. and Gonzalez, P. (2006)
Frustrated with the pace of progress in education? Invest in better evidence
The primary obstacle to faster progress in U.S. education reform is hard to put your finger on, because it’s an absence, not a presence. It is not an interest group or a manifest social problem. It is the infrastructure we never built for identifying what works. It is the organizational framework we’ve not yet constructed for building consensus among education leaders across the country to identify what’s working.
Kane, T. J. (2015). Frustrated with the Pace of Progress in Education? Invest in Better Evidence. Brookings Institution.
Applying the criteria for empirically supported treatments to studies of psychosocial interventions for child and adolescent depression
This article examines the extent to which each study conforms to the guidelines set forth by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (1996) for well-established and probably efficacious interventions.
Kaslow, N. J., & Thompson, M. P. (1998). Applying the criteria for empirically supported treatments to studies of psychosocial interventions for child and adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(2), 146-155.
Toward a Science of Education: The Battle Between Rogue and Real Science
This book summarize how science works, why it offers hope to educators, how science has been neglected and abused in education, and what I think science now tells us — and doesn’t tell us—about several issues in education.
Kauffman, J. M. (2011). Toward a science of education: The battle between rogue and real science. Full Court Press.
Discrepancy models in the identification of learning disability
This paper reviews issues surrounding the use of discrepancy in identifying learning disability
Kavale, K. A. (2002). Discrepancy models in the identification of learning disability. Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice, 369-426.
Hyperactivity and Diet Treatment: A Meta-Analysis of the Feingold Hypothesis
This paper is a review of primary research investigating the Feingold hypothesis which suggests diet modification as an efficacious treatment for hyperactivity.
Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1983). Hyperactivity and diet treatment: A meta-analysis of the Feingold hypothesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16(6), 324-330.
History of Behavior Modification
This chapter traces the history of behavior modification as a general movement. Individual conceptual approaches and techniques that comprise behavior modification are obviously important in tracing the history, but they are examined as part of the larger development rather than as ends in their own right.
Kazdin, A. E. (1982). History of behavior modification. In International handbook of behavior modification and therapy (pp. 3-32). Springer, Boston, MA.
Scope of child and adolescent psychotherapy research: Limited sampling of dysfunctions, treatments, and client characteristics
in this article, the author discuss the relation between limited conceptualization of treatment and the methods of study and resulting knowledge about treatment.
Kazdin, A. E. (1995). Scope of child and adolescent psychotherapy research: Limited sampling of dysfunctions, treatments, and client characteristics. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 24(2), 125-140.
The Meanings and Measurement of Clinical Significance
The previous articles in this special section make the case for the importance of evaluating the clinical significance of the therapeutic change, present key measures and innovative ways in which they are applied, and more generally provide important guidelines for evaluating therapeutic change.
Kazdin, A. E. (1999). The meanings and measurement of clinical significance.
Almost Clinically Significant (p < .10): Current Measures May Only Approach Clinical Significance
The review by Sheldrick et al. evaluates treatments for children and adolescents with conduct disorder and whether they produce clinically significant change
Kazdin, A. E. (2001). Almost clinically significant (pClinical psychology: Science and practice, 8(4), 455-462.
Bridging the Enormous Gaps of Theory With Therapy Research and Practice
The role, importance, and paucity of theory in child and adolescent psychotherapy research is described, underscored, and lamented, respectively, in these comments.
Kazdin, A. E. (2001). Bridging the enormous gaps of theory with therapy research and practice. Journal of clinical child psychology, 30(1), 59-66.
Research Design in Clinical Psychology
In this successful text, Kazdin describes research methods in psychology and provides criteria for conducting and evaluating clinical research.
Kazdin, A. E. (2003). Research design in clinical psychology.
Mechanisms of Change in Psychotherapy: Advances, Breakthroughs, and Cutting-Edge Research (Do Not Yet Exist)
The focus of this chapter is on psychotherapy research and a call for research on mechanisms of therapeutic change.
Kazdin, A. E. (2006). Mechanisms of Change in Psychotherapy: Advances, Breakthroughs, and Cutting-Edge Research (Do Not Yet Exist).
Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings
Single-case research has played an important role in developing and evaluating interventions that are designed to alter a particular facet of human functioning. In this edition, the author provides a notable contrast to the quantitative methodology approach that pervades the biological and social sciences.
Kazdin, A. E. (2011). Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. Oxford University Press.
Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings
Now thoroughly updated in its second edition, acclaimed author Alan Kazdin's Single-Case Research Designs provides a notable contrast to the quantitative methodology approach that pervades the biological and social sciences.
Kazdin, A. E. (2011). Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. Oxford University Press.
Delineating mechanisms of change in child and adolescent therapy: methodological issues and research recommendations
In this article, we discuss the importance of studying mechanisms, the logical and methodological requirements, and why almost no studies to date provide evidence for why or how treatment works.
Kazdin, A. E., & Nock, M. K. (2003). Delineating mechanisms of change in child and adolescent therapy: Methodological issues and research recommendations. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(8), 1116-1129.
Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied
Data Evaluation of 285 previous chapters have discussed fundamental issues about assessment and experimental design for single-case research. I mentioned that the third component of methodology after assessment and design is data evaluation. The three components work in concert to permit one to draw inferences about the intervention.
Kazdin, A. E., & Tuma, A. H. (1982). Single-case research designs.
Treating anxiety disorders in children: results of a randomized clinical trial.
In this study a psychosocial treatment for 47 Ss (aged 9–13 years) with anxiety disorders was investigated. A 16-session cognitive–behavioral treatment was compared with a wait-list condition.
Kendall, P. C. (1994). Treating anxiety disorders in children: results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 62(1), 100.
Therapy for youths with anxiety disorders: A second randomized clincal trial.
Ninety-four children (aged 9-13 years) with anxiety disorders were randomly assigned to cognitive behavioral treatment or waiting-list control.
Kendall, P. C., Flannery-Schroeder, E., Panichelli-Mindel, S. M., Southam-Gerow, M., Henin, A., & Warman, M. (1997). Therapy for youths with anxiety disorders: A second randomized clincal trial. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 65(3), 366.
Single-Case Designs for Educational Research
This book provides up-to-date, in-depth information about the use of single-case experimental designs in educational research across a range of educational settings and students.
Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Single-case designs for educational research. Pearson/A & B.
Chronic Student Absenteeism: A Significant and Overlooked Obstacle to Student Achievement
his overview looks at the best available evidence on chronic student absenteeism in the context of the scale, the impact, impact multipliers, and interventions.
Knowledge and public policy: The search for meaningful indicators
This book addresses the question of what it takes to develop social indicators that genuinely influence important public decisions
Knowledge and public policy: The search for meaningful indicators
A review of fixed fluency criteria in repeated reading studies
Introduced in the early 1970s, repeated reading has a history of helping students build oral reading fluency spanning almost 40 years. Participants in original repeated reading studies had to meet specific reading rates (i.e., fluency criteria) before considering a passage complete.
Kostewicz, D. E., Kubina, R. M., Selfridge, K. A., & Gallagher, D. L. (2016). A review of fixed fluency criteria in repeated reading studies. Reading Improvement, 53(1), 23-41.
How Do Risk Factors Work Together? Mediators, Moderators, and Independent, Overlapping, and Proxy Risk Factors
The authors developed a methodological basis for investigating how risk factors work together. Better methods are needed for understanding the etiology of disorders, such as psychiatric syndromes, that presumably are the result of complex causal chains.
Kraemer, H. C., Stice, E., Kazdin, A., Offord, D., & Kupfer, D. (2001). How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. American journal of psychiatry, 158(6), 848-856.
Mediators and Moderators of Treatment Effects in Randomized Clinical Trials
This paper describes an analytic framework to identify and distinguish between moderators and mediators in RCTs when outcomes are measured dimensionally.
Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, G. T., Fairburn, C. G., & Agras, W. S. (2002). Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Archives of general psychiatry, 59(10), 877-883.
Dubious “Mozart effect” remains music to many Americans’ ears.
Scientists have discredited claims that listening to classical music enhances intelligence, yet this so-called "Mozart Effect" has actually exploded in popularity over the years.
Krakovsky, M. (2005). Dubious “Mozart effect” remains music to many Americans’ ears. Stanford, CA: Stanford Report
Single Subject Research: Strategies for Evaluating Change
This book presents an overview of strategies used to evaluate change is single-subject research, a particular referring to time-series paradigms in which each subject is used repeatedly.
Kratochwill, T. R. (Ed.). (2013). Single subject research: Strategies for evaluating change. Academic Press.
Single-Case Research Design and Analysis
the editors of this volume fulfill three main goals: to take stock of progress in the development of data-analysis procedures for single-subject research
Kratochwill, T. R., & Levin, J. R. (Eds.). (2015). Single-case research design and analysis (psychology revivals): new directions for psychology and education. Routledge.
Single subject research : strategies for evaluating change
This book presents an overview of strategies used to evaluate change in single subject research, a particular approach referring to time-series paradigms in which each subject is used repeatedly.
Kratochwill, Thomas R., ed. Single subject research: Strategies for evaluating change. Academic Press, 2013.
Using Coaching to improve the Fidelity of Evidence-Based Practices: A Review of Studies
The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.
Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(4), 279-299.
Comparing performance standards on the retention of words read correctly per minute.
To measure retention of oral reading fluency, three students attending a learning support classroom used a repeating reading strategy with two passages. Each student read one passage to a high performance standard and the other passage to a lower performance standard. Results show it took the students more practice to reach the higher performance standard in regards to both calendar days and practice trials.
Kubina, R. M., Amato, J., Schwilk, C. L., & Therrien, W. J. (2008). Comparing performance standards on the retention of words read correctly per minute. Journal of Behavioral Education, 17(4), 328-338.
Educational testing and measurement: Classroom application and practice
An up-to-date, practical, reader-friendly resource that will help readers navigate today's seemingly ever-changing and complex world of educational testing, assessment, and measurement. The 11th edition presents a balanced perspective of educational testing and assessment, informed by developments and the ever increasing research base.
Kubiszyn, T., & Borich, G. (1987). Educational testing and measurement. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
Cognitive change processes in a group cognitive behavior therapy of depression
The present study attempted to examine the causal relationships among changes in automatic thoughts, dysfunctional attitudes, and depressive symptoms in a 12-week group cognitive behavior therapy (GCBT) program for depression.
Kwon, S. M., & Oei, T. P. (2003). Cognitive change processes in a group cognitive behavior therapy of depression. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 34(1), 73-85.
Some recommendations for the reporting of quantitative studies
This editorial offers recommendations aimed at providing examples of a series of elements that may significantly contribute towards demonstrating the robustness of quantitative results. It is therefore not a methodological guide but instead a guide that acts as a reminder of some basic principles when reporting quantitative research.
López, X., Valenzuela, J., Nussbaum, M., & Tsai, C. C. (2015). Some recommendations for the reporting of quantitative studies. Computers & Education, 91(C), 106-110.
Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change
This bestselling resource presents authoritative thinking on the pressing questions, issues, and controversies in psychotherapy research and practice today.
Lambert, M. J., Garfield, S. L., & Bergin, A. E. (2004). Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Clinical Outcome, Consumer Satisfaction, and Ad Hoc Ratings of Improvement in Children's Mental Health
In the present correlational study of 199 treated adolescents, the authors used a multitrait-multimethod analysis to examine psychometrically measured pathology change (pre- and postassessment of symptoms and functioning), consumer satisfaction, and perceived improvement reported by multiple informants.
