This report highlights the key research literature that addresses the principal competencies important for positive student and school outcomes.
How differently do principals and teachers view working condition issues in their schools?
This analysis examines how teacher and principal perception of school working conditions differ.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How differently do principals and teachers view working condition issues in their schools? Retrieved from how-differently-do-principals.
How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-working.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between900.
What makes an effective principal?
This is an analysis of two meta-analyses of principals, one looking at leadership style and the second examines what school principals activities have the greatest impact on student outcomes.
States, J. (2010). What makes an effective principal? Retrieved from what-makes-effective-principal.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This review looks at the impact of principal and administrative support in retaining teachers.
States, J. (2012). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals904.
Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex?
This is an analysis of teacher and principal views on the responsibilities and challenges facing school leaders, including the changing roles, finances, satisfaction, and Common Core.
States, J. (2015). Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex? Retrieved from is-job-of-school.
A Behavioral Conceptualization of Leadership
Most discussions of leadership focus on personal characteristics of leaders. This talk presents an interaction between leaders and followers.
Detrich, R. (2015). A Behavioral Conceptualization of Leadership [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-calaba-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Where it all comes together: How partnerships connect communities and schools.
This article outlines how far the community schools movement has come since the AFT made community schools a priority in 2008. It explains why the movement has grown, clarifies what exactly makes a community school different from other schools, lays out how community schools work, and shows the positive results that community schools are attaining.
Blank, M. J., & Villarreal, L. (2015). Where It All Comes Together: How Partnerships Connect Communities and Schools. American Educator, 39(3), 4.
Handbook of instructional leadership: How successful principals promote teaching and learning
The updated and expanded second edition of this classic text provides new research and insights into how principals can encourage the teacher development that enhances student learning.
Blasé, J., & Blase, J. (2003). Handbook of instructional leadership: How successful principals promote teaching and learning. Corwin Press.
Evidence-Based Programs and Cultural Competence
This was a historic meeting among developers of evidence-based programs, leaders of various cultural, racial, and ethnic professional associations, and representatives of family associations. Evidence-based program implementation and cultural competence in human services have had parallel paths with limited intersection and dialogue.
Blase, K. A., & Fixsen, D. L. (2003). Evidence-based programs and cultural competence. Tampa, FL: National Implementation Research Network, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida.
How much do school principals matter when it comes to teacher working conditions?
Using 4 years of panel data constructed from the North Carolina Teacher Working Condition Survey, this study uses value-added modeling approaches to explore the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of four measures of their working conditions and their principal.
Burkhauser, S. (2017). How much do school principals matter when it comes to teacher working conditions?. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 39(1), 126-145.
Handbook of response to intervention (RTI) in early childhood
Handbook of Response to Intervention in Early Childhood represents an ambitious undertaking: namely, to gather within a single volume all of the knowledge that exists on a topic that has attracted much attention in recent years.
Buysse, V., & Peisner-Feinberg, E. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of response to intervention in early childhood. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.
Using teacher effectiveness data for information-rich hiring
This paper examines how the hiring process is changing as a result of teacher evaluation reforms.
Cannata, M., Rubin, M., Goldring, E., Grissom, J. A., Neumerski, C. M., Drake, T. A., & Schuermann, P. (2017). Using teacher effectiveness data for information-rich hiring. Educational Administration Quarterly, 53(2), 180-222.
Buried Treasure: Developing a Management Guide From Mountains of School Data
This report provides a practical “management guide,” for an evidence-based key indicator data decision system for school districts and schools.
Celio, M. B., & Harvey, J. (2005). Buried Treasure: Developing A Management Guide From Mountains of School Data. Center on Reinventing Public Education.
Implementation research: Finding common ground on what, how, why, where, and who
Over many decades, educators have developed countless interventions and theories about how to create lasting change. In other words, implementation research is an endeavor to understand if and how educational efforts are accomplishing their goals.
Century, J., & Cassata, A. (2016). Implementation research: Finding common ground on what, how, why, where, and who. Review of Research in Education, 40(1), 169-215.
From Data to Wisdom: Quality Improvement Strategies Supporting Large-scale Implementation of Evidence-Based Services
The goal of this article is to illustrate various strategies that the Hawaii Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division adopted to increase the use of empirical evidence to improve the quality services and outcomes for youth.
Daleiden, E. L., & Chorpita, B. F. (2005). From data to wisdom: Quality improvement strategies supporting large-scale implementation of evidence-based services. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 14(2), 329-349.
Rigid response in an age of accountability: The potential of leadership and trust.
This study hypothesizes the following: Trust and leadership dimensions that support empowerment and involvement will predict an educational organization’s ability to minimize a threat–rigid response and flexibly negotiate new demands.
Daly, A. J. (2009). Rigid response in an age of accountability: The potential of leadership and trust. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(2), 168-216.
Bringing Out The Best In People
This book by organizational psychologist Aubrey C. Daniels is a guide for anyone who is required to supervise people and is particularly relevant to school principals. It is based on applying positive consequences to improve performance and offers strategies to reduce undesirable behavior so your school and employees can be successful.
Daniels, A. C., Tapscott, D., & Caston, A. (2000). Bringing out the best in people. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.
The impact of leadership on student outcomes: How successful school leaders use transformational and instructional strategies to make a difference.
This article illustrates how successful leaders combine the too often dichotomized practices of transformational and instructional leadership in different ways across different phases of their schools' development in order to progressively shape and “layer” the improvement culture in improving students' outcomes.
Day, C., Gu, Q., & Sammons, P. (2016). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: How successful school leaders use transformational and instructional strategies to make a difference. Educational Administration Quarterly, 52(2), 221-258.
Successful school leadership: Linking with learning and achievement
This book examines the nature of successful school leadership: what it is, what it looks like in practice & what are the consequences for schools & pupils.
Day, C., Sammons, P., Leithwood, K., Harris, A., Hopkins, D., Gu, Q., … Ahtaridou, E. (2011). Successful school leadership: Linking with learning and achievement. London: Open University Press.
This report highlights the key research literature that addresses the principal competencies important for positive student and school outcomes.
A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents.
A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to enhance the personal and social skills of children and adolescents indicated that, compared to controls, participants demonstrated significant increases in their self-perceptions and bonding to school, positive social behaviors, school grades and levels of academic achievement, and significant reductions in problem behaviors.
Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A meta‐analysis of after‐school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American journal of community psychology, 45(3-4), 294-309.
School/family/community partnerships: Caring for the children we share.
When schools form partnerships with families and the community, the children benefit. These guidelines for building partnerships can make it happen.
Epstein, J. L. (2010). School/family/community partnerships: Caring for the children we share. Phi Delta Kappan, 92(3), 81-96.
Racing to the top with leaders in rural high poverty schools
This article describes an innovative approach, developed by North Carolina State University,
to prepare leaders specifically for work in rural schools in high poverty districts.
Fusarelli, B. C., & Militello, M. (2012). Racing to the Top with Leaders in Rural High Poverty Schools. Planning and Changing, 43, 46-56.
Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance
This book is written by Tom Gilbert who is one of the most influential theorists in building a science of performance management. Although not explicitly written for educators, it offers concrete examples principals can apply to improve the performance of teachers and other school personnel so student’s can ultimately be successful.
Gilbert, T. F. (1978). Human competence�engineering worthy performance. NSPI Journal, 17(9), 19-27.
The evolving role of American principals: From managerial to instructional to transformational leaders.
Examines trends in the evolution of the principalship in the United States from the 1960s to the present.
Hallinger, P. (1992). The evolving role of American principals: From managerial to instructional to transformational leaders. Journal of Educational Administration, 30(3).
Bringing context out of the shadows of leadership
This paper explores several types of school contexts (institutional, community, socio-cultural, political, economic, school improvement) and what we have learned about how they shape school leadership practice.
Hallinger, P. (2018). Bringing context out of the shadows of leadership. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 46(1), 5-24.
Leadership for learning: Does collaborative leadership make a difference in school improvement?
This longitudinal study examines the effects of collaborative leadership on school improvement and student reading achievement in 192 elementary schools in one state in the USA over a 4-year period
Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (2010). Leadership for learning: Does collaborative leadership make a difference in school improvement?. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 38(6), 654-678.