Lambert, W., Salzer, M. S., & Bickman, L. (1998). Clinical outcome, consumer satisfaction, and ad hoc ratings of improvement in children's mental health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(2), 270-278.
A Policymaker's Primer on Education Research
The goal of this Policymaker’s Primer on Education Research is to help policymakers and other interested individuals answer three big questions: (1) What does the research say? (2) Is the research trustworthy? (3) How can the research be used to guide policy?
Lauer, P. A. (2004, February). A Policymaker's Primer on Education Research: How to Understand, Evaluate and Use it. ECS.
Ontario Leadership Framework 2012 with a discussion of the research foundations.
For purposes of the Ontario Leadership Framework (OLF), leadership is defined as the exercise of influence on organizational members and diverse stakeholders toward the identification and achievement of the organization’s vision and goals. For aspiring leaders, this framework provides important insights about what they will need to learn to be successful. Those already exercising leadership will find the framework a useful tool for self-reflection and self-assessment.
Leithwood, K. (2012). Ontario Leadership Framework 2012 with a discussion of the research foundations. Ottawa, Canada: Institute for Education Leadership. https://www.education-leadership-ontario.ca/application/files/2514/9452/5287/The_Ontario_Leadership_Framework_2012_-_with_a_Discussion_of_the_Research_Foundations.pdf
Leading school turnaround: How successful school leaders transform low-performing schools
Leading School Turnaround offers new perspectives and concrete, evidence-based guidelines for the educational leaders and administrators faced with the challenge of turning our low-performing schools around. Using the tools outlined in this groundbreaking book, school leaders can guide their schools to higher levels of achievement and sustained academic success.
Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Strauss, T. (2010). Leading school turnaround: How successful leaders transform low-performing schools. John Wiley & Sons.
The Reading Wars
An old disagreement over how to teach children to read -- whole-language versus phonics -- has re-emerged in California, in a new form. Previously confined largely to education, the dispute is now a full-fledged political issue there, and is likely to become one in other states.
Lemann, N. (1997). The reading wars. The Atlantic Monthly, 280(5), 128–133.
Evidence-Based Practices in a Changing World: Reconsidering the Counterfactual in Educational Research.
Populations and study samples can change over time—sometimes dramatically so. We illustrate this important point by presenting data from 5 randomized control trials of the efficacy of Kindergarten Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies, a supplemental, peer-mediated reading program.
Lemons, C. J., Fuchs, D., Gilbert, J. K., & Fuchs, L. S. (2014). Evidence-based practices in a changing world: Reconsidering the counterfactual in education research. Educational Researcher, 43(5), 242-252.
Educational/Psychological Intervention Research Circa 2012
The chapter focuses on the historically perceived poor methodological rigor and low scientific credibility of most educational/psychological intervention research.
Levin, J. R., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2012). Educational/psychological intervention research circa 2012. Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition, 7.
Educational/Psychological Intervention Research Circa 2012
The chapter focuses on the historically perceived poor methodological rigor and low scientific credibility of most educational/psychological intervention research.
Levin, J. R., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2012). Educational/psychological intervention research circa 2012. Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition, 7.
Equity in competency education: Realizing the potential, overcoming the obstacles.
This report sought to review a wide set of research findings and integrate insights relevant to potential equity issues that could arise as competency education evolves and begins to be implemented more broadly.
Lewis, M. W., Eden, R., Garber, C., Rudnick, M., Santibañez, L., & Tsai, T. (2014). Equity in competency education: Realizing the potential, overcoming the obstacles. Students at the Center: Competency Education Research Series. Boston, MA: Jobs for the Future. https://studentsatthecenterhub.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Equity-in-Competency-Education-103014-copy.pdf
Forecasting and Time Series Analysis Using te SCA Statistical System.
This edition of Forecasting and Time Series Analysis Using the SCA Statistical System initiates the replacement process of the document entitled The SCA Statistical System: Reference Manual for Forecasting and Time Series Analysis (May 1986).
Liu, L. M., Hudak, G. B., Box, G. E., Muller, M. E., & Tiao, G. C. (1992). Forecasting and time series analysis using the SCA statistical system (Vol. 1, No. 2). DeKalb, IL: Scientific Computing Associates.
Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey
The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American psychologist, 57(9), 705.
Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children.
This article reports the results of behavior modification treatment for two groups of similarly constituted, young autistic children.
Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 55(1), 3.
Comparative Studies of Psychotherapies Is It True That "Everyone Has Won and All Must Have Prizes"?
Tallies were made of outcomes of all reasonably controlled comparisons of psychotherapies with each other and with other treatments. For comparisons of psychotherapy with each other, most studies found insignificant differences in proportions of patients who improved (though most patients benefited).
Luborsky, L., Singer, B., & Luborsky, L. (1975). Comparative studies of psychotherapies: is it true that everyone has won and all must have prizes?. Archives of general psychiatry, 32(8), 995-1008.
Rigorous Evidence: Key to Progress Against World Poverty?
The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) sponsoring rigorous independent evaluations of its funded projects to build scientifically-valid evidence about "what works." On October 29, the nonprofit, nonpartisan Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, in collaboration with MCC, hosted a forum with leaders of the development policy and research community on MCC's evidence-based approach.
Lyon, R. L. (2002, November). Rigorous evidence: The key to progress in education. In forum of the Coalition for Evidence Based Policy, Washington, DC.
Behavioral momentum in the treatment of non-compliance
The objectives in the following series of experiments were to evaluate the effectiveness of the high-probability command sequence in increasing compliance to "do" and "don't" commands; to conduct preliminary investigations regarding the appropriateness of the behavioral momentum analogy; and to evaluate the generality of the procedure to reduce excessive compliance latency and task duration
Mace, F. C., Hock, M. L., Lalli, J. S., West, B. J., Belfiore, P., Pinter, E., & Brown, D. K. (1988). Behavioral momentum in the treatment of noncompliance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21(2), 123-141.
Systematic review of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior without extinction for individuals with autism
The purpose of this article is to review the literature on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior procedures without extinction for individuals with autism.
MacNaul, H. L., & Neely, L. C. (2018). Systematic review of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior without extinction for individuals with autism. Behavior Modification, 42(3), 398-421.
Facts are more important than novelty: Replication in the education sciences
Despite increased attention to methodological rigor in education research, the field has focused heavily on experimental design and not on the merit of replicating important results. The present study analyzed the complete publication history of the current top 100 education journals ranked by 5-year impact factor and found that only 0.13% of education articles were replications. Contrary to previous findings in medicine, but similar to psychology, the majority of education replications successfully replicated the original studies. However, replications were significantly less likely to be successful when there was no overlap in authorship between the original and replicating articles. The results emphasize the importance of third-party, direct replications in helping education research improve its ability to shape education policy and practice.
Makel, M. C., & Plucker, J. A. (2014). Facts are more important than novelty: Replication in the education sciences. Educational Researcher, 43(6), 304–316.
Practice and Research in Special Education
This article considers possible reasons that research knowledge is not used more extensively in special education practice and suggests issues to be addressed in solving this problem.
Malouf, D. B., & Schiller, E. P. (1995). Practice and research in special education. Exceptional Children, 61(5), 414-424.
Misconceptions about data-based decision making in education: An exploration of the literature
Research on data-based decision making has proliferated around the world, fueled by policy recommendations and the diverse data that are now available to educators to inform their practice. Yet, many misconceptions and concerns have been raised by researchers and practitioners. This paper surveys and synthesizes the landscape of the data-based decision-making literature to address the identified misconceptions and then to serve as a stimulus to changes in policy and practice as well as a roadmap for a research agenda.
Mandinach, E. B., & Schildkamp, K. (2021). Misconceptions about data-based decision making in education: An exploration of the literature. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 69, 100842.
A meta‐analysis of bibliotherapy studies
Used meta‐analysis to examine the efficacy of bibliotherapy. Bibliotherapy treatments were compared to control groups and therapist‐administered treatments.
Marrs, R. W. (1995). A meta‐analysis of bibliotherapy studies. American journal of community psychology, 23(6), 843-870.
Research Methods: Learning to Become a Critical Research Consumer
This book develops critical thinking skills about research and is designed to produce knowledgeable and informed critical research consumers.
Martella, R. C., Nelson, J. R., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (1999). Research methods: Learning to become a critical research consumer. Allyn & Bacon.
A theory of human motivation.
The present paper is an attempt to formulate a positive theory of motivation which will satisfy these theoretical demands and at the same time conform to the known facts, clinical and observational as well as experimental. It derives most directly, however, from clinical experience.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological review, 50(4), 370.
Escalante: The best teacher in America
Jaime Escalante is an outstanding example of excellence and dedication. This is the story of his entire career, including the development of the teaching techniques that got such brilliant results from the desperate students of gang-ridden Garfield High in East Los Angeles.
Mathews, J. (1989) Escalante: The best teacher in America. New York:Henry Hold and Co
Visual Analysis of Single-Case Time Series: Effects of Variability, Serial Dependence, and Magnitude of Intervention Effects.
The literature assumes that visual analysts will be conservative judges. They show that previous research into visual analysis has not adequately examined false alarm and miss rates or the effect of serial dependence.
Matyas, T. A., & Greenwood, K. M. (1990). Visual analysis of single‐case time series: Effects of variability, serial dependence, and magnitude of intervention effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(3), 341-351.
Dynamic but Structural Equation Modeling of Repeated Measures Data
Many scientists have searched for dynamics by calculating df/dt: the ratio of changes or differences d in a function f relative to changes in time t. This research use this dynamic equation, but here they examine multivariate psychological change data using the 20th century developments of latent variable structural equation modeling.
McArdle, J. J. (1988). Dynamic but structural equation modeling of repeated measures data. In Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology (pp. 561-614). Springer, Boston, MA.
Applied Time Series Analysis for the Social Sciences
The book reviews several available software packages for the analysis of time series data and the use of interactive software
McCleary, R., Hay, R. A., Meidinger, E. E., & McDowall, D. (1980). Applied time series analysis for the social sciences (p. 331). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Evidence-based decision-making: A team effort toward achieving goals
Implementing evidence-based practices requires not only knowledge of various interventions and practices but also professional judgment in selecting and applying an intervention that best meets the needs of the child and the family. Previous work on decision-making in evidence-based practices has focused on describing evidence-based practices, how the identification of evidence-based practices has affected the field of education (and, specifically, special education), and strategies for implementing evidence-based practices
McCollow, M. M., & Hoffman, H. H. (2020). Evidence-based decision-making: A team effort toward achieving goals. Young Exceptional Children, 23(1), 15-23.
Allergic disorders and attention deficit disorder in children
In a large sample of children from the general population this research found no association between parent, teacher, and self-reports of ADDH behaviors and a history of allergic disorders (asthma, eczema, rhinitis, and urticaria) at ages 9 or 13 years.
McGee, R., Stanton, W. R., & Sears, M. R. (1993). Allergic disorders and attention deficit disorder in children. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 21(1), 79-88.
Measuring the fidelity of implementation of a mental health program model.
Developed a fidelity index of program implementation for assertive community treatment (ACT). In Study 1, 20 experts rated the importance of 73 elements proposed as critical ACT ingredients, also indicating ideal model specifications for elements.