Running on empty? Finding the time and capacity to lead learning.
This article reviews the evolution of instructional leadership as a model for principal practice, examines barriers to its successful enactment, and proposes strategies
Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. F. (2013). Running on empty? Finding the time and capacity to lead learning. NASSP Bulletin, 97(1), 5-21.
This chapter of Handbook of The Economics of Education reviews research on teacher labor markets, the importance of teacher quality in the determination of student achievement, and the extent to which specific observable characteristics often related to hiring decisions and salary explain the variation in the quality of instruction.
Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2006). Teacher quality. In E. A. Hanushek & F. Welch (Eds.), Handbook of the economics of education, vol. 2 (pp. 1051–1078). Amsterdam, Netherlands: North Holland.
The School Principal As Leader: Guiding Schools To Better Teaching And Learning
This Wallace paper summarizes a decade of the foundation’s research in school leadership to identify five critical roles for school principals to be effective.
Harvey, J., et al. (2013). The School Principal As Leader: Guiding Schools To Better Teaching And Learning. The Wallace Foundation.
Inconvenient, but essential: Impact and influence of school–community involvement on principals’ work and workload.
Using findings generated from a large-scale survey of 1,400 Ontario principals, this paper reports on the influence of opportunities for school–community involvement on the work principals do on a daily basis and details how involvement in such activities influences and impacts their workloads.
Hauseman, D. C., Pollock, K., & Wang, F. (2017). Inconvenient, but Essential: Impact and Influence of School-Community Involvement on Principals' Work and Workload. School Community Journal, 27(1), 83-105.
Assessing the contribution of distributed leadership to school improvement and growth in math achievement
This longitudinal study examines the effects of distributed leadership on school improvement and growth in student math achievement in 195 elementary schools in one state over a 4-year period.
Heck, R. H., & Hallinger, P. (2009). Assessing the contribution of distributed leadership to school improvement and growth in math achievement. American educational research journal, 46(3), 659-689.
A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement.
Noting that the evidence of families' influence on their children's school achievement is consistent, positive, and convincing, this report examines research on parent and community involvement and its impact on student achievement.
Henderson, A. T., & Mapp, K. L. (2002). A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement. Annual Synthesis, 2002.
Beyond the bake sale: The essential guide to family-school partnerships
This updated and substantially expanded edition reveals how to build strong collaborative relationships and offers practical advice for improving interactions between parents and teachers, from insuring that PTA groups are constructive and inclusive to navigating the complex issues surrounding diversity in the classroom.
Henderson, A. T., Mapp, K. L., & Johnson, V. R. (2007). Beyond the bake sale: The essential guide to family-school partnerships. The New Press.
Parental school involvement and children’s academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues
The authors outline some of the mechanisms through which parental school involvement affects achievement and identify how patterns and amounts of involvement vary across cultural, economic, and community contexts and across developmental levels. Then propose the next steps for research.
Hill, N. E., & Taylor, L. C. (2004). Parental school involvement and children's academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current directions in psychological science, 13(4), 161-164.
Systematic review of key leader practices found to influence student achievement: A unified framework.
The specific purposes of this article are to identify and synthesize the empirical research on how leadership influences student achievement and to provide evidence on how school leaders should direct their efforts.
Hitt, D. H., & Tucker, P. D. (2016). Systematic review of key leader practices found to influence student achievement: A unified framework. Review of Educational Research, 86(2), 531-569.
Investigating the relationship between turnaround principal competencies and student achievement.
The authors conducted correlational analyses to examine the strength of the relationship between each of the seven competencies and found that the model appears to reflect the internal states of principals who orchestrate school turnaround.
Hitt, D. H., Meyers, C. V., Woodruff, D., & Zhu, G. (2019). Investigating the Relationship Between Turnaround Principal Competencies and Student Achievement. NASSP Bulletin, 103(3), 189-208.
The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research
This review critically examines 15 empirical studies, conducted since the mid1980s, on the effects of support, guidance, and orientation programs—collectively known as induction—for beginning teachers.
Ingersoll, R. M., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of educational research, 81(2), 201-233.
How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement.
the authors build on this body of work by further examining how working conditions predict both teachers‘ job satisfaction and their career plans.
Johnson, S. M., Kraft, M. A., & Papay, J. P. (2012). How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement. Teachers College Record, 114(10), 1-39.
Culturally responsive school leadership: A synthesis of the literature.
This comprehensive review provides a framework for the expanding body of literature that seeks to make not only teaching, but rather the entire school environment, responsive to the schooling needs of minoritized students
Khalifa, M. A., Gooden, M. A., & Davis, J. E. (2016). Culturally responsive school leadership: A synthesis of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 1272-1311.
Learning-focused leadership and leadership support: Meaning and practice in urban systems.
The study explored the following overarching question: What does it take for leaders to promote and support powerful, equitable learning in a school and in the district and state system that serves the school? The study pursued this question through a set of coordinated investigations,
Knapp, M. S., Copland, M. A., Honig, M. I., Plecki, M. L., & Portin, B. S. (2010). Learning-focused leadership and leadership support: Meaning and practice in urban systems. Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy–University of Washington.
School organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement: Evidence from panel data
This study is among the first to address the empirical limitations of prior studies on organizational contexts by leveraging one of the largest survey administration efforts ever conducted in the United States outside of the decennial population census.
Kraft, M. A., Marinell, W. H., & Shen-Wei Yee, D. (2016). School organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement: Evidence from panel data. American Educational Research Journal, 53(5), 1411-1449.
Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement?
This quantitative study examines the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions and their intended and actual departures from schools.
Ladd, H. F. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement?. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(2), 235-261.
A framework for shared leadership.
Instead of looking at the principal alone for instructional leadership, we need to develop leadership capacity among all members of the school communities.
Lambert, L. (2002). A framework for shared leadership. Beyond Instructional Leadership, 59(8), 37–40. Retrieved from http://johnwgardnertestsite.pbworks.com/f/S4%20Readings%20-%20Lambert%20Article.doc
School-family relations in context: Parent and teacher perceptions of parent involvement.
This study addressed teachers' and parents' perceptions of the meanings and functions of parent involvement.
Lawson, M. A. (2003). School-family relations in context: Parent and teacher perceptions of parent involvement. Urban education, 38(1), 77-133.
The problem: Low-achieving districts and low-performing boards
Effective school districts maintain superintendent and school board collegiality which can foster success and connectedness among members. Delagardelle and Alsbury (2008) found that superintendents and board members are not consistent in their perceptions about the work the board does, and Glass (2007) found that states do not require boards to undergo evaluation for effectiveness.
Lee, D. E., & Eadens, D. W. (2014). The Problem: Low-Achieving Districts and Low-Performing Boards. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 9(3), n3.
Pulling back the curtain: Revealing the cumulative importance of high-performing,
This study examines the relationship between two dominant measures of teacher quality, teacher qualification and teacher effectiveness (measured by value-added modeling), in terms of their influence on students’ short-term academic growth and long-term educational success (measured by bachelor’s degree attainment).
Lee, S. W. (2018). Pulling back the curtain: Revealing the cumulative importance of high-performing, highly qualified teachers on students’ educational outcome. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 40(3), 359–381.
Leadership for school restructuring
This article describes a 4-year program of research about transformational forms of leadership in schools
responding to a variety of restructuring initiatives.
Leithwood, K. (1994). Leadership for school restructuring. Educational administration quarterly, 30(4), 498-518.
Ontario Leadership Framework with a discussion of the leadership foundations.
For aspiring leaders, this framework provides important insights about what they will need to learn to be successful.
Leithwood, K. (2012). Ontario Leadership Framework with a discussion of the leadership foundations. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Institute for Education Leadership, OISE. Retrieved from https://www.education-leadership-ontario.ca/application/files/2514/9452/5287/The_Ontario_Leadership_Framework_2012_-_with_a_Discussion_of_the_Research_Foundations.pdf
Linking Leadership to Learning.
The purpose of this paper is to provide one perspective on this question, focusing in particular on findings that may be applicable in the Nordic context.
Leithwood, K., & Louis, K. S. (2012). Linking leadership to learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
Collective leadership effects on student achievement.
This study aimed to estimate the impact of collective, or shared, leadership on key teacher variables and on student achievement.