McGrew, J. H., Bond, G. R., Dietzen, L., & Salyers, M. (1994). Measuring the fidelity of implementation of a mental health program model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(4), 670-678.
How to reverse the assault on science.
We should stop being so embarrassed by uncertainty and embrace it as a strength rather than a weakness of scientific reasoning
McIntyre, L., (2019, May 22). How to reverse the assault on science. Scientific American. https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/how-to-reverse-the-assault-on-science1/
Addressing the barriers to mental health services for inner city children and their caretakers
This paper will outline a series of three research studies meant to identify factors related to child mental health service usage and barriers to help seeking for urban minority children and their caretakers.
McKay, M. M., McCadam, K., & Gonzales, J. J. (1996). Addressing the barriers to mental health services for inner city children and their caretakers. Community Mental Health Journal, 32(4), 353-361.
Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies
A systematic search of the research literature from 1996 through July 2008 identified more than a thousand empirical studies of online learning.
Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2010). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence-based-practices/finalreport.pdf
RTI: A practitioner's guide to implementing response to intervention.
This comprehensive yet accessible reference covers the three tiers of RTI, schoolwide screening, progress monitoring, challenges to implementation, and changes in school structures and individual staff roles.
Mellard, D. F., & Johnson, E. S. (Eds.). (2007). RTI: A practitioner's guide to implementing response to intervention. Corwin Press.
Getting intentional about principal evaluations
Under new frameworks, districts have better aligned their evaluations with their school-leadership standards and developed nuanced rubrics for evidence-collection and evaluation ratings. They have also altered the role of principal supervisors so that they spend more time in schools working with principals.
Mendels, P. (2017). Getting Intentional about Principal Evaluations. Educational Leadership, 74(8), 52-56.
latent Curve Analysis
As a method for representing development, latent trait theory is presented in terms of a statistical model containing individual parameters and a structure on both the first and second moments of the random variables reflecting growth
Meredith, W., & Tisak, J. (1990). Latent curve analysis. Psychometrika, 55(1), 107-122.
The stability and validity of early adolescents' reports of parenting constructs.
The stability and validity of early adolescents' reports of 6 parenting constructs were examined: parent–child conflict, positive family relations, parental monitoring, parents' rule making, consistent enforcement of rules, and use of positive reinforcement.
Metzler, C. W., Biglan, A., Ary, D. V., & Li, F. (1998). The stability and validity of early adolescents' reports of parenting constructs. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(4), 600.
Mapping State Proficiency Standards Onto the NAEP Scales: Variation and Change in State Standards for Reading and Mathematics, 2005-2009
Mapping State Proficiency Standards Onto the NAEP Scales
MEXICO, N. (2011). Mapping State Proficiency Standards Onto the NAEP Scales: Variation and Change in State Standards for Reading and Mathematics, 2005-2009.
The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information.
A variety of researches are examined from the standpoint of information theory. It is shown that the unaided observer is severely limited in terms of the amount of information he can receive, process, and remember. However, it is shown that by the use of various techniques, e.g., use of several stimulus dimensions, recoding, and various mnemonic devices, this informational bottleneck can be broken.
Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological review, 63(2), 81.
Whole language lives on: The illusion of “balanced” reading instruction.
This position paper contends that the whole language approach to reading instruction has been disproved by research and evaluation but still pervades textbooks for teachers, instructional materials for classroom use, some states' language-arts standards and other policy documents, teacher licensing requirements and preparation programs, and the professional context in which teachers work.
Moats, L. C. (2000). Whole language lives on: The illusion of “balanced” reading instruction. Washington, DC: DIANE Publishing.
Virtual schools in the U.S. 2015: Politics, performance, policy, and research evidence.
This 2015 report is third in a series of annual reports on virtual education in the U.S.. It is organized in three major sections.
Molnar, A., Huerta, L., Shafer, S. R., Barbour, M.K., Miron, G., Shafer, S. R., & Gulosino, C. (2015). Virtual schools in the U.S. 2015: Politics, performance, policy, and research evidence. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/virtual-schools-annual-2015
Virtual schools in the U.S. 2019
This report provides disinterested scholarly analyses of the characteristics and performance of fulltime, publicly funded K-12 virtual schools; reviews the relevant available research related to virtual school practices; provides an overview of recent state legislative efforts to craft virtual schools policy; and offers policy recommendations based on the available evidence.
Molnar, A., Miron, G., Elgeberi, N., Barbour, M. K., Huerta, L., Shafer, S. R., & Rice, J. K. (2019). Virtual schools in the U.S. 2019. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. https://nepc.colorado.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Virtual%20Schools%202019.pdf
Virtual schools in the U.S. 2017
The 2017 NEPC Annual Report contributes to the existing evidence related to virtual education, and so to debates surrounding it. It provides objective analysis of the characteristics and performance of full-time, publicly funded K-12 virtual schools; available research on virtual school practices and policy; and an overview of recent state efforts to craft new policy
Molnar, A., Miron, G., Gulosino, C., Shank, C., Davidson, C., Barbour, M. K.,… Nitkin, D. (2017). Virtual schools in the U.S. 2017. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED574702.pdf
Status of and trends in academic intervention research for students with emotional disturbance
Recent research has examined overall trends in the experimental literature relating to students with emotional disturbance (ED). The current review was conducted to examine both the status of and trends in interventions designed to improve the academic functioning of students with ED.
Mooney, P., Epstein, M. H., Reid, R., & Nelson, J. R. (2003). Status of and trends in academic intervention research for students with emotional disturbance. Remedial and Special Education, 24(5), 273-287.
Blended learning report
This research report presents the findings of this formative and summative research effort.
Murphy, R., Snow, E., Mislevy, J., Gallagher, L., Krumm, A., & Wei, X. (2014). Blended learning report. Austin, TX: Michael and Susan Dell Foundation. https://www.msdf.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/MSDF-Blended-Learning-Report-May-2014.pdf
Treatment Fidelity in Social Work Intervention Research: A Review of Published Studies
This study investigated treatment fidelity in social work research. The authors systematically reviewed all articles published in five prominent social work journals over a 5- year period.
Naleppa, M. J., & Cagle, J. G. (2010). Treatment fidelity in social work intervention research: A review of published studies. Research on Social Work Practice, 20(6), 674-681.
A Guide to Treatments that Work
This book discusses major mental disorders in a question-and-answer format. It offers information about treatment decisions and the pros and cons of a particular treatment. This books helps people understand the issues involved when working with a mental health professional.
Nathan, P. E., Gorman, J. M., & Salkind, N. J. (1999). Treating mental disorders: A guide to what works. Oxford University Press.
Blueprint for Change: Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health
In light of the pressing needs of children and adolescents with mental illness, the NAMHC recommended to NIMH Director Steven Hyman, M.D., that a Workgroup on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Intervention Development and Deployment be established. Dr. Hyman charged this group with reviewing research and training.
National Advisory Mental Health Council Workgroup on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Intervention Development and Deployment. (2001). Blueprint for change: Research on child and adolescent mental health. A report by the national advisory mental health council’s workgroup on child and adolescent mental health intervention development and deployment.
A call to action to improve the quality of full-time virtual charter public schools
This report provides basic information about full-time virtual charter public schools, presents data about their results, and outlines a set of policy recommendations that states should adopt to improve the performance of full-time virtual charter schools across the country.
National Alliance for Public Charter Schools (2016). A call to action to improve the quality of full-time virtual charter public schools. http://www.publiccharters.org/sites/default/files/migrated/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Virtuals-FINAL-06202016-1.pdf
Examining the NAEP 2019 Results in Terms of Equity.
To what extent does a student’s ethnicity, socio economic status, or location predict/impact their education performance. One of the most respected tools for answering this question is the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), as it disaggregates test data by student ethnicity, socio-economic status, and location of schools.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2019). Nation’s report card. National Assessment of Educational Progress.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2019). NAEP Data Explorer. National Assessment of Educational Progress.
Indicator: Students with disabilities
Totals presented in this indicator include imputations for states for which data were unavailable. See reference tables in the Digest of Education Statistics.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2020). Indicator: Students with disabilities. U.S. Department of Education.
Scientific Research in Education
This book describes the similarities and differences between scientific inquiry in education and scientific inquiry in other fields and disciplines and provides a number of examples to illustrate these ideas.
National Research Council. (2002). Scientific research in education. National Academies Press.
Advancing Scientific Research in Education
the Center for Education of the National Research Council (NRC) has undertaken a series of activities to address issues related to the quality of scientific education research.1 In 2002, the NRC released Scientific Research in Education (National Research Council, 2002), a report designed to articulate the nature of scientific education research and to guide efforts aimed at improving its quality.
National Research Council. (2004). Scientific research in education. National Academies Press.
Handbook of Multivariate Experimental Psychology
the purpose of this book was to growing edges will find something to meet the author inaugurate a radical new outlook on experimental psychology.
Nesselroade, J. R., & Cattell, R. B. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology. Springer Science & Business Media.
Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks.
The chapter describes five categories of theoretical approaches that achieve three overarching aims: process models, which are aimed at describing and/or guiding the process of translating research into practice; determinant frameworks, classic theories and implementation theories, which are aimed at understanding and/or explaining what influences implementation outcomes; and evaluation frameworks, which are aimed at evaluating implementation. Awareness of how the approaches differ is important to facilitate the selection of relevant approaches.
Nilsen, P. (2020). Making sense of implementation theories, models, and frameworks. In Implementation Science 3.0 (pp. 53-79). Springer, Cham.
Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks
This chapter presents a taxonomy that distinguishes among different categories of theories, models and frameworks used in implementation science. The chapter describes five categories of theoretical approaches that achieve three overarching aims: process models, which are aimed at describing and/or guiding the process of translating research into practice; determinant frameworks, classic theories and implementation theories, which are aimed at understanding and/or explaining what influences implementation outcomes; and evaluation frameworks, which are aimed at evaluating implementation.
Nilsen, P. (2020). Making sense of implementation theories, models, and frameworks. In Implementation Science 3.0 (pp. 53-79). Springer, Cham.
Expanding the frontier of treatment research.
This article covers current efforts by the National Institute of Mental Health to bridge this gap. Included are discussions of problems with the current research portfolio and new efforts in expanding the research portfolio, innovative methodological research, and expansion of training programs.
Norquist, G., Lebowitz, B., & Hyman, S. (1999). Expanding the frontier of treatment research. Prevention & Treatment, 2(1). Article ID 1a.
This text considers the measurement problems that arise in areas of psychology, education, and areas of business such as management and marketing.
Nunnally, J. C. (1994). Psychometric theory 3E. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Effects of minimum drinking age laws on alcohol use, related behaviors and traffic crash involvement among American youth: 1976-1987.
This study has two separate but related purposes: (1) to delineate cross-sectional differences among U.S. high school seniors and young adults that may be due to variations in recent years in state-level minimum drinking age laws and (2) to examine the effects of recent changes in minimum drinking age laws on alcohol consumption and other relevant attitudes and behaviors.
O'Malley, P. M., & Wagenaar, A. C. (1991). Effects of minimum drinking age laws on alcohol use, related behaviors and traffic crash involvement among American youth: 1976-1987. Journal of studies on Alcohol, 52(5), 478-491.
Physician-delivered interventions for smoking cessation: Strategies for increasing effectiveness
This article reviews the impact of physician-delivered smoking interventions on smokers, physician attitudes toward intervention, and physicians' reported intervention practices.
Ockene, J. K. (1987). Physician-delivered interventions for smoking cessation: strategies for increasing effectiveness. Preventive medicine, 16(5), 723-737.
Evidence-Based Practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education: Single-Subject Design Research
The purpose of this study was to examine the strength of scientific evidence from single-subject research underlying the Division of Early Childhood (DEC) Recommended Practices.
Odom, S. L., & Strain, P. S. (2002). Evidence-based practice in early intervention/early childhood special education: Single-subject design research. Journal of Early Intervention, 25(2), 151-160.
Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators
Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2011 ofers a rich, comparable and up-to-date array of indicators that relect a consensus among professionals on how to measure the current state of education internationally.
OECD (2011), Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2011-en
Testing Experts Develop New Method of Presenting Achievement-Gap Data
A report prepared by the board that governs the National Assessment of Educational Progress cautions that measuring an achievement gap does not come down to a single statistic.
Olson, L. (2002). Testing experts develop new method of presenting achievement gap data. Education Week, 21(26), 11
Why Trust Science?
Naomi Oreskes offers a bold and compelling defense of science, revealing why the social character of scientific
knowledge is its greatest strength—and the greatest reason we can trust it.
Oreskes, N. (2019). Why trust science? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Continued progress: Promising evidence on personalized learning
This report examines achievement in 62 public charter and district schools that are pursuing a variety of personalized learning practices, and examines implementation details in 32 of those schools
Pane, J. F., Steiner, E. D., Baird, M. D., & Hamilton, L. S. (2015). Continued progress: Promising evidence on personalized learning. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1365.html
The Decision to Adopt Evidence-Based and Other Innovative Mental Health Practices: Risky Business?
A risk-based decision-making framework was used to examine the decision to adopt innovative mental health practices, including both evidence-based and other research-guided practices.
Panzano, P. C., & Roth, D. (2006). The decision to adopt evidence-based and other innovative mental health practices: Risky business?. Psychiatric Services, 57(8), 1153-1161.
The Visual Analysis of Data, and Current Research into the Stimuli Controlling It
This chapter of Single-Case Research Design and Analysis (Psychology Revivals) describes Visual analysis as one of the oldest forms of data analysis.
Parsonson, B. S., & Baer, D. M. (2015). The visual analysis of data, and current research into the stimuli controlling it. In Single-Case Research Design and Analysis (Psychology Revivals) (pp. 27-52). Routledge.
Mean what you say: Defining and integrating personalized, blended and competency education.
The purpose of the personalized learning framework is to open student pathways and encourage student voice and choice in their education. Personalized learning is enabled by instructional environments that are competency-based. By tapping into modalities of blended and online learning using advanced technologies, personalized learning is enhanced by transparent data and abundant content resources flowing from redesigned instructional models to address the standards.
Patrick, S., Kennedy, K., & Powell, A. (2013). Mean what you say: Defining and integrating personalized, blended and competency education. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED561301.pdf
Foundations of special education: basic knowledge informing research and practice in special education
This enlightening book contains papers (presented as chapters) commissioned from nationally recognized scholars, which examine topics related to ethics, culture, science, and philosophy that have a direct bearing on the future of special education.
Paul, J. L. (1997). Foundations of special education: Basic knowledge informing research and practice in special education. Pacific Grove: Brooks.
What Is a Culture of Evidence? How Do You Get One? And... Should You Want One?
This paper uses a framework derived from Cultural Historical Activity Theory to describe changes in organizational practice in two teacher education programs as they began to use new sources of outcome data to make decisions about program design, curriculum and instruction.
Peck, C. A., & McDonald, M. A. What Is a Culture of Evidence? How Do You Get One? And... Should You Want One?. Teachers College Record. Date accessed: 3/21/14 http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?contentid=17359
Relationship of satisfaction to symptom change, follow-up adjustment, and clinical significance.
The relationship of client satisfaction to outcome was investigated for adult outpatients (N = 152) from 3 urban community mental health centers. Clients completed a problem self-rating and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) at intake, 10 weeks later, and 5 months later.
Pekarik, G., & Wolff, C. B. (1996). Relationship of satisfaction to symptom change, follow-up adjustment, and clinical significance. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27(2), 202-208.
Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis
This research synthesis examines randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental research on the mathematics achievement outcomes for elementary school programs. The best outcomes were found for tutoring programs. The findings suggest that programs emphasizing personalization, engagement, and motivation are most impactful in elementary mathematics instruction.
Pellegrini, M., Lake, C., Inns, A, & , Slavin, R. (2018). Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis. Best Evidence Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.bestevidence.org/word/elem_math_Oct_8_2018.pdf
Implementation variation and fidelity in an inquiry science program: Analysis of GLOBE data reporting patterns
This article examines variations in patterns in the enactment of a large-scale kindergarten through Grade 12 science inquiry program. Student data reports in the GLOBE program provide a useful measure of implementation because key design elements in the program are student collection and reporting of local environmental data.
Penuel, W. R., & Means, B. (2004). Implementation variation and fidelity in an inquiry science program: Analysis of GLOBE data reporting patterns. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(3), 294-315.
A “jigsaw classroom” technique for undergraduate statistics courses.
Undergraduate statistics students vary widely in performance, and many are passive learners. Worksheets (problem sets) help students to be more active and to learn by doing. Working individually, however, students may require too much time to complete worksheets in class, when the instructor is available to help.
Perkins, D. V., & Saris, R. N. (2001). A" jigsaw classroom" technique for undergraduate statistics courses. Teaching of psychology, 28(2), 111-113.
Project Northland: Outcomes of a Communitywide Alcohol Use Prevention Program during Early Adolescence
Project Northland is an efficacy trial with the goal of preventing or reducing alcohol use among young adolescents by using a multilevel, communitywide approach.
Perry, C. L., Williams, C. L., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Toomey, T. L., Komro, K. A., Anstine, P. S., ... & Wolfson, M. (1996). Project Northland: outcomes of a communitywide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 86(7), 956-965.
Psychotherapy outcome studies do not accurately represent current models of psychotherapy: A proposed remedy.
It is argued that the design of contemporary psychotherapy outcome studies is conceptually incompatible with the models of psychotherapy evaluated in those studies.
Persons, J. B. (1991). Psychotherapy outcome studies do not accurately represent current models of psychotherapy: A proposed remedy. American psychologist, 46(2), 99.
Why practicing psychologists are slow to adopt empirically-validated treatments.
A discussion of this chapter entitled "Dissemination of What, and to Whom?" by B. S. Kohlenberg follows this chapter.
Persons, J. B. (1995). Why practicing psychologists are slow to adopt empirically-validated treatments. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette, R. M. Dawes, & K. E. Grady (Eds.), Scientific standards of psychological practice: Issues and recommendations (pp. 141-157). Reno, NV, US: Context Press
Are Results of Randomized Controlled Trials Useful to Psychotherapists?
Two clinicians provided opposite answers to the title question: Persons argued that information from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is vital to clinicians, and Silberschatz argued that information from RCTs is irrelevant to clinicians.
Persons, J. B., & Silberschatz, G. (1998). Are results of randomized controlled trials useful to psychotherapists?. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 66(1), 126.
Handbook of Psychology: Educational psychology
This award-winning twelve-volume reference covers every aspect of the ever-fascinating discipline of psychology and represents the most current knowledge in the field. This ten-year revision now covers discoveries based in neuroscience, clinical psychology's new interest in evidence-based practice and mindfulness, and new findings in social, developmental, and forensic psychology.
Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B., Stuhlman, M., Reynolds, W. M., & Miller, G. E. (2003). Handbook of psychology: Educational psychology.
Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us
In this provocative and persuasive new book, the author asserts that the secret to high performance and satisfaction-at work, at school, and at home—is the deeply human need to direct our own lives, to learn and create new things, and to do better by ourselves and our world.
Pink, D. H. (2011). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. Penguin.
Friends don’t let friends misuse NAEP data
This article shows some common type of misused or unhelpful NAEP analyses to look out for and avoid. This article also give some warning to avoid misuse of the NAEP data.
Problem solving student support teams
The on-going efforts to improve Student Support Teams (SST) within a large, urban California school district are presented. The major goal of this reform has been to reshape the SSTs to focus on empirically supported interventions and data based decision making rather than student deficit and disability.
Powers, K. M. (2001). Problem solving student support teams. The California School Psychologist, 6(1), 19-30.
Effects of personalized system of instruction on health-related fitness knowledge and class time physical activity
In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness
(HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA).
An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the
personalized system of instruction (PSI).
Prewitt, S., Hannon, J., Colquitt, G. T., Brusseau, T. A., Newton, M., & Shaw, J. (2015). Effect of the Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity. The Physical Educator, 72, 23.
Music and spatial task performance.
This research paper reports on testing the hypothesis that music and spatial task performance are causally related. Two complementary studies are presented that replicate and explore previous findings.
Rauscher, F. H., Shaw, G. L., & Ky, C. N. (1993). Music and spatial task performance. Nature, 365(6447), 611–611.
Practical statistics for educators.
The focus of the book is on essential concepts in educational statistics, understanding when to use various statistical tests, and how to interpret results. This book introduces educational students and practitioners to the use of statistics in education and basic concepts in statistics are explained in clear language.
Ravid, R. (2019). Practical statistics for educators. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Processing Fluency as the Source of Experiences at the Fringe of Consciousness
The authors extend Mangan's account of fringe consciousness by discussing their work on processing experiences. This research shows that variations in speed at different stages of perceptual processing can jointly contribute to subjective processing ease, supporting Mangan's notion that different mental processes condense into one subjective experience.
Reber, R., Fazendeiro, T. A., & Winkielman, P. (2002). Processing fluency as the source of experiences at the fringe of consciousness. Psyche, 8(10), 1-21.
New evidence on the frequency of teacher turnover: Accounting for within-year turnover.
Teacher turnover occurs during and at the end of the school year, although documentation of within-year turnover currently rests on anecdotal evidence.
Redding, C., & Henry, G. T. (2018). New evidence on the frequency of teacher turnover: Accounting for within-year turnover. Educational Researcher, 47(9), 577-593.
Easy in, easy out: Are alternatively certified teachers turning over at increased rates?
The authors report on descriptive evidence of growing differences in the characteristics of alternatively and traditionally certified teachers and the schools in which they teach.
Redding, C., & Smith, T. M. (2016). Easy in, easy out: Are alternatively certified teachers turning over at increased rates?. American Educational Research Journal, 53(4), 1086-1125.
Paradigm shift: The past is not the future.
This chapter describe and contrast different paradigms for the design and delivery of school psychological services, analyze problems in the traditional delivery system, and review major policy and reform statements. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the knowledge base, underlying principles, and strategies that form the basis for psychological services that emphasize problem solving, functional assessment, and educational accountability.
Reschly, D. J., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2002). Paradigm shift: The past is not the future.
What is a conflict of interest?
This page describes the conflict of interest and what should we do about it.
Resources for Research Ethics Education. (2001). What is a conflict of interest? San Diego, CA: University of California, San Diego. http://research-ethics.org/topics/conflicts-of-interest/
Research and history of policies in K–12 online and blended learning
This handbook is meant to be a resource for anyone interested in research, practice, or policy in the field of K-12 online and blended learning. This handbook is a collection of what we currently know about research in the field.