Leithwood, K., & Mascall, B. (2008). Collective leadership effects on student achievement. Educational administration quarterly, 44(4), 529-561.
The nature and effects of transformational school leadership: A meta-analytic review of unpublished research
Using meta-analytic review techniques, this study synthesized the results of 79
unpublished studies about the nature of transformational school leadership (TSL) and its
impact on the school organization, teachers, and students.
Leithwood, K., & Sun, J. (2012). The nature and effects of transformational school leadership: A meta-analytic review of unpublished research. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48(3), 387-423.
Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited
In 2008 the authors published an article in this journal entitled Seven Strong Claims about Successful School Leadership (Leithwood, Harris, and Hopkins 2008). This article revisits each of the seven claims, summarising what was said about each in the original publications, weighing each of the claims considering recent empirical evidence, and proposing revisions or refinements as warranted.
Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2019). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited. School Leadership & Management, 1-18.
Leading school turnaround: How successful school leaders transform low performing schools
The authors begin with eight basic understandings, assumptions, or starting points for our subsequent account of how to lead the successful turnaround of underperforming school.
Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Strauss, T. (2010). Leading school turnaround: How successful leaders transform low-performing schools. John Wiley & Sons.
How Leadership Influences Student Learning.
This report by researchers from the Universities of Minnesota and Toronto examines the available evidence and offers educators, policymakers and all citizens interested in promoting successfulschools, some answers to these vitally important questions
Leithwood, K., Seashore, K., Anderson, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). Review of research: How leadership influences student learning.
School leadership and teachers’ motivation to implement accountability policies.
Guided by a synthesis of theory on human motivation and evidence about teachers’motivation to implement school reform, this study aimed to better understand the responses of teachers and school administrators to government accountability initiatives and to assess the extent to which leadership practices had a bearing on those responses
Leithwood, K., Steinbach, R., & Jantzi, D. (2002). School leadership and teachers’ motivation to implement accountability policies. Educational Administration Quarterly, 38(1), 94-119.
The Effect of Principal Behaviors on Student, Teacher and School Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature.
This meta-analysis finds a positive relationship between school principals spending time on five commonly assigned roles and student achievement.
Liebowitz, D. D., & Porter, L. (2019). The Effect of Principal Behaviors on Student, Teacher, and School Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature. Review of Educational Research, 89(5), 785-827.
Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey
The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American psychologist, 57(9), 705.
New directions in goal-setting theory.
Recent studies concerned with goal choice and the factors that influence it, the function of learning goals, the effect of goal framing, goals and affect (well-being), group goal setting, goals and traits, macrolevel goal setting, and conscious versus subconscious goals are described.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current directions in psychological science, 15(5), 265-268.
Transformational leadership: Principals, leadership teams, and school culture
The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the relationships among principal transformational leadership, school leadership-team transformational leadership, and school culture.
Lucas, S., & Valentine, J. (2002). Transformational leadership: Principals, leadership teams, and school culture.American Educational Research Association annual convention, New Orleans. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED468519.pd
Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance
This study investigates teacher empowerment in schools that have at least four years of experience with some form of decentralized or school-based management.
Marks, H. M., & Louis, K. S. (1997). Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance. Educational evaluation and policy analysis, 19(3), 245-275.
Principal leadership and school performance: An integration of transformational and instructional leadership.
Focusing on school leadership relations between principals and teachers, this study examines the potential of their active collaboration around instructional matters to enhance the quality of teaching and student performance
Marks, H. M., & Printy, S. M. (2003). Principal leadership and school performance: An integration of transformational and instructional leadership. Educational administration quarterly, 39(3), 370-397.
A theory of human motivation.
The present paper is an attempt to formulate a positive theory of motivation which will satisfy these theoretical demands and at the same time conform to the known facts, clinical and observational as well as experimental. It derives most directly, however, from clinical experience.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological review, 50(4), 370.
Self-recording With Goal Setting: a self-management programme for the classroom
A within-subjects multiple baseline across subjects design was employed to assess the effects of a self-management intervention involving self-recording and goal setting on the academic behaviour of three Year 4 (8-year-old) boys during language (poetry and story writing) lessons
Moore, D. W., Prebble, S., Robertson, J., Waetford, R., & Anderson, A. (2001). Self-recording with goal setting: A self-management programme for the classroom. Educational Psychology, 21(3), 255-265.