Rice, K. (2014). Research and history of policies in K–12 online and blended learning. In R. E. Ferdig & K. Kennedy (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (pp. 51–82). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/cfcb/578ede7dc55b6ea97bdb1a37fe6243bb2bc9.pdf
Approaches and methods in language teaching
This third edition of Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching is an extensive revision of the popular and accessible text. Like previous editions, this book surveys the major approaches and methods in language teaching such as Grammar Translation, Audiolingualism, Communicative Language Teaching, and the Natural Approach.
Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge university press.
Empirically supported comprehensive treatments for young children with autism
The criteria for empirically supported treatments, as described by Lonigan, Elbert, and Johnson (this issue), were applied to reports of eight treatment efficacy studies published in peer-reviewed journals.
Rogers, S. J. (1998). Empirically supported comprehensive treatments for young children with autism. Journal of clinical child psychology, 27(2), 168-179.
Empirically supported comprehensive treatments for young children with autism.
Describes treatment of autism, a severe, chronic developmental disorder that results in significant lifelong disability for most persons, with few persons ever functioning in an independent and typical lifestyle.
Rogers, S. J. (1998). Empirically supported comprehensive treatments for young children with autism. Journal of clinical child psychology, 27(2), 168-179.
Conflicts of interest in research: Looking out for number one means keeping the primary interest front and center
This review will briefly address the nature of conflicts of interest in research, including the importance of both financial and non-financial conflicts, and the potential effectiveness and limits of various strategies for managing such conflicts.
Romain, P. L. (2015). Conflicts of interest in research: Looking out for number one means keeping the primary interest front and center. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine, 8(2), 122–127.
Psychology should list empirically supported principles of change (ESPs) and not credential trademarked therapies or other treatment packages
Current systems for listing empirically supported therapies (ESTs) provide recognition to treatment packages, many of them proprietary and trademarked, without regard to the principles of change believed to account for their effectiveness.
Rosen, G. M., & Davison, G. C. (2003). Psychology should list empirically supported principles of change (ESPs) and not credential trademarked therapies or other treatment packages. Behavior modification, 27(3), 300-312.
Law, Science, and Accidents: The British Road Safety Act of 1967
The British Road Safety Act of 1967, which introduces scientific tests to determine and define the crime of drinking and driving, has been the subject of much interest among American lawyers and social scientists.
Ross, H. L. (1973). Law, science, and accidents: the British Road Safety Act of 1967. The Journal of Legal Studies, 2(1), 1-78.
What large-scale survey research tells us about teacher effects on student achievement: Insights from the Prospects study of elementary schools, teachers
This report is about conceptual and methodological issues that arise when educational researchers use data from large-scale, survey research studies to investigate teacher effects on student achievement. We use data from Prospects to estimate the "overall" size of teacher effects on student achievement and to test some specific hypotheses about why such effects occur.
Rowan, B., Correnti, R., & Miller, R. J. (2002). What large-scale, survey research tells us about teacher effects on student achievement: Insights from the prospectus study of elementary schools.
The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark
Casting a wide net through history and culture, Sagan examines and authoritatively debunks such celebrated fallacies of the past as witchcraft, faith healing, demons, and UFOs. And yet, disturbingly, in today's so-called information age, pseudoscience is burgeoning with stories of alien abduction, channeling past lives, and communal hallucinations commanding growing attention and respect.
Sagan, C. (2011). The demon-haunted world: Science as a candle in the dark. Ballantine Books.
Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading.
This article discuss about automaticity theory and attempt to do 2 things: 1. describe automaticity theory and its practical applications; and 2. explain some of the new ideas about automaticity.
Samuels, S. J. (1994). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading, revisited.
What research has to say about fluency instruction.
The editors of What Research Has to Say About Reading Instruction present the most recent research on fluency and show how you can put it into practice.
Samuels, S. J., & Farstrup, A. E. (Eds.). (2006). What research has to say about fluency instruction. International Reading Association.
Supporting successful interventions in schools: Tools to plan, evaluate, and sustain effective implementation
Evidence-based interventions benefit learners only when they are implemented fully. Yet many educators struggle with successful implementation. Step-by-step procedures are presented for assessing existing implementation efforts and using a menu of support strategies to promote intervention fidelity.
Sanetti, L. M. H., & Collier-Meek, M. A. (2019). Supporting successful interventions in schools: Tools to plan, evaluate, and sustain effective implementation. Guilford Publications.
Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General--Executive summary.
Two messages are conveyed in the report: Mental health is fundamental to health, and mental disorders are real health conditions. The surgeon general's report summarizes the Office's detailed review of more than 3,000 research articles, plus 1st-person accounts from individuals who have been afflicted with mental disorders.
Satcher, D. (2000). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General--Executive summary. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31(1), 5-13.
Replication: A Design Principle for Field Research
This article suggests the routine use of replications in field studies.
Schafer, W. D. (2001). Replication: A design principle for field research. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(15), 1-7.
The role of performance feedback and implementation of evidence-based practices for preservice special education teachers and student outcomes: A review of the literature
Given the importance of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for improving outcomes for students with disabilities, it is key that preservice special education teachers have the opportunity to implement EBPs with high levels of fidelity during their teacher preparation program. For this reason, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature to answer the question: Does providing performance feedback improve preservice special education teachers’ fidelity of implementation of EBPs and outcomes for students with disabilities?
Schles, R. A., & Robertson, R. E. (2019). The role of performance feedback and implementation of evidence-based practices for preservice special education teachers and student outcomes: A review of the literature. Teacher Education and Special Education, 42(1), 36-48.
Multisystemic Therapy: Monitoring Treatment Fidelity
The challenges of specifying a complex and individualized treatment model and measuring fidelity thereto are described, using multisystemic therapy (MST) as an example.
Schoenwald, S. K., Henggeler, S. W., Brondino, M. J., & Rowland, M. D. (2000). Multisystemic therapy: Monitoring treatment fidelity. Family Process, 39(1), 83-103.
A history of K–12 online and blended instruction in the United States.
This chapter will cover the history and progression of online and blended learning in K-12 education in the United States. Program categories covered include state virtual schools, fully online schools, and blended learning.
Schwirzke, K., Vashaw, L., & Watson, J. (2018). A history of K–12 online and blended instruction in the United States. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 7–20). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf
Evaluation Thesaurus. Third Edition.
Written by one of the leaders in evaluation, Evaluation Thesaurus, Fourth Edition, provides readers with a quick analysis of the leading concepts, positions, acronyms, processes, techniques, and checklists in the field of evaluation.
Scriven, M. (1991). Evaluation thesaurus. Sage.
Teacher recruitment and retention: A critical review of international evidence of most promising interventions
A raft of initiatives and reforms have been introduced in many countries to attract and recruit school teachers, many of which do not have a clear evidence base, so their effectiveness remains unclear. Prior research has been largely correlational in design. This paper describes a rigorous and comprehensive review of international evidence, synthesizing the findings of some of the strongest empirical work so far.
See, B. H., Morris, R., Gorard, S., Kokotsaki, D., & Abdi, S. (2020). Teacher recruitment and retention: A critical review of international evidence of most promising interventions. Education Sciences, 10(10), 262.
The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization
The leadership stories in the book demonstrate the many ways that the core ideas in The Fifth Discipline, many of which seemed radical when first published in 1990, have become deeply integrated into people's ways of seeing the world and their managerial practices.
Senge, P. M. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. Broadway Business.
A review of comparison studies in applied behavior analysis
A commonly used research design in applied behavior analysis involves comparing two or more independent variables. There were some consistencies across studies, with half resulting in equivalent outcomes across comparisons. In addition, most studies employed the use of an alternating treatments or multi-element single-subject design and compared a teaching methodology.
Shabani, D. B., & Lam, W. Y. (2013). A review of comparison studies in applied behavior analysis. Behavioral Interventions, 28(2), 158-183.
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference
This book is a valuable resource for graduate students and applied researchers who are interested designing experimental studies as well as for those needing to interpret both experimental and quasi-experimental research in the social and behavioral sciences.
Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
What constitutes a science of reading instruction
Recently, the term science of reading has been used in public debate to promote policies and instructional practices based on research on the basic cognitive mechanisms of reading, the neural processes involved in reading, computational models of learning to read, and the like. According to those views, such data provide convincing evidence that explicit decoding instruction (e.g., phonological awareness, phonics) should be beneficial to reading success.
Shanahan, T. (2020). What constitutes a science of reading instruction?. Reading Research Quarterly, 55, S235-S247.
Home-Based Behavioral Treatment of Young Children
This study evaluated the impact of intensive behavioral treatment on the development of young autistic children.
Sheinkopf, S. J., & Siegel, B. (1998). Home-based behavioral treatment of young children with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 28(1), 15-23.
Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches
As the successor to one of NASP's most popular publications, Interventions for Academic and Behavior Problems II offers the latest in evidence-based measures that have proven to create safer, more effective schools.
Shinn, M. R., Walker, H. M., & Stoner, G. E. (2002). Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches. National Association of School Psychologists.
Roles and responsibilities of researchers and practitioners for translating research to practice
This paper outlines the best practices for researchers and practitioners translating research to practice as well as recommendations for improving the process.
Shriver, M. D. (2007). Roles and responsibilities of researchers and practitioners for translating research to practice. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 8(1), 1-30.
Teams in the Military: A Review and Emerging Challenges
the purpose of this chapter is to review the science of teams and their effectiveness, extrapolate critical lessons learned, and highlight several future challenges critical for military psychology to address in order to prepare future military teams for success.
Shuffler, M. L., Pavlas, D., & Salas, E. (2012). Teams in the military: A review and emerging challenges. In J. H. Laurence & M. D. Matthews (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of military psychology(pp. 282–310). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Tactics of Scientific Research: Evaluating Experimental Data in Psychology.
Discussing the major themes of replication, variability, and experimental design, Sidman describes the step-by-step planning of experiments, the need for constant attention to trends of incoming data, and the alteration of plan, method, or design that those trends sometimes make necessary
Sidman, M. (1960). Tactics of Scientific Research: Evaluating Experimental Data in Psychology. Boston: Authors Cooperative.
Tactics of scientific research; evaluating experimental data in psychology.
Discussing the major themes of replication, variability, and experimental design, Sidman describes the step-by-step planning of experiments, the need for constant attention to trends of incoming data, and the alteration of plan, method, or design that those trends sometimes make necessary.
Sidman, M. (1960). Tactics of scientific research; evaluating experimental data in psychology. New York: basic Books
Cross-sectional time-series experiments: Some suggested statistical analyses
In this article, alternative analytical procedures are developed for cross-sectional time-series in which the sample size is large and the number of observations per case is relatively small.
Simonton, D. K. (1977). Cross-sectional time-series experiments: Some suggested statistical analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 84(3), 489.
Erratum to Simonton.
In this article, alternative analytical procedures are developed for cross-sectional time-series in which the sample size is large and the number of observations per case is relatively small.
Simonton, D. K. (1977). Erratum to Simonton.
Horticulture as Therapy: Principles and Practice
Did you know that plants and plant products can be used to improve people’s cognitive, physical, psychological, and social functioning? Well, they can, and Horticulture as Therapy is the book to show you how!
Simson, S., & Straus, M. (1997). Horticulture as therapy: Principles and practice. CRC Press.
A Case History in Scientific Method.
The case history in scientific method cited is autobiographical; Skinner relates certain relevant experiences in the development of some of his scientific contributions.
Skinner, B. F. (1956). A case history in scientific method. American Psychologist, 11(5), 221.