Making the grade: Assessing the evidence for integrated student supports. Bethesda, MD: Child Trends.
This report examines the evidence about the emerging approach, Integrated student supports (ISS), from multiple perspectives.
Moore, K. (2014). Making the grade: Assessing the evidence for integrated student supports. Bethesda, MD: Child Trends. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/2014-07ISSPaper2.pdf
Professional standards for educational leaders
This book introduces the foundations of the recently revised professional educational leadership standards and provides an in-depth explanation and application of each one.
Murphy, J. F. (2016). Professional standards for educational leaders: The empirical, moral, and experiential foundations. Corwin Press.
Vanderbilt assessment of leadership in education.
This paper presents the research base and conceptual framework for a new principal leadership assessment tool: the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED™).
Murphy, J. F., Goldring, E. B., Cravens, X. C., Elliott, S. N., & Porter, A. C. (2007). The Vanderbilt assessment of leadership in education: Measuring learning-centered leadership. Journal of East China Normal University, 29(1), 1-10.
Characteristics of instructionally effective school districts.
This article presents findings from the authors' exploratory study of 12 instructionally effective
school districts (IESD) in California.
Murphy, J., & Hallinger, P. (1988). Characteristics of instructionally effective school districts. The Journal of educational research, 81(3), 175-181.
Learning-centered leadership: A conceptual foundation
The purpose of this analysis is to describe the research base that undergirds the emerging concept of learning-centered leadership.
Murphy, J., Elliott, S. N., Goldring, E., & Porter, A. C. (2006). Learning-Centered Leadership: A Conceptual Foundation. Learning Sciences Institute, Vanderbilt University (NJ1).
Strategic management of human capital in education: Improving instruction and student learning in schools.
This book offers a comprehensive and strategic approach to address what has become labeled as "talent and human capital."
Odden, A. R. (2011). Strategic management of human capital in education: Improving instructional practice and student learning in schools. Routledge.
A systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement
This report reviews studies that have investigated the relationships between principal characteristics (including precursors, behaviors, and leadership styles) and student achievement.
Osborne-Lampkin, L. T., Sidler Folsom, J., & Herrington, C. D. (2015). A systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement.
School-family partnerships for children’s success.
This book provides essential information to better understand and improve the nature and quality of school and family partnerships for the benefit of all children
Patrikakou, E. N., & Anderson, A. R. (Eds.). (2005). School-family partnerships for children's success. Teachers College Press.
Report Urges Educators to Avoid Using International Test to Make Policy
This articles suggest policymakers to focus less on the international test and more on how states compare to each other when trying to improve schools. This article also shows how it's not worthwhile to compare school in countries where the conditions are different.
School administrators’ direct and indirect influences on middle school math teachers’ turnover.
Administrator support has been identified as a key factor in deterring teacher turnover. Yet, the specific ways school principals directly or indirectly influence teacher retention remain underexamined. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
Redding, C., Booker, L. N., Smith, T. M., & Desimone, L. M. (2019). School administrators’ direct and indirect influences on middle school math teachers’ turnover. Journal of Educational Administration.
Parents and Learning
This booklet focuses on parents—the child’s first and most powerful teachers.
Redding, S. (2000). Parents and learning (Vol. 2). International Academy of Education.
The effects of comprehensive parent engagement on student learning outcomes.
This study examined the school-level effects on tested student achievement in 129 high poverty elementary schools that implemented a common set of comprehensive parent engagement strategies over a 2-year period.
Redding, S., Langdon, J., Meyer, J., & Sheley, P. (2004). The effects of comprehensive parent engagement on student learning outcomes. American Educational.
School Leadership And Student Outcomes: Identifying What Works and Why
This paper is a synthesis of the evidence-base on school leadership and its impact on student performance.
Robinson, V. M. (2007). School leadership and student outcomes: Identifying what works and why (Vol. 41). Winmalee, Victoria, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Leaders.
The impact of leadership on school outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on students' academic and nonacademic outcomes.