Science and human behavior
The psychology classic—a detailed study of scientific theories of human nature and the possible ways in which human behavior can be predicted and controlled.
Skinner, B. F. (1965). Science and human behavior (No. 92904). Simon and Schuster.
The Shame of American Education
Recent analyses of American schools and proposals for school reform have missed an essential point: Most current problems could be solved if students learned twice as much in the same time and with the same effort.
Skinner, B. F. (1984). The shame of American education. American Psychologist, 39(9), 947.
Effective programs for elementary science: A best-evidence synthesis
This article presents a systematic review of research on the achievement outcomes of all
types of approaches to teaching science in elementary schools. Study inclusion criteria
included use of randomized or matched control groups, a study duration of at least 4 weeks,
and use of achievement measures independent of the experimental treatment.
Slavin, R. E., Lake, C., Hanley, P., & Thurston, A. (2012). Effective programs for elementary science: A best-evidence synthesis. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education.
Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress.
A commentary on: Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress
Smith, A. M., Floerke, V. A., & Thomas, A. K. (2016). Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress. Science, 354(6315), 1046-1048.
Pasteur’s Quadrant as the Bridge Linking Rigor with Relevance
The authors propose educational design research and communities of practice as frameworks through which to realize the promise of Pasteur's quadrant.
Smith, G. J., Schmidt, M. M., Edelen-Smith, P. J., & Cook, B. G. (2013). Pasteur's Quadrant as the Bridge Linking Rigor With Relevance. Exceptional Children, 79(2), 147-161.
Outcome of Early Intervention for Children With Autism
Since 1980, 12 peer-reviewed outcome studies (nine on behavior analytic programs, one on Project TEACCH, and two on Colorado Health Sciences) have focused on early intervention for children with autism. Mean 10 gains of 7-28 points were reported in studies of behavior analytic programs, and 3-9 in studies on TEACCH and Colorado.
Smith, T. (1999). Outcome of early intervention for children with autism. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 6(1), 33-49.
Denialism: How irrational thinking hinders scientific progress,
In this provocative and headline-making book, Michael Specter confronts the widespread fear of science and its terrible toll on individuals and the planet.
Smith, T. C. (2010). Denialism: How Irrational Thinking Hinders Scientific Progress, Harms the Planet, and Threatens our Lives.
Examination of quantitative methods used in early intervention research: Linkages with recommended practices
Findings are reported related to the research methods and statistical techniques used in the 450 group quantitative studies examined as part of the literature review portion of the Division for Early Childhood Recommended Practices project. Results suggested that the methodological integrity of the quantitative research used to inform recommended practices was not uniformly convincing and compelling.
Snyder, P., Thompson, B., Mclean, M. E., & Smith, B. J. (2002). Examination of quantitative methods used in early intervention research: Linkages with recommended practices. Journal of Early Intervention, 25(2), 137-150.
Digest of Education Statistics 2010
The 2010 edition of the Digest of Education Statistics is the 46th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. The Digest includes a selection of data from many sources, both government and private, and draws especially on the results of surveys and activities carried out by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES).
Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A., (2010). Digest of Education Statistics 2010. U.S. Department of Education: Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011015.pdf
Generalizability and Decision Studies of a Treatment Adherence Instrument.
Observational measurement of treatment adherence has long been considered the gold standard. However, little is known about either the generalizability of the scores from extant observational instruments or the sampling needed. Results suggested that reliable cognitive–behavioral therapy adherence studies require at least 10 sessions per patient, assuming 12 patients per therapists and two coders—a challenging threshold even in well-funded research. Implications, including the importance of evaluating alternatives to observational measurement, are discussed.
Southam-Gerow, M. A., Bonifay, W., McLeod, B. D., Cox, J. R., Violante, S., Kendall, P. C., & Weisz, J. R. (2020). Generalizability and decision studies of a treatment adherence instrument. Assessment, 27(2), 321-333.
Blended learning research yields limited results.
Blended learning is gaining considerable popularity in American classrooms, but the question remains: Is there strong evidence that the strategy helps K-12 students?
Sparks, S. (2015, April 13). Blended learning research yields limited results. Education Week.https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2015/04/15/blended-learning-research-yields-limited-results.html
Stanfrod Education Data Archive
The Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA) is an initiative aimed at harnessing data to help scholars, policymakers, educators, and parents learn how to improve educational opportunity for all children. The data are publicly available here, so that anyone can obtain detailed information about American schools, communities, and student success.
The Number of Low-Performing Schools by State in Three Categories (CSI, TSI, and ATSI), School Year 2018-19.
This report, completed by the Center on Education Policy, attempts to provide an initial snapshot of the number and percentages of schools each states has identified low performing. It provides an early look at a very diverse set of guidelines. The data show a wide range of results in terms of the percentage of schools identified as low performing. The overall range is 3% to 99%, with individual states spread out fairly evenly in between. Eight states identified over 40% of their public schools as low performing, eleven states 20%–40%, fifteen states 11%–19%, and thirteen states 3%–10%. Even with the limitations of the data listed above, this data suggests inconsistent standards across states.
Stark Renter, D., Tanner, K., Braun, M. (2019). The Number of Low-Performing Schools by State in Three Categories (CSI, TSI, and ATSI), School Year 2018-19. A Report of the Center on Education Policy
Why Education Practices Fail
This paper examines a range of education failures: common mistakes in how new practices are selected, implemented, and monitored. The goal is not a comprehensive listing of all education failures but rather to provide education stakeholders with an understanding of the importance of vigilance when implementing new practices.
States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2020). Why Practices Fail. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/roadmap-overview
Why Education Practices Fail?
This paper examines a range of education failures: common mistakes in how new practices are selected, implemented, and monitored. The goal is not a comprehensive listing of all education failures but rather to provide education stakeholders with an understanding of the importance of vigilance when implementing new practices.
States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2020). Why Practices Fail. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/roadmap-overview
Essentials for blended learning: A standards-based guide
This book provides a practical, streamlined approach for creating effective learning experiences by blending online activities and the best of face-to-face teaching.
Stein, J., & Graham, C. (2014). Essentials for blended learning: A standards-based guide. New York, NY: Routledge
Conflict of interest in the debate over calcium-channel antagonists.
The debate about the safety of calcium-channel antagonists provided an opportunity to study financial conflicts of interest in medicine. This project was designed to examine the relation between authors' published positions on the safety of calcium-channel antagonists and their financial interactions with the pharmaceutical industry.
Stelfox, H. T., Chua, G., O'Rourke, K., & Detsky, A. S. (1998). Conflict of interest in the debate over calcium-channel antagonists. New England Journal of Medicine, 338(2), 101–106.
A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority In the Nation’s Public Schools
A recent report from the Southern Education Foundation documents that, for the first time in recent history, the majority of children attending public schools come from low income families. The data also shows a steady growth in this trend over the last twenty-five years: 1989 (32%), 2000 (38%), 2006 (42%), 2011 (48%) and 2013 (51%). This is particularly challenging from an education perspective. To date, the K-12 education system has not found ways to adequately serve this population as evidenced by a consistent gap in student performance between high and low income students. As more and more students come from low-income families, the success or failure of the system will hinge on its ability to respond effectively.
Steve Suitts, Pamela Barba, Katherine Dunn (2015). A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority In the Nation’s Public Schools. Southern Education Foundation
Are Samples in Randomized Controlled Trials of Psychotherapy Representative of Community Outpatients? A New Methodology and Initial Findings.
To determine the extent to which published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy can be generalized to a sample of community outpatients, the authors used a method of matching information obtained from outpatient charts to inclusion and exclusion criteria from published RCT studies.
Stirman, S. W., DeRubeis, R. J., Crits-Christoph, P., & Brody, P. E. (2003). Are Samples in Randomized Controlled Trials of Psychotherapy Representative of Community Outpatients? A New Methodology and Initial Findings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(6), 963-972.
The Effectiveness of Direct Instruction Curricula:
A Meta-Analysis of a Half-Century of Research
A soon to be published meta-analysis of Direct Instruction (DI) curricula that reviews research on DI curricula between 1966-2016 reports that DI curricula produced moderate to large effect sizes across the curriculum areas reading, math, language, and spelling. The review is notable because it reviews a much larger body of DI research than has occurred in the past and covers a wide range of experimental designs (from single subject to randomized trials). 328 studies were reviewed and almost 4,000 effects were considered. Given the variability in research designs and the breadth of the effects considered, it suggests that DI curricula produce robust results. There was very little decline during maintenance phases of the study and greater exposure to the curricula resulted in greater effects.
Stockard, J., Wood, T. W., Coughlin, C., & Rasplica Khoury, C. (2018). The effectiveness of direct instruction curricula: A meta-analysis of a half century of research. Review of Educational Research, 88(4), 479-507.
An explicit technology of generalization.
This review summarizes the structure of the generalization literature and its implicit embryonic technology, categorizing studies designed to assess or program generalization according to nine general headings:
Stokes, T. F., & Baer, D. M. (1977). An implicit technology of generalization 1. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 10(2), 349-367.
The use of precision teaching to teach basic math facts
A Precision Teaching program for basic math facts was designed for students in the 5th, 6th, and 7th grade level in a regular primary school. This study adds to the knowledge of the efficacy and importance of Precision Teaching and mathematic performance monitoring.
Strømgren, B., Berg-Mortensen, C., & Tangen, L. (2014). The use of precision teaching to teach basic math facts. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 15(2), 225-240.
Analyzing quantitative behavioral observation data
This volume provides a comprehensive summary of developments in theories and techniques within the areas of sampling, measurement, and statistical methods for analyzing behavioral data. By unifying new theories, techniques, methodologies, terminology, and language in behavioral observation research, the authors provide a comprehensive source for students and researchers.
Suen, H. K., & Ary, D. (2014). Analyzing quantitative behavioral observation data. psychology press.
Team Implementation Checklist
This checklist is designed to be completed by the PBIS Team once a quarter to monitor activities for implementation of PBIS in a school. The team should complete the Action Plan at the same time to track items that are In Progress or Not Yet Started items.
Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., & Lewis-Palmer, T. L. (2001). Team implementation checklist (TIC). Eugene, OR: Educational and Community Supports.
Training in and Dissemination of Empirically-Validated Psychological Treatments: Report and Recommendations
At the request of David Barlow, President of Division 12, and under the aegis of Section III, this task force was constituted to consider methods for educating clinical psychologists, third party payors, and the public about effective psychotherapies
Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, Division of Clinical Psychology, American Psychological Association. (1995). Training in and Dissemination of Empirically-Validated Psychological Treatments: Report and Recommendations. The Clinical Psychologist, 48, 3-23.
The Sentinel Event Policy explains how The Joint Commission partners with health care organizations that have experienced a serious patient safety event to protect the patient, improve systems, and prevent further harm.
The Joint Commission, (2011), Sentinel Event, Retrieved from https://www.jointcommission.org/sentinel_event.aspx
Best practices in school psychology III.
Increasingly, school services are being guided by a problem solving approach and are evaluated by the achievement of positive outcomes. This shift is explored here in 96 chapters and 11 appendices. The volume provides a comprehensive reference relating contemporary research and thought to quality professional services
Thomas, A., & Grimes, J. (Eds.). (1995). Best practices in school psychology III.Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.
Evaluating the Quality of Evidence From Correlational Research for Evidence-Based Practice
The present article proposes some quality indicators for evaluating correlational research in efforts to inform evidence-based practice.