Robinson, V. M. J., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on school outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(5), 635–674.
Interest as a predictor of academic achievement: A meta-analysis of research.
This paper provides an overview of previous research results pertaining to the relation between interest and academic achievement. focus on the conceptualization and operationalization of interest.
Schiefele, U., Krapp, A., & Winteler, A. (1992). Interest as a predictor of academic achievement: A meta-analysis of research.
The influence of principal leadership on classroom instruction and student learning: A study of mediated pathways to learning.
This study examines the influence of principal leadership in high schools on classroom instruction and student achievement through key organizational factors, including professional capacity, parent–community ties, and the school’s learning climate.
Sebastian, J., & Allensworth, E. (2012). The Influence of Principal Leadership on Classroom Instruction and.
The essential supports for school improvement.
This report sets forth a framework of essential supports and contextual resources for school improvement, examines empirical evidence on its key elements and how they link to improvements in student learning, and investigates how a school's essential supports interact with community context to affect student learning.
Sebring, P. B., Allensworth, E., Bryk, A. S., Easton, J. Q., & Luppescu, S. (2006). The Essential Supports for School Improvement. Research Report. Consortium on Chicago School Research.
Teacher Turnover in High-Poverty Schools: What We Know and Can Do
This paper reviews evidence from six recent studies, which collectively suggest that teachers who leave high-poverty schools are not fleeing their students, but rather the poor working conditions that make it difficult for them to teach and their students to learn. They include school leadership, collegial relationships, and elements of school culture.
Simon, N. S., & Johnson, S. M. (2013). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Teachers College Record, 117, 1-36
Student and teacher safety in Chicago Public Schools: The roles of community context and school social organization
The report examines the internal and external conditions that matter for students’ and teachers’ feelings of safety.
Steinberg, M. P., Allensworth, E., & Johnson, D. W. (2011). Student and Teacher Safety in Chicago Public Schools: The Roles of Community Context and School Social Organization. Consortium on Chicago School Research. 1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637.
Value Added Modeling: The Challenge of Measuring Educational Outcomes
This paper examines the critical issues that need to be addressed if value-added modeling is to be effectively used in education.
Stewart, B. E. (2006). Value-added modeling: The challenge of measuring educational outcomes. Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Transformational school leadership effects on student achievement.
Based on a synthesis of unpublished transformational school leadership (TSL) research completed during the last 14 years, this study inquired into the nature of TSL and its effects on student achievement using review methods including standard meta-analysis and vote-counting techniques.
Sun, J., & Leithwood, K. (2012). Transformational school leadership effects on student achievement. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 11(4), 418-451.
Direction-setting school leadership practices: A meta-analytic review of evidence about their influence.
This study reviews evidence about the overall influence of direction-setting leadership practices (DSLPs), 1 of 4 major categories of practices included in a widely known conception of effective leadership (e.g., Leithwood & Louis, 2011) and a focus of many other such conceptions, as well.
Sun, J., & Leithwood, K. (2015). Direction-setting school leadership practices: A meta-analytical review of evidence about their influence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 26(4), 499-523.
How principals and peers influence teaching and learning
This paper examines the effects of principal leadership and peer teacher influence on teachers' instructional practice and student learning.
Supovitz, J., Sirinides, P., & May, H. (2010). How principals and peers influence teaching and learning. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(1), 31-56.
Knowledge and the Leadership for Learning.
This empirical study of the practice of five elementary school principals whose student achievement gains were three times the expected rate of progress redefines some capabilities identified in the literature as central to leadership for learning.
Timperley, H. (2011). Knowledge and the leadership of learning. Leadership and policy in schools, 10(2), 145-170.
Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: The role of leadership orientation and trust.
The hypothesis that guided this study was that the degree of teacher professionalism in a school would be related to (a) the professional orientation of principals in their exercise of administrative authority—especially, the extending of adaptive discretion to teachers in the conduct of their work—and (b) the trust evident among various actors in the school community.
Tschannen-Moran, M. (2009). Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: The role of leadership orientation and trust. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(2), 217-247.
Faculty trust in the principal: An essential ingredient in high-performing schools.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among faculty trust in the principal, principal leadership behaviors, school climate, and student achievement.
Tschannen-Moran, M., & Gareis, C. R. (2015). Faculty trust in the principal: An essential ingredient in high-performing schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 53(1), 66-92.
Putting Data into Practice: Lessons From New York City
This report looks at New York City's efforts to create an evidence-based and collaborative teaching culture.
Tucker, B. (2010). Putting data into practice: Lessons from New York City. Education Sector Reports.
How teachers experience principal leadership: The roles of professional community, trust, efficacy, and shared responsibility
The purpose of this study was to examine various factors that are often present in principal–teacher interactions and teacher–teacher relationships to see how those may have an impact on teachers’ classroom instructional practices.
Wahlstrom, K. L., & Louis, K. S. (2008). How teachers experience principal leadership: The roles of professional community, trust, efficacy, and shared responsibility. Educational administration quarterly, 44(4), 458-495.
Learning from Leadership: Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning
The purpose of this paper is to discuss findings from Learning from Leadership. This study was designed to identify and describe successful educational leadership and to explain how such leadership can yield improvements in student learning.
Wahlstrom, K. L., Louis, K. S., Leithwood, K., & Anderson, S. E. (2010). Learning from Leadership: Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning. The Informed Educator Series. Educational Research Service.
Handbook on restructuring and substantial school improvement,
The purpose of this Handbook on Restructuring and Substantial School Improvement is to provide principles for restructuring and substantially improving schools.
Walberg, H. J. (2007). Handbook on restructuring and substantial school improvement. IAP.
Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative data teams, 2006
This article offers practical suggestions on how to build a data-based culture in schools.
Wayman, J. C., Midgley, S., & Stringfield, S. (2006). Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative educator teams. Learner centered leadership: Research, policy, and practice, 189-206.
Software Enabling School Improvement Through Analysis of Student Data
This paper considers issues surrounding the use data and data based decision-making in schools. It describes the state of the field and possible future directions in school based technology.
Wayman, Jeffrey C., Sam Stringfield, and Mary Yakimowski. "Software enabling school improvement through analysis of student data." (2004).
The data-informed district: A district-wide evaluation of data use in the Natrona County School District, 2007
This is an analysis of a district-wide evaluation of data uses and procedures for data-based decision-making.
Wayman, Jeffrey C., Vincent Cho, and Mary T. Johnston. "The data-informed district: A district-wide evaluation of data use in the Natrona County School District." (2007).
Using Data from High-Stakes Testing in Program Planning and Evaluation
This article intends to help school psychologists understand high stakes tests, methods for analyzing and reporting high stakes results, standards for tests and program evaluation, and application of practices to improve student performance.
Braden, J. P. (2007). Using data from high-stakes testing in program planning and evaluation. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 23(2), 129-150.
Why Data Don't Matter
This paper discusses reasons why educators fail to embrace the collection and use of data.
Landrum, T. J. (1997). Why data don't matter. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7(2), 123-129.
Making sense of data-driven decision making in education.
This paper uses research to show how schools and districts are analyzing achievement test results and other types of data to make decisions to improve student success.
Marsh, J. A., Pane, J. F., & Hamilton, L. S. (2006). Making sense of data-driven decision making in education.
Use of Education Data at the Local Level From Accountability to Instructional Improvement
This report looks at the implementation of student data systems and the use of data for improving student performance.
Means, B., Padilla, C., & Gallagher, L. (2010). Use of Education Data at the Local Level: From Accountability to Instructional Improvement. US Department of Education.
Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools-Teacher Access, Supports and Use
This paper documents education data systems and data-informed decision making in districts and schools. It examines implementation and the practices involving the use of data to improve instruction.
Means, B., Padilla, C., DeBarger, A., & Bakia, M. (2009). Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools: Teacher Access, Supports and Use. US Department of Education.
Achieving a Wealth of Riches: Delivering on the Promise of Data to Transform Teaching and Learning
This policy brief addresses why using data represents a significant shift for most teachers on how they perform their jobs and details the infrastructure necessary to encourage teachers' use of data.
Miller, M. (2009). Achieving a Wealth of Riches: Delivering on the Promise of Data to Transform Teaching and Learning. Policy Brief. Alliance for Excellent Education.