Thompson, B., Diamond, K. E., McWilliam, R., Snyder, P., & Snyder, S. W. (2005). Evaluating the quality of evidence from correlational research for evidence-based practice. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 181-194.
The evolution of school psychology to science-based practice: Problem solving and the three-tiered model.
This chapter chronicles some of the major steps school psychology has taken toward adopting science as the basis of practice. Each step has yielded benefits for students as well as practice challenges to be overcome.
Tilly, W. D. (2008). The evolution of school psychology to science-based practice: Problem solving and the three-tiered model. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology–5(pp. 17–36). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
Single-case and small-n experimental designs: A practical guide to randomization tests
Originally published in 1992, the editors of this volume fulfill three main goals: to take stock of progress in the development of data-analysis procedures for single-subject research
Todman, J. B., & Dugard, P. (2001). Single-case and small-n experimental designs: A practical guide to randomization tests. Psychology Press.
Publication bias: The Achilles’ heel of systematic reviews?
This paper describes the problem of publication bias with reference to its history in a number of fields, with special reference to the area of educational research.
Living an idea: Empowerment and the evolution of an alternative high school.
This book is about the creation and 14 year evolution of a public alternative inner-city high school—New Haven, CT's High School in the Community (HSC). This school lived an idea—empowerment. Students were encouraged to participate in shaping many aspects of their education, teachers were responsible for running the school, and parents invited to help govern.
Trickett, E. J. (1991). Living an idea: Empowerment and the evolution of an alternative high school. Brookline Books.
Reinforcement history as possible basis for the relationship between self-percepts of efficacy and responses to treatment
The empirical correlation of self-efficacy statements and treatment outcome reported by Bandura (1977) is acknowledged. The question at issue is whether this correlation is due to an integrative construct called self or social contingencies.
Tryon, W. W. (1982). Reinforcement history as possible basis for the relationship between self-percepts of efficacy and responses to treatment. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 13(3), 201-202.
Identifying research-based practices for response to intervention: Scientifically-based instruction
This paper examines the types of research to consider when evaluating programs, how to know what “evidence’ to use, and continuums of evidence (quantity of the evidence, quality of the evidence, and program development).
Twyman, J. S., & Sota, M. (2008). Identifying research-based practices for response to intervention: Scientifically based instruction. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 9(2), 86-101.
Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
Abstract of the United States: 2012
The Statistical Abstract of the United States is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). Abstract of the United States: 2012 (131st Edition). [Table 232]. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2011/compendia/statab/131ed.html
Data point: Adult literacy in the United States.
Using the data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), this Data Point summarizes the number of U.S. adults with low levels of English literacy and describes how they differ by nativity status1 and race/ethnicity.
U.S. Department of Education. (2019). Data point: Adult literacy in the United States. https://nces.ed.gov/datapoints/2019179.asp
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the largest nationally representative and continuing assessment of what America's students know and can do in various subject areas.
U.S. Department of Education. (2020). National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/
Conflict of interest in research.
This website contains information regarding the Committee process, including the regulations, laws, policies, and guidelines that govern disclosures and conflict of interest.
University of California, San Francisco. (2013). Conflict of interest in research. https://coi.ucsf.edu
Linking implementation fidelity to impacts in an RCT
Simple experimental studies randomize study participants into two groups: a treatment group that includes participants who receive the offer to participate in a program or intervention, and a control group that includes participants who do not receive that offer. Such studies primarily address questions about the program impacts on the average outcomes of participants.
Unlu, F., Bozzi, L., Layzer, C., Smith, A., Price, C., & Hurtig, R. (2016). Linking implementation fidelity to impacts in an RCT (pp. 108-137). Routledge.
Twenty-Sixth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
The text and graphics contained in the 26th Annual Report to Congress were developed primarily from data from the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) Data Analysis System (DANS). DANS is a repository for all the data mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to be collected from states annually.
US Department of Education. (1998). Twentieth annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
Examining reproducibility in psychology: A hybrid method for combining a statistically significant original study and a replication
The unrealistically high rate of positive results within psychology has increased the attention to replication research. However, researchers who conduct a replication and want to statistically combine the results of their replication with a statistically significant original study encounter problems when using traditional meta-analysis techniques. The original study’s effect size is most probably overestimated because it is statistically significant, and this bias is not taken into consideration in traditional meta-analysis. We have developed a hybrid method that does take the statistical significance of an original study into account and enables (a) accurate effect size estimation, (b) estimation of a confidence interval, and (c) testing of the null hypothesis of no effect. We analytically approximate the performance of the hybrid method and describe its statistical properties. By applying the hybrid method to data from the Reproducibility Project: Psychology (Open Science Collaboration, 2015), we demonstrate that the conclusions based on the hybrid method are often in line with those of the replication, suggesting that many published psychological studies have smaller effect sizes than those reported in the original study, and that some effects may even be absent. We offer hands-on guidelines for how to statistically combine an original study and replication, and have developed a Web-based application (https://rvanaert.shinyapps.io/hybrid) for applying the hybrid method.
van Aert, R. C. M., & van Assen, M. A. L. M. (2018). Examining reproducibility in psychology: A hybrid method for combining a statistically significant original study and a replication. Behavior Research Methods, 50(4),1515–1539.
The Innovation Journey
The Innovation Journey presents the results of a major longitudinal study that examined the process of innovation from concept to implementation of new technologies, products, processes, and administrative arrangements.
Van de Ven, A. H., Polley, D. E., Garud, R., & Venkataraman, S. (1999). The Innovation Journey, New York: Oxford Univ.
Blended learning: A wise giver’s guide to supporting tech-assisted teaching.
In this book, we’ll briefly explore why we’re still only in the early stages of the educational technology revolution. Then we’ll look at how some innovative schools and other organizations are pioneering new methods of personalized learning built on new technology
Vanderkam, L. (2013). Blended learning: A wise giver’s guide to supporting tech-assisted teaching. Washington, DC: Philanthropy Roundtable. https://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/docs/default-source/guidebook-files/blended_learning_guidebook.pdf?sfvrsn=afaba740_0
The Reliability and Accuracy of Time Series Model Identification
In order to determine the reliability and accuracy of model identification, 12 extensively trained subjects were each asked to identify 32 different computer-generated time series. The purpose of the analysis is to determine if the intervention resulted in a significant change in the level and/or slope of the series.
Velicer, W. F., & Harrop, J. (1983). The reliability and accuracy of time series model identification. Evaluation Review, 7(4), 551-560.
Cross-Sectional Time Series Designs: A General Transformation Approach
This article extends the general transformation matrix approach to the analysis of multiple-unit data by the development of a patterned transformation matrix.
Velicer, W. F., & McDonald, R. P. (1991). Cross-sectional time series designs: A general transformation approach. Multivariate behavioral research, 26(2), 247-254.
Alcohol, Young Drivers, and Traffic Accidents
Education and law are two general approaches that have been used in efforts to prevent alcohol-related problems among young people. This book focuses on the legal approach, commonly expressed in legislation that specifies the legal-drinking age.
Wagenaar, A. C. (1983). Alcohol, young drivers, and traffic accidents. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Preventing Highway Crashes by Raising the Legal Minimum Age for Drinking: The Michigan Experience 6 Years Later
Results of a 6-year follow-up of previous research evaluating the effects of Michigan's December 1978 increase in the legal drinking age from IS to 21 are reported.
Wagenaar, A. C. (1986). Preventing highway crashes by raising the legal minimum age for drinking: the Michigan experience 6 years later. Journal of Safety Research, 17(3), 101-109.
Minimum Drinking Age and Alcohol Availability to Youth: Issues and Research Needs
This article discusses the effects of minimum drinking age on alcohol use, effects of minimum drinking age on traffic crashes, effect of minimum drinking age on other health and social problems. In the end, the author calls for research needs on youth alcohol availability.
Wagenaar, A. C. (1993). Minimum drinking age and alcohol availability to youth: Issues and research needs. Economics and the Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 175-200.
The Legal Minimum Drinking Age in Texas: Effects of an Increase from 18 to 19
Effects on motor vehicle crash involvement of raising the legal drinking age in Texas from 18 to 19 were examined, using an interrupted time-series design. It is clear that the l-year increase in legal age in Texas had a significant effect on youth crash involvement.
Wagenaar, A. C., & Maybee, R. G. (1986). The legal minimum drinking age in Texas: Effects of an increase from 18 to 19. Journal of safety research, 17(4), 165-178.
Preventing Injuries to Children Through Compulsory Automobile Safety Seat Use
Effects of Michigan's law requiring all young children to be restrained when traveling in automobiles were assessed. Data on all reported residents of the state who were involved in crashes from 1978 through 1983 were examined using times-series analysis methods.
Wagenaar, A. C., & Webster, D. W. (1986). Preventing injuries to children through compulsory automobile safety seat use. Pediatrics, 78(4), 662-672.
Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol Lessons and Result from a 15-Community Randomized Trial
Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol (CMCA) is a 15-community randomized trial designed to develop, implement, and evaluate a 2¹⁄₂ year community organizing intervention to change policies and practices of major community institutions.
Wagenaar, A. C., Gehan, J. P., Jones‐Webb, R., Toomey, T. L., Forster, J. L., Wolfson, M., & Murray, D. M. (1999). Communities mobilizing for change on alcohol: Lessons and results from a 15‐community randomized trial. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(3), 315-326.
Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol: Outcomes from a Randomized Community Trial*
Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol (CMCA) was a randomized 15-community trial of a community organizing intervention designed to reduce the accessibility of alcoholic beverages to youths under the legal drinking age
Wagenaar, A. C., Murray, D. M., Gehan, J. P., Wolfson, M. F. J. L., Forster, J. L., Toomey, T. L., ... & Jones-Webb, R. (2000). Communities mobilizing for change on alcohol: outcomes from a randomized community trial. Journal of studies on alcohol, 61(1), 85-94.
Communities mobilizing for change on alcohol: Design of a randomized community trial.
Describes the evaluation design of the CMCA (Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol) project. The effects of the intervention on youth alcohol access, alcohol use, and related problems were determined using a combination of a randomized community trial and a time-series design.
Wagenaar, A. C., Murray, D. M., Wolfson, M., & Forster, J. L. (1994). Communities mobilizing for change on alcohol: Design of a randomized community trial. Journal of Community Psychology.
Graphic discovery: A trout in the milk and other visual adventures.
This book is the first to comprehensively plot humankind's fascinating efforts to visualize data, from a key seventeenth-century precursor--England's plague-driven initiative to register vital statistics--right up to the latest advances.
Wainer, H. (2005). Graphic discovery: A trout in the milk and other visual adventures. Princeton University Press.
Three Statistical Paradoxes in the Interpretation of Group Differences: Illustrated with Medical School Admission and Licensing Data 1
This paper describes three of the best known of these paradoxes --Simpson’s Paradox, Kelley’s Paradox, and Lord’s Paradox -- and illustrate them in a single data set.
Wainer, H., & Brown, L. (2004). Two statistical paradoxes in the interpretation of group differences: Illustrated with medical school admission and licensing data. The American Statistician, 58, 117–123. http://www.statlit.org/pdf/2004wainer_threeparadoxes.pdf
Commentary: Use of evidence-based intervention in schools: Where we've been, where we are, and where we need to go.
University of Oregon considerable speculation as to why this is the case–most of which fails
to take into account key features of the school culture, setting, and process as explanatory
Walker, H. M. (2004). Commentary: Use of evidence-based interventions in schools: Where we've been, where we are, and where we need to go. School Psychology Review, 33(3), 398-407.
Systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD)
This kit presents the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) as a tool to identify behavior disorders in elementary-aged students. The kit contains a user's guide and administration manual, a technical manual reporting psychometric properties of the SSBD, an observer training manual, and multiple copies of the screening instruments.
Walker, H. M., Severson, H., & Feil, E. G. (1990). Systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
The study examines the defining features of school improvement programs. Twelve research-based programs that have been implemented for 5 or more years in at least 50 schools or for 3,000 students were analyzed. All have achieved national visibility.
Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1997). Learning influences. Psychology and educational practice, 199-211.
The Effects of the Anti-Smoking Campaign On Cigarette Consumption
The impact of the anti-smoking campaign on the consumption of cigarettes is measured by fitting cigarette demand functions to pre-campaign data, projecting "ahead" as if the campaign had not occurred, and then comparing these predictions with realized consumption.
Warner, K. E. (1977). The effects of the anti-smoking campaign on cigarette consumption. American journal of public health, 67(7), 645-650.
Finding, evaluating, refining, and applying empirically supported treatments for children and adolescents
The Child Task Force report represents an important initial step in this direction. Here they offer both praise and critique, suggesting a number of ways the task force process and product may be improved.
Weisz, J. R., & Hawley, K. M. (1998). Finding, evaluating, refining, and applying empirically supported treatments for children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(2), 206-216.
Child and adolescent psychotherapy outcomes in experiments versus clinics: Why the disparity?
In a recent article, Weisz, Weiss, and Donenberg (1992) compared the effects of child and adolescent psychotherapy in experimental studies and in studies of clinic practice. This paper update that report with new information and we explore 10 possible reasons why, to date, therapy in experiments appears to have shown larger effect sizes than therapy in clinics
Weisz, J. R., Donenberg, G. R., Han, S. S., & Kauneckis, D. (1995). Child and adolescent psychotherapy outcomes in experiments versus clinics: Why the disparity?. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23(1), 83-106.
Bridging the Gap Between Laboratory and Clinic in Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy
This article addresses the gap between clinical practice and the research laboratory. We focus on the issue as it relates specifically to interventions for children and adolescents.
Weisz, J. R., Donenberg, G. R., Han, S. S., & Weiss, B. (1995). Bridging the gap between laboratory and clinic in child and adolescent psychotherapy. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 63(5), 688.
More of what? Issues raised by the Fort Bragg study.
The study does suggest that "more is not always better" (L. Bickman, 1996), but more of what? Little is known about the specific interventions that were combined to form the Fort Bragg system of care, so the study does not really reveal what failed or what needs to be changed.
Weisz, J. R., Han, S. S., & Valeri, S. M. (1997). More of what? Issues raised by the Fort Bragg study.
Stressing the (other) three Rs in the search for empirically supported treatments: Review procedures, research quality, relevance to practice and the public interest
The Society of Clinical Psychology's task forces on psychological intervention developed criteria for evaluating clinical trials, applied those criteria, and generated lists of empirically supported treatments. Building on this strong base, the task force successor, the Committee on Science and Practice, now pursues a three‐part agenda
Weisz, J. R., Hawley, K. M., Pilkonis, P. A., Woody, S. R., & Follette, W. C. (2000). Stressing the (other) three Rs in the search for empirically supported treatments: Review procedures, research quality, relevance to practice and the public interest. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7(3), 243-258.
The Empirical Status of Empirically Supported Psychotherapies: Assumptions, Findings, and Reporting in Controlled Clinical Trials
This article provides a critical review of the assumptions and findings of studies used to establish psychotherapies as empirically supported.
Westen, D., Novotny, C. M., & Thompson-Brenner, H. (2004). The empirical status of empirically supported psychotherapies: assumptions, findings, and reporting in controlled clinical trials. Psychological bulletin, 130(4), 631.
What Works Clearinghouse: Procedures Handbook, Version 4.1
This What Works Clearinghouse Procedures Handbook, Version 4.1, provides a detailed description of the procedures used by the WWC in the systematic review process.
Evidence-Based Education (EBE)
This slide show presents what is EBE and what are EBE goals in education.
Whitehurst, G. J. (2002). Evidence-based education (EBE). Washington, DC. Retrieved Juanuary, 9(2), 6.
Making education evidence-based: Premises, principles, pragmatics, and politics.
We are at the beginning of the transformation of education into an evidence-based field. By evidence-based, I mean an endeavor in which decision makers routinely seek out the best available research and data before adopting programs or practices that will affect significant numbers of students.
Whitehurst, G. J. R. (2004). IPR distinguished public policy lecture series 2003-04—Making education evidence-based: Premises, principles, pragmatics, and politics.
How to teach critical thinking.
This paper considers what the research can tell us about how critical thinking is acquired, and the implications for how education might best develop young people’s critical thinking capabilities.
Willingham, D. (2019). How to teach critical thinking. New South Wales (NSW) Department of Education.
On the Reality of Dyslexia.
This paper assesses research on the topic of dyslexia. Willingham’s piece is in response to comments made by literacy researcher, Dick Allington, in which he questions the legitimacy of the label, dyslexia.
Why don't students like school? A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom
The cognitive principle that guides this article is: People are naturally curious, but they are not naturally good thinkers; unless the cognitive conditions are right, people will avoid thinking.
Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why don't students like school?: A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom. John Wiley & Sons.
Manual-based treatments: The clinical application of research findings
In addition to their now required use in controlled outcome studies, treatment manuals offer important advantages for clinical practice. Manual-based treatments are often empirically-validated, more focused, and more disseminable.
Wilson, G. T. (1996). Manual-based treatments: The clinical application of research findings. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34(4), 295-314.
The effects of historical reading and writing strategy instruction with fourth-through sixth-grade students
In this quasi-experimental study, 608 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students explored 5 historical investigations. In the experimental condition, teachers used a cognitive apprenticeship model to teach students historical reading and writing strategies. Comparison teachers used the same materials to deliver a business-as-usual form of instruction.
Wissinger, D. R., De La Paz, S., & Jackson, C. (2021). The Effects of Historical Reading and Writing Strategy Instruction with Fourth-through Sixth-Grade Students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 113(1), 49-67.
Reporting on Studies Using Single-Subject Experimental Methods.
This paper describes guidelines for reporting findings from studies using single subject methods, an approach from which early intervention has benefited substantially.
Wolery, M., & Dunlap, G. (2001). Reporting on Studies Using Single-Subject Experimental Methods. Journal of Early Intervention, 24(2), 85-89.
Subject Descriptions and Single-Subject Research
In this manuscript, we respond to the minimum standards for describing research subjects as proposed by the Council for Learning Disabilities (CLD) Research Committee. Three issues are raised about the standards: (a) whether justification exists for the recommended standards.
Wolery, M., & Ezell, H. K. (1993). Subject descriptions and single-subject research. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26(10), 642-647.
Social Validity: The Case for Subjective Measurement or How Applied Behavior Analysis is Finding its Heart
This manuscript was presented as an invited address to the Division of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., September, 1976.
Wolf, M. M. (1978). SOCIAL VALIDITY: THE CASE FOR SUBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT or HOW APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS IS FINDING ITS HEART 1. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 11(2), 203-214.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is one of the least written about and least understood of our major global institutions. This new book builds a well-rounded understanding of this crucial, though often neglected, institution.
Woodward, R. (2009). The organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD). Routledge.
An Update on Empirically Validated Therapies
In 1995 the Division 12 Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures published its report in this journal. A major focus of that report was increasing training in psychological interventions that have been supported in empirical research by making clinical psychologists and students more aware of these treatments and facilitating training opportunities.
Woody, S. S., Beutler, L., Williams, D. A., & McCurry, S. (1996). An update on empirically validated therapies. Clinical Psychologist, 49, 5-18.
Decreased class size, increased active learning? Intended and enacted teaching strategies in smaller classrooms
Small class size is often used as an indicator of quality in higher education, and some research suggests that instructors in smaller classes more often use activities that are learner-centered and that involve physical and mental activity on the part of learners, such as group work, simulations, and case studies. However, we have little information on how instructors change their pedagogical practice when they teach in large- versus small-class settings.
Wright, M. C., Bergom, I., & Bartholomew, T. (2019). Decreased class size, increased active learning? Intended and enacted teaching strategies in smaller classes. Active Learning in Higher Education, 20(1), 51-62.
Putting Alternate Assessments into Practice: What to Measure and Possible Sources of Data
This report defines alternate assessment, describe methods that can be used to collect data and describe domains in which data should be collected.
Ysseldyke, J., & Olsen, K. (1999). Putting alternate assessments into practice: What to measure and possible sources of data. Exceptional Children, 65(2), 175-185.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
The panel was charged with providing a report that “should present the panel’s conclusions, an indication of the readiness for application in the classroom of the results of this research, and, if appropriate, a strategy for rapidly disseminating this information to facilitate effective reading instruction in the schools. If found warranted, the panel should also recommend a plan for additional research regarding early reading development and instruction.”
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read: Reports of the subgroups (00-4754).
Assessing The Value-Added Effects Of Literacy Collaborative Professional Development On Student Learning
This is a 4-year longitudinal study of the effects of Literacy Collaborative (LC), a school-wide reform model that relies on coaching of teachers for improving student literacy learning.
Biancarosa, G., Bryk, A. S., & Dexter, E. R. (2010). Assessing the value-added effects of literacy collaborative professional development on student learning. The elementary school journal, 111(1), 7-34.
Distinguishing Science and Pseudoscience
This paper works as a primer to help discern real science from the significant numbers of reports of false science and pseudoscience that we are daily bombarded with from the media as well as published works that purport to be scientific.
Coker, R. (2001). Distinguishing science and pseudoscience. Retrieved September, 10, 2009.
This is a collection and examination of logical fallacies.
Curtis, G. N. (2012). Fallacy files. URL http://www. fallacyfiles. org.
Scientific Research and Evidence-Based Practice, 2003
This paper examines the issue of evidence-based practices for use in education. Evidence-based education (EBE) is examined in the context of evidence-based practice in the field of medicine on which EBE is based. The medical model is compared with EBE with an emphasis on how to develop EBE products and services.
Hood, P. D. (2003). Scientific research and evidence-based practice. San Francisco: WestEd.
Single-Case Designs for Educational Research
This paper examines the benefits and challenges inherent in using of randomized clinical trials and quasi-experimental designs in the field of education research.
Kazdin, A. E. (2011). Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings . Oxford University Press.
Baloney Detection Kit
“The Demon-Haunted World”, Carl Sagan provides tools for skeptical thinking. This excellent list is a strong tool to weed out the bad seeds in science.
Shermer, M., & Linse, P. (2001). The Baloney Detection Kit. Skeptic Society.
Can Traditional Public Schools Replicate Successful Charter Models? A Different Take
This Op Ed piece from Daniel Willingham examines the study, Injecting Charter School Best Practices into Traditional Public Schools: Evidence from Field Experiments. Willingham makes a number of interesting points including: the need to disseminate the results of studies that failed to produce significant effects and the importance of understanding what and how it the study failed.
Willingham, D. (2014). Can Traditional Public Schools Replicate Successful Charter Models? A Different Take. Real Clear Education